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They are really Ojibway. They are not very numerous. First mention of Cree People may go back to early 17th century. They were listed as being Nipissing or closely related to Nipissing People. They are also Ojibway. Besides being known as Cree, they were known as "A-mik-wa or A-mi-ka" which is difficult to translate. Another name they were known by is Nez Pierce. In French, it means Nose Pierced or Pierced Nose. It deals with Hole. In Ojibway, A-mik-waj means "Hole of a Beaver" or "Den of a Beaver." Anyway, this name of "Amikwa or A-mi-ka" supposedly translates to "Beaver People." According to 18th century HBC (Hudson Bay Company) employees, Cree People were known as "Kes-kat-che-wan." They were also known as "Beaver Indians." So we now know their correct name which is Beaver Indians. They may have been from Ojibway Nation's "Beaver Totem" or "A-mic Do-dim." Hudson Bay Company established trade with Indian Nations and their most important trade item was Beaver Pelts. These Ojibway's from Ojibway Nation's Beaver Totem or Hunter Totem, caused much trouble with Ojibway leaders. Instead of staying loyal, they thought only of themselves. 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia provided important information about Ojibway People and their eastward expansion. They took control of Missouri River to Atlantic Ocean. Though they wrote they were Lenni Lenape, we know Lenni Lenape are Ojibway. They spoke Ojibway which means they are Ojibway. Below is an excerpt from 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Cree People must be listed as being Athabascan. Read it very carefully. After wars between Ojibway's and invading whites and their Eskimo and Indian allies commenced in early 17th century, Ojibway leaders sent large numbers of their soldiers north to James Bay and Hudson Bay. They were also sent to Beaufort Sea to fight invading Eskimos. They gave rise to Cree People (they became to mixed in race and troublemakers or instead of defending themselves they became greedy and selfish) and Chipewyan People including Dogribs, Slavey's and Yellowknife Peoples. Below is a 1774 map that can be of help to you. Look for a point (it looks like a pyramid). Below the "point" it's written "Nekawawuck." It may be where Churchill, Manitoba is. Their map was drawn in a northwest angle. HBC employees named Ojibway People "Nekawawuck." It's also spelled "Na-ka-wa-wuck." Investigating Ojibway Language Dictionaries, their word "Na-ka-ke-ia" denotes direction as in "Towards There." It could possibly mean "Point of Extreme Peoples." Since HBC employees named Northern Ojibway's "Nekawawuck and Nakawawuck," we take that to understand the "g or k" must be excluded because it represents a plural or "peoples." It should be pronounced "Ne-ga-wa-wa." It means "Point of Extreme People." Adding an Ojibway "g" animate plural, it becomes "Ne-ga-wa-waag or Na-ga-wa-waag." Thus, Point of Extreme Peoples. Point in Ojibway is "ne." Extreme or extremely in Ojibway is "ga-wa." Extreme as in exceptional, highest, maximum, supreme, ect.
In 1771, Andrew Graham wrote that Northern Ojibway's command all lakes from York Fort Rivers (they are Nelson River and Hayes River) leaving their Beaver Indians (Cree) allies very little land. In response to this very large force of new Ojibway Soldiers taking control of land from Lake Superior to north of Nelson River, Beaver Indian leaders and whites, conspired to force their way inland. They were mostly Beaver Indians. However, they were armed by their white allies and took refuge where Cumberland House, Saskatchewan is and on Lake Winnipeg's west shores. Before whites commenced white settlements in interior Saskatchewan in 1774, they wrote that Beaver Indians had receded southwest from York Factory. They hid near Cumberland House, Saskatchewan and Lake Winnipeg's west shores. A few whites were with them. This was their initial invasion west towards Saskatchewan River and south towards extreme southern Manitoba.
Those Beaver Indians including their white leaders, located near Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, lived between Reindeer Lake and Cumberland House. They were called Northern Keskatchewan and Beaver Indians by HBC staff. To their north were Chipewyan People and Dogrib People who prevented them from expanding further north. After whites and their Beaver Indians allies established Cumberland House Fort in 1774, an escalation in war happened. Their stronghold at Fort Cumberland House supported those Beaver Indians and their white allies, living slightly west of Lake Winnipeg, force their way ever more south. White leaders knew Saskatchewan River led to central Alberta which is directly south of McKenzie River. They commenced to establishing forts along Saskatchewan River. Fort Sturgeon was established in 1776. It was located about four miles west of what is now Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Fort Ile-a-la-Crosse was established in 1776. It's located in northwest Saskatchewan, north of North Saskatchewan River. In 1786, Fort Providence was established in Northwest Territories. Also in 1786, Fort Resolution was established in Northwest Territories. Their locations were strategically important. Both were located near or adjacent to Great Slave Lake. English and Russians had a base where McKenzie Rivers mouth is. They used that location to send their Eskimo allies and their supplies south. French traders were allowed by treaty, to establish trade posts in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, in mid 18th century. English invaders and their idiotic Cree allies, used those old abandoned French Trade Posts to establish their military presence. This happened in 1774!
Fort Esperance was established in 1787 and was located 100's of miles south of Fort Cumberland House, near Saskatchewan's border with Manitoba. Ojibway Soldiers destroyed it in 1810. Whites rebilt this fort yet Ojibway Soldiers attacked them and their fort again. In 1816, Ojibway Soldiers destroyed their new fort. Fort Chipewyan was established in 1788. Fort Vermilion was also established in 1788. Both are located in extreme northern Alberta. Fort Edmonton was established in 1795. Fort de l'Isle was established in 1799. It was located along North Saskatchewan River, east of Fort Edmonton. Whites and their Beaver Indians allies, had established a line of forts from York Factory to Fort Edmonton. This happened during their so called Revolutionary War. They fared better in Alberta. From McKenzie River's Delta, whites and their Eskimo allies, used that waterway to force their way south into northern Alberta. Ojibway leaders responded by forcing Northern Keskatchewan People or Beaver Indians or Cree People, to retreat west into northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. White Forts were strongly built and were extremely difficult for Ojibway Soldiers to destroy. White leaders were eager to invade extreme southern Manitoba.
Those Beaver Indians and their white allies that hid out west of Lake Winnipeg, kept in contact with Fort Cumberland House and received ammunition and weapons from them. By early 19th century, more whites and their Beaver Indians allies, were reaching southern Manitoba which caused an escalation in war. This war was a part of War of 1812. By 1816, this war was over with Ojibway Nation in control of those whites and their Beaver Indians allies including Eskimos and mixed bloods, accepting subjugation. 1817's Selkirk Treaty ended this war. Per treaty agreements, Ojibway leaders allowed whites and their Beaver Indians allies including Eskimos and mixed bloods, a colony along Assiniboine River and Red River. It was named Red River Colony. Ojibway Nation subjugated Red River Colony until 1869, when they agreed to allow it to become independent. It became Province of Manitoba. Those whites, Beaver Indians, Eskimos and mixed bloods were assimilated into white society. They caused trouble in Saskatchewan and Alberta under Louis Riel's leadership, by establishing white colonies. They were also used by Canada to sign treaties Ojibway leaders considered not acceptable.
Today, there are only a few Cree (Beaver Indians) Reserves. There are no Cree (Beaver Indians) First Nations or Reserves in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Ojibway Soldiers drove them west into Alberta and British Columbia. In Alberta, they have Beaver First Nation (it's located near High Level) and Horse Lake First Nation which is located a few miles west of Hythe, Alberta. In British Columbia, they have several First Nations. They include Blueberry, Doig River and Prophet River? Since Beaver Indians are considered to be same people as Sekani and T'suu Tina People (they speak same language) we have to include them. In Alberta, Sarci or T'suu Tina People have a large Reserve adjacent to Calgary, Alberta. In British Columbia, Sekani People have several First Nations. They include Kwadacha First Nation, McLeod Lake First Nation, Tsay Keh First Nation and Takla Lake First Nation. In Ontario, there are no Cree First Nations. Their old Stomping Grounds from James Bay to Churchill, are now home to Ojibway's, Eskimos, whites and mixed bloods or they are very mixed. White leaders forced several Ojibway Reservations and Reserves to allow Beaver Indians to live there. They include Crooked Lakes Reserve, File Hills Reserve, Touchwood Hills Reserve, Waywayseecappo Reserve, Keeseekoowenin Reserve, Rolling River Reserve, Long Plain Reserve, Sandy Bay Reserve and Roseau River Reserve. Turtle Mountain Reservation was forced to accept many of them as were Spirit Lake Reservation, White Earth Reservation and Red Lake Reservation. Cree People or Beaver Indians, are very mixed in race. Ojibway People didn't want anything to do with them. Ojibway's identifying as Cree, are weak. They are not strong. Their weakness is promoted by their use of "Cree Nation" to describe themselves. Read Seven Fires Prophecy!
Ojibway's named Cree People "Kinishtino." Warren described what each Ojibway Peoples name meant in his 19th century book except the Cree. He only wrote "Ke-nis-ti-noag." Beside that Warren wrote Crees! He used a plural for both. Correct pronunciation is "Kin-ish-ti-no." It means "Mix: Not Equal or Mix: Different or Mix: Several Kinds." They used their "ish" pejorative to let on they didn't like them! In Ojibway their word for "equal and like" is "di-no." Their word for "mix" is probably "kin." Thus, Kin ish-di-no. Translated it means "Mixed People." They caused Ojibway People all kinds of problems!
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The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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