Rocky Boy Tribe
Chippewa Indians of
They are really Ojibwa's. They are a Creole People. They are Ojibwa's who absorbed many Eskimos into their villages. They mixed their culture and language with that of their Eskimo subjects. Before 1774, these Ojibwa People held control of land from Hudson Bay's west coast, to Saskatchewan's north central interior. They spoke Ojibwa without later Eskimo language mixing. In and after 1774, Eskimos and their white allies, commenced to invade north central Manitoba and also eastern Saskatchewan. Increased war between Ojibwa Soldiers and their Eskimo and white enemies, followed. By 1812, white and Eskimo Soldiers were forcing their way as far south as southern Manitoba. In 1817, Ojibwa leaders had forced their white and Eskimo enemies to agree to an armistice with conditions. Ojibwa leaders allowed their white and Eskimo enemies, a small colony known as Red River Colony. They had limited autonomy which included freedom of religion and a right to trade. Ojibwa's mixed their culture and language with that of their white and Eskimo enemies. A new language known as Michif arose from within Red River Colony, in what is now southern Manitoba, Minnesota and North Dakota. However, it was quite unlike what happened further north in north central Manitoba. As a result of conquest, many Eskimos were absorbed into Ojibwa villages. During some point in early 19th century, a profound change in how Ojibwa was spoken in north central Manitoba, went unnoticed by Ojibwa's from furthern east, south and west. According to Peter Jacobs, who spoke Ojibway, he quickly determined that Ojibwa had changed in north central Manitoba. He wrote a following description of his opinion of Cree and Swampy Cree in July of 1852, at Norway House, Manitoba:
Sunday 11th.—At 1 o'clock this morning, Mr. Mason began reading the Sunday service of the Methodists, and a few of the Indians responded, after the lessons, collects, and prayers, he then read a sermon translated into the Indian written in the syllabic characters. He performed the whole of the service well, and read his sermon well ; but I am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway—Cree and Swampy. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other, than either to the noble and majestic Ojibway; and that is the language I profess to understand.
We can tell just from that one detail that great changes had taken place since 1774. By 1852, Ojibwa's living north of Lake Winnipeg, had changed. Their language became degraded and they were easily fooled by whites. In fact, they became a serious problem to Ojibwa's east of Lake Winnipeg and west of Lake Winnipeg. White leaders used Cree leaders to sign treaties which enraged Ojibwa leaders. Whites named Ojibwa's who lived in northern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Montana and North Dakota, Saulteau or Saulteaux which is pronounced as So-To. In North West Territories it's pronounced as Sah-Tu.
It is clearly written in Treaty 4 and 5 text, that Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders signed those treaties and live at each village within land areas of those treaties. However, today they claim they are Cree which is derogatory because we know Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders did sign Treaties 4 and 5. They used threats against Cree leaders and whites as well, to let it be known they in fact did sign Treaties 4 and 5, especially in Saskatchewan. In Alberta and Saskatchewan, Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders were ignored during 1876s Treaty 6 negotiations. In 1876, Ojibwa Soldiers were at war with Americans and also Canadians. In 1877, 10,000s of Montana Ojibwa's fled to Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills. White leaders knew they had to do something about an influx of Montana Ojibwa's who lived in southwestern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. They came up with Treaty 7 and refused to recognize Saulteaux Ojibwa's. It dealt with those 10,000s of Montana Ojibwa's who fled to Canada. They used Cree leaders to sign both Treaty 6 and Treaty 7. That enraged Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders.
Today, these Ojibwa People known as Cree, live from Quebec to British Columbia. They will not identify as being Ojibwa yet we know they are in fact Ojibwa. In Montana, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boy's Reservation) supposedly has a Cree population. We know they are Ojibwa. Google chief Rocky Boy. In northern Ontario, Cree People live along Hudson Bay's southeastern, southwestern and western coast. To their south are Anishinini or Oji-Cree who are really Ojibwa who are clinging to their Ojibwa Nationality. Anishinini is another pronunciation of Anishinabe. In Ojibwa, they have two words for man. One is nini and another is nabe. So there is no difference in those two names which look different. Anishinini and Anishinabe both mean man. Cree language is a degraded form of Ojibwa as a result of Eskimo Language influence which Ojibwa leaders allowed because they were liberal. Around 100,000 Cree speak Cree yet most probably only know a limited number of Cree words. Cree population in Canada is over 200,000. Few Cree live in United States. Cree Territory is located north of Lake Winnipeg or from 53° north latitude and furthern north. Montana Reserve in Alberta, was set aside for Montana Ojibwa's. It's located at 52° north latitude. Few Cree Reserves are located south of 53° north latitude. Ojibwa Territory in Ontario and Quebec, reached James Bay's southern shores which means Cree People in Quebec are quite suspicious. Cree People in Quebec are numerous yet further research must be done to learn who they are.