Enamiiad Dodim
Atheist Nation

Potawatomi Indians

They are Anishinabe and represent a major totem of the Anishinabe people. They be the keepers of the fire of course. They lived throughout the entire domain of the Anishinabe Nation. Even among the Anishinabe soldiers who forced their way into the New England region and towards what is now the southeastern United States. White historians have dealt with these Anishinabe people as if they were a distinct tribe which they are not. The same can be said for all other Anishinabe people. Within Anishinabe society were at least 4 major totems and many lessor ones. The major ones include the largest who are the military and police totem, who are known as the Bungee, Chippewa, Mississauga, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe, and Saulteaux. Then the Ottawa or as their totem is correctly pronounced, the O-da-wah, existed. Next were the Potawatomi who were the keepers of the fire. And then the next was the Mi-de-wi-win. The name Metis (it is pronounced exactly like may-tay) is derived from this major Anishinabe totem. They were doctors, teachers, and the like.

By the beginning of the 18th century, 10,000s, if not 100,000s of Anishinabe settlers, had forced their way from Quebec down to Florida, but the whites launched devastating disease epidemics throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, which decimated the native indian population in the eastern portion of what is now the United States, including that of the Potawatomi Indian people. The whites first established military forts on islands such as Newfoundland and off the North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia coasts. Then in the early 17th century they commenced to invade. Their superior weapons and the use of plague warfare, led the whites to dominate the Anishinabek.

By the 1660s. the white confederation which was made up of the Dutch, English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and the Swedes had brought Florida, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, and parts of Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Quebec, and Rhode Island under their control. During the 1660s, a peace treaty was signed between the Indians and the whites which ended the long war which first erupted around 1605. However, the Anishinabek, regrouped then launched massive military campaigns against the whites who had brought New York, Ohio, southern Michigan, southern Ontario, and Pennsylvania under their control. Using just their primitive weapons, the brave Anishinabe soldiers drove the whites and their Iroquois allies out of New York, Ohio, parts of Quebec, Pennsylvania, southern Michigan, and southern Ontario back to the Atlantic Coastline where there were forced to build fortified settlements.

By 1700, Anishinabe ogimak (leaders) at what is now the La Pointe, Wisconsin region, made the decision to commence yet another westward diaspora. The seven fires prophecy influenced them to commence the diaspora. They needed to do something for all the refugee tribes living in northern Wisconsin. Those tribes included non Algonquians of course, and many other Algonquians. They singled out the Dakota people of Minnesota and Wisconsin to war on. They did first attempt to negotiate with Dakota leaders, and even went as far as letting Dakota leaders know about the seven fires prophecy, but the Dakota refused to accept what the Anishinabek warned them about. Their refusal led to a horrible war between the Anishinabek, against the Dakota peoples from Wisconsin to Manitoba and northwestern Ontario.

From north of Lake Superior, large numbers of Anishinabe soldiers launched massive military campaigns against the Dakota of northwestern Ontario and Manitoba. By 1730, they had forcefully subjugated the Dakota of northwestern Ontario and Manitoba, bringing a halt to the weapons the whites were supplying the Dakota people with. Meanwhile, in the northern Wisconsin region, the Anishinabek commenced to war on the Dakota of Minnesota and Wisconsin. However, unlike their conquest of the Dakotas of northwestern Ontario and Manitoba, the Anishinabek were not capable of entirely subjugating the Dakotas of Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Dakotas of Minnesota and Wisconsin were capable of receiving large supplies of European guns and ammunition from the English and French, who used the Mississippi River to send their weapons to the dakotas of Minnesota and Wisconsin. The Anishinabek did attempt to halt the English and French from using the Mississippi to send their weapons to the Dakotas, throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.

They did, however, eventually subjugate nearly all of the Dakotas of central and southern Minnesota and Wisconsin. But a few Dakotas continued to war on the Anishinabek, using the guns they got from their white allies. They be the English then English Americans. After bringing Minnesota under their control by the 1750s, the Anishinabek and their allies, which included the Dakotas they had subjugated in northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, Minnesota, and Wisconsin who are the Crow, Hidatsa, Mandan, Santee, and Winnebago Dakotas, commenced to force their way onto the plains of southern Canada and the northern United States. They all ended up in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and much further westward. Anishinabe Potawatomi history during the 19th century, saw them fighting alongside their indian allies against the whites on the great plains. They also forced their way down into Mexico.

Anyway, a large group of Potawatomi Anishinabek migrated into Texas and Mexico with all other Anishinabek. Today, there is one Potawatomi Anishinabe Reservation in west Texas, near Eagle Pass. There is another Potawatomi Reservation in the Mexican State of Coahuila, near the town of Muzquiz, Coahuila. It's settlements are named Nacimiento de los Indios. About 5 miles away is the other Anishinabe (Seminole) settlement named Nacimiento de los Negros. It is thus named because many of the Seminole living at Nacimiento de los Negros, are black. The Anishinabe Coahuila Reservation covers 17,352 acres. There is another Potawatomi Reservation located in the Mexican State of Durango. Historically, they claim the Anishinabe Durango Reservation was eliminated but that is likely fabricated. The Anishinabe Durango Reservation is probably located in eastern Durango, east of the large Mexican city of Durango. It also covers 17,352 acres. Another Anishinabe Coahuila Reservation was established near Zaragoza, Coahuila. It covers over 78,000 acres. They also claim that the Reservation was eliminated but that is fabricated. It is either located about 30 miles south of the large Mexican city of Torreon, near the Zaragoza, Coahuila there, which is very near the Durango border, or it is located between Morelos and Zaragoza, Coahuila, which is very near Nacimiento.

There is also another Anishinabe Mexican Reservation in the Mexican State of Sonora. It may cover over 29,000 acres, or it covers 238,000 acres. According to Martin J. Bentley who was an attourney for the Kickapoo Anishinabek and all other Anishinabe people of the Kansas-Oklahoma region, the Anishinabe Reservation in Sonora, Mexico covered 238,000 acres and was located in an enormous basin which was practically fenced in. It does and does not, resemble the Anishinabe Tamichopa Reservation in northeastern Sonora. It more resembles the entire Mexican State of Chihuahua which is covered by a vast basin and is surrounded by mountains. At the present time the Anishinabe people of Sonora, Mexico are still clinging on to their Anishinabe identity. Their Sonora Reservation is located about 70 miles south of the United States border.

After their Reservation was established in Sonora, it was reduced in size then increased in size by two Presidents of Mexico in the 20th century. Besides Tamichopa, other Anishinabe settlements in Sonora include Bacerac and Huachinera, as well as probably a couple of others. However, most of the citizens living in those settlements have lost their Anishinabe identity, excepting those at Tamichopa. Tamichopa has a current population of near 100 Anishinabe people who are clinging on to their Anishinabe identity. Throughout the tiny valley, from Huachinera to a few miles north of Bacerac, are many a farm. The valley is almost completely surrounded by mountains some of which are higher than 7,000 feet in elevation. There may be up to 10,000 to 15,000 people living on the Reservation. In Coahuila, the population of the two Anishinabe settlements is probably between 3,000 and 4,000. In reality, all of northern Mexico is an Anishinabe Reservation which was set aside by the whites during or after the 1910-1920 Mexican Civil War. However, through treaty agreements the Anishinabe people were forced to speak Spanish and then were forced to lose their Anishinabe identity. However, as we know from the Anishinabe Reservations in Coahuila and Sonora, there are still several thousand Mexican Anishinabe people clinging on to their Anishinabe Nationality.

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