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Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana Needs Your Help


Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana needs funding to establish offices at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation and at Great Falls, Montana where Hill 57 Reservation is located. Our goal is to gain Tribal Recognition at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation and Federal Recognition for Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians at Great Falls with Reservation. Your donation will be greatly appreciated. Below is my paypal link where you can donate to this very important cause for survival. If you are interested in becoming a member of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, you can fill out a form here . In comments box, please include your tribal affiliation. In Montana, members of Blackfeet, Crow-Northern Cheyenne, Flathead, Fort Belknap and Rocky Boys Reservation are automatically members of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. However, if you are a member from another tribe (Reservation) your application will be approved if you have proof of membership from your tribe (Reservation).


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Big Bear First Nations


Ogima Big Bear or his Anishinabe name Mistahi-Makwa, became a powerful Anishinabe ogima (leader) in the 1860s. White historians claim Mistahi-Makwa was born where Jackfish Lake, Saskatchewan is located. That is the location of the Moosomin and Saulteaux First Nations of Saskatchewan. However, ogima Big Bear's son Ayimisis or Little Bear, told white reporters his father lived along the Snake River in Idaho. He was forced by the whites to relocate to Montana (the Butte region) to hunt for Buffalo. Ayimisis was obviously not referring to the Butte, Montana region but the Great Falls, Montana region. Lewis and Clark clearly wrote in their journals that no buffalo lived in the mountain valleys of southwestern Montana. The Indians who lived along the Snake River of Idaho, especially eastern Idaho, were called by the whites, the Snake Indians. The origins of the name Snake Indians likely originated among a clan or totem of the Ojibways in northwestern Ontario and southern Manitoba. Their clan or totem name was Monsoni which means moose. The whites refered to them as the Snake Indians. I have named the Reserves or First Nations below, the Big Bear Reserves because all are in some way linked to what ogima Big Bear led during the 1870s and 1880s. He may have resumed contact with the Manchurian Ojibways. To find out about Big Bear First Nation, much information must be included. First, the Reserves which make up Big Bear First Nation are presented. Then the history of the First Nation follows.



Big Bear First Nations


Ahtahkakoop in Saskatchewan

Alexander in Alberta

Alexis in Alberta

Beardy's-Okemasis in Saskatchewan

Big River in Saskatchewan

Enoch in Alberta

Flying Dust in Saskatchewan

Frog Lake in Alberta

Lean Man (Mosquito-Grizzly Bears Head-Red Pheasant included) in Saskatchewan

Little Pine-Poundmaker in Saskatchewan

Kehewin in Alberta

Makwa Sahgaiehcan in Saskatchewan

Ministikwan-Onion Lake-Thunderchild or Saulteaux in Alberta and Saskatchewan

Moosomin-Saulteaux in Saskatchewan

Mistawasis in Saskatchewan

Montana Reserve including Erminskin, Louis Bull, Montana, and Samson in Alberta

Muskeg Lake in Saskatchewan

One Arrow in Saskatchewan

Paul in Alberta

Saddle Lake in Alberta

Sweetgrass in Saskatchewan

and Thunderchild or Saulteaux in Saskatchewan

Later, Big Island Lake in Saskatchewan; Pelican Lake in Saskatchewan; Saulteaux in Alberta (the O'Chiese and Sunchild); Saulteaux in Saskatchewan; Waterhen Lake in Saskatchewan; and Witchekan Lake in Saskatchewan formally agreed to Treaty 6 as extensions of Big Bear First Nation. Both the Foothills Ojibway Society and Nakcowinewak Nation of Alberta, are yet independent.



Chief Little Bear


During the years between the June-July 1896 Deportations and 1905, the Saulteaux of Montana were under the impression that they had Reservations in western Montana. In fact, they did have Reservations in western Montana but the United States did not want the large Chippewa population living in Montana. Those Saulteaux who lived on the plains around Great Falls and north central Montana, were continuously told they would have to relocate. Chief Little Bear had connections with Canada and on February 10, 1905, wrote a letter to the American (suspicious) Secretary of the Interior Ethan Hitchcock, requesting that the Saulteaux (Cree according to white historians) be allowed to settle on Onion Lake Reserve in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which was set aside for the Saulteaux in 1879. Supposedly, the Canadian Secretary of the Department of Indian Affairs J.D. McLean, replied back to chief Little Bear. McLean wanted to know more about chief Little Bears subjects which chief Little Bear consented.



Afterwards, Canadian Indian Commissioner David Laird, agreed to chief Little Bears request in August of 1905. He told chief Little Bear the Saulteaux would be allowed to settle on the Onion Lake Reserve of Alberta and Saskatchewan. They had to, however, pay their way for the relocation to Onion Lake. At that time, Onion Lake Reserve was without a leader. They were accused by Canada of participating (the Frog Lake Massacre) in the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. Onion Lake Reserve was set aside for the Saulteaux led by chief Big Bear who was chief Little Bears father, in 1879. Chief Big Bear rejected it because he wanted a larger Reserve. In fact, he wanted a Reserve extending in a line from Wakaw, Saskatchewan, to Buffalo Lake (probably Rocky Mountain House or the Rocky Mountains) in Alberta, and all land to the north. Canada refused to cooperate. Chief Little Bear agreed but also demanded that the Montana Saulteaux be allowed to settle at other Reserves, particularly, in the woodlands where they could live off the land. This Montana Saulteaux relocation to Alberta and Saskatchewan lasted years (between 1905 and 1920) and involved 1,000s of Montana Saulteaux. Most settled at the Montana Reserve and Onion Lake Reserve. They were not native to Canada. As mentioned, the United States did not want the large Chippewa population in Montana. Nor did Canada. They were aware of prophecy.



The 1876-1877 Exodus

After being forced to relocate to Montana in probably the early 1860s (possibly after the January 29, 1863 Bear River Massacre), ogima Big Bear retreated to the Great Falls, Montana region. A long war commenced in 1862 which was fought from southwestern Montana to northeastern Montana. The white invader first invaded southwestern Montana in large numbers and they used the Mullan Road to send supplies including food and weapons to the few white settlements located in southwestern Montana, some of which were fortified. The Mullan Road War lasted until 1882. The whites drove most of the Montana Chippewa's out of Montana during the 1876-1877 Black Hills War and Nez Perce War. At first, the Montana Chippewa's followed prophecy and fled westwards into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington using the Mullan Road. Most settled in Washington State. The United States stopped the exodus but the Montana Chippewa's then fled up to Alberta and Saskatchewan in the 10,000s. Ogimak Big Bear and Sitting Bull, led them there. On December 8, 1882, ogima Big Bear signed a treaty which stopped the war and ceded land in Canada and Chippewa land in North Dakota.



Canadian leaders did not want the 10,000s of Chippewa's living in the Cypress Hills region and through negotiations with leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation, Canada commenced to set aside Reserves in Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Blackfoot Reserves of southern Alberta were among the first. Ogima Big Bear refused to accept treaty and a war followed in 1885 known as the Northwest Rebellion.



The Canadian Ojibwa Trail of Tears

After losing the 1885 Northwest Rebellion, the Chippewa's followed prophecy and fled westwards into the region where Dawson Creek, British Columbia is, then to Moberly Lake. They had been migrating to that region for quite some time but after the 1876-1877 War, the number of Anishinabe people in Alberta and Saskatchewan multiplied dramatically. They used an ancient Ojibwa road which is now known as Highway 16 in Canada. Today, the road is also known as the Highway of Tears as a result of someone's belief that the road was not originally an Indian road. It leads from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Prince Rupert, British Columbia. What is now Edmonton, Alberta was an important location during the westward migration. Not only for the Montana Chippewa's but also for the Chippewa's from Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan.



It was from Edmonton where the road branched off. One went towards Dawson Creek and Moberly Lake, British Columbia, while the other went west towards Hinton, Alberta then Jasper, Alberta. It then went towards Prince George, British Columbia. It then branched off towards Bella Bella, British Columbia and to Prince Rupert, British Columbia. From the Dawson Creek region, the road branched off towards the Moberly Lake region then to Williston Lake (a river during those times), British Columbia. The other branch of the road from Dawson Creek, went up towards Fort Nelson, British Columbia. It is now Highway 97. From the Fort Nelson region it branched off. One branch (Highway 77) of the road went up north into what is now the Northwest Territories, while the other branch (Highway 97 which is also known there now as the Alaska Highway) went towards the west. It went through the mountains on up to what is now the Yukon.



It may have been the road which branched off near Fort Nelson and went west then north up to Yukon, which most migrating Ojibwa's used. The Yukon was an important location. The 1896-1899 Klondike Gold Rush was a disguised event meant to stop the migration of the 10,000s of Ojibwa's. Many of the Ojibwa's did reach the interior of Alaska. Some used what is now Highway 37 in northern British Columbia to enter the Yukon. They followed their ancient road which is now known as Highway 1 in Yukon, to enter the interior of Alaska. It led all the way to and beyond Fairbanks, Alaska. Other groups of migrating Ojibwa's used what is now known as Highway 2 near Whitehorse, Yukon and Highway 4 near Watson Lake, Yukon to migrate to what is now Dawson, Yukon. They then migrated into the interior of Alaska from what is now known as the Dawson, Yukon region. The migration to the Moberly Lake region is well documented and not out of the ordinary. Following a prophecy which told them to settle in an area where twin mountains were located near a lake (Moberly Lake in British Columbia), large numbers of Ojibwa's forced their way into the mountains west of Moberly Lake then migrated to the west into western British Columbia. From there, they sailed to Haida Gwaii which was once known as the Queen Charlotte Islands.



The 1896-1899 War

The whites quickly responded to the westward migration of the prophecy driven Chippewa's and launched a massive invasion into Alaska and Yukon, between 1896 and 1899. It is known as the Klondike Gold Rush. Over 100,000 whites invaded and that halted the migration. However, a few Chippewa's settled down to live permanently in British Columbia, Yukon, and Alaska. Their population was obviously not that great. Perhaps 10,000 to 20,000 settled down to live in Alaska, central and northern British Columbia, and Yukon. They merged with the much older Anishinabe population living in the Alaska, British Columbia, and Yukon region, as well as non Algonquin Indians. They no longer know who they are now in those locations! Western British Columbia had a Chinese population. Haida Gwaii obviously had a Chinese population. Their clothing and hats are very similar to that of China.



Manchurian and Filipino Involvement

After the whites conspired to take Alaska without Indian approval in 1867, from Manchuria and the Philippines, the Ojibwa's from Asia most likely increased their military presence in Alaska. Mexicans can be included as well since they have a long relationship with the Philippines. In 1869, an almost unknown war was fought in southeast Alaska. It is known as the Cake War. The Cake War coincides with the 1869 Japanese Boshin War and, more importantly, the end of the Nien Rebellion. The whites formed alliances with native Japanese peoples and supplied them with their modern weapons. They had no problem defeating the Ojibwa's (the Samurai) who ruled Japan at the time. The conflicts are related. White historians claim the Tlingit fought the war. However, the Tlingit are probably the Manchurians and Filipinos. Filipino history in Alaska evidently commenced in 1788. Manchuria was obviously trying to stop the whites from bringing eastern Asia under white control. Poor Manchurian leadership (a woman put in power by the whites) nearly helped the whites bring all of eastern Asia under white control.



Between 1851 and 1868, a war was fought in northern China which is known as the Nien Rebellion. The conflict may have involved Alaska. Another conflict which may have been linked to Alaska, is the 1864-1869 Japanese Civil War which includes the 1869 Boshin War. Manchuria was closer to Alaska because of its obvious mainland status, than Japan was. Japan overthrew Ojibwa rule in 1869 but Manchuria is yet in existence. The white Russians were invading the Manchurian region but the Manchurians were yet fully capable of preventing the whites from subduing Manchuria. The whites repeatedly tried to overthrow Manchurian rule over China in the 19th century and early 20th century. The whites could never subdue the Manchurians.



White historians, however, always include the Tlingit as being the allies of the Spanish. We should ignore that information! Cake, Alaska is located on Kupreanof Island which is 85 miles south of Juneau, Alaska. Starting in the 1870s, gold rushes brought invading whites to Alaska and Yukon. In the 1880s, an even greater white invasion to Alaska and Yukon followed. Then in 1896-1899 the largest white invasion occurred. An estimated 100,000 whites invaded the Yukon and Alaska. The whites used two locations to invade Alaska and Yukon. The most important was Nome, Alaska which was used by the Manchurians. The other was Skagway, Alaska which is 85 miles north of Juneau. That region was used by the Filipinos or Mexicans. The white invader killed off the wildgame which had a profound impact and caused widespread famine among the Ojibwa's and other Indians. They were forced to rely heavily on fish.



The United States and the rest of the British Empire, and their white allies including the white Russians, and also the Japanese, initiated a war against the Manchurians in the early 1890s. It escalated in 1898. The United States invaded the Philippines in 1899. A year earlier (1898), the United States formed an alliance with a native Filipino people which then formed the excuse for the white invasion to the Philippines. The whites had two reasons for initiating the war. One was to bring Alaska under their control, while the other which was the most important, was to bring Manchuria under white control. The first succeeded, while the second failed. The Chinese and Filipinos of western North America, have forgotten their history in North America. It actually goes back long before 1788. The Chinese had many settlements from Alaska to California. They were already living in California long before the whites invaded. The Chinese were probably living as far east as Montana and Wyoming. The same can be said of the Filipinos. I have included this information because the Ojibwa's from the Alberta and Saskatchewan region, as well as Montana and the Great Lakes region, were aware of what was going on in the Alaska region. They tried to resume contact with the Manchurians but the cheating whites stopped it. That forced the westward migrating Ojibwa's to retreat back east. They had no choice but to retreat back towards the east. Historical evidence indicates such a scenario.



The Exodus East

In 1896-1897, Inspector J.D. Moodie reported that the Beaver and Sekani (Kaska) Indians (both are the same people and sprung from the Sarci or Tsuu T'ina who sprung from the Amikwa Chippewa's) were living under horrible conditions and were starving. Sarci People did not come from the Beaver. It's the other way around. The Amikwa Chippewa's were driven from their lands, between the northern shores of Lake Huron and Lake Nipissing, during the 17th century Beaver Wars. Amikwa means beavers in Ojibwa. Amik means beaver. The Amikwa Chippewa's are also known as the Nez Perce. They are the main link to these events. In 1897, the full out white invasion to Alaska and Yukon commenced. The whites went about finishing killing off the wildlife of northern British Columbia, Yukon, and Alaska that they initiated decades earlier. That is probably what led to the Anishinabe agreement to reverse their migration. They were still refusing to consider treaty. Most were subsisting off of fish and berries. By 1899, Alaska and Yukon were under white control. The whites had the superior weapons which forced the Anishinabe people to avoid direct military confrontations with them. They knew they could not equally fight the white invader using bows and arrows. In Manchuria, the Manchurians modernized their military in the 1890s and that saved them from a possible white and Japanese conquest of their land. Before the Manchurian military modernization, the Manchurians relied heavily on their vast number of soldiers to fight the whites, Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans. The Great Wall was also used very effectively by the Manchurians.



By 1898, many of the Indians of central and northern British Columbia, were requesting from Canada to accept a treaty. Included among the Indians who were preparing to accept a treaty were the Anishinabe people living around the Lesser Slave Lake region. However, not all were unanimous in accepting treaty 8. Even today the Foothills Ojibway Society, Nakcowinewak Nation, and Lubicon Ojibwa's of that region, are defiant. The Foothills Ojibway Society is obviously the more defiant. The Lubicon Cree (not Ojibwa's) started the slide to accepting white support when they commenced to identify themselves as Cree. Yet they are covering up an obvious Ojibwa population living in northern Alberta. When the Foothills Ojibway Society and Nakcowinewak Nation, continues on with separations, they will most likely identify themselves as being Cree. An example is the Aseniwuche Winewak. The historical evidence of an Anishinabe eastward migration can be found at Treaty Research Report Treaty Eight (1899). Sergeant R. Field of the Chipewyan detachment, clearly explained in a 1910 report, that the Sekani people really belonged on the other side of the Rocky Mountains. Of course, Field was writing about the Anishinabe people migrating to the Fort Nelson region of northeastern British Columbia, from the Alaska, northwestern British Columbia, and Yukon regions.



That eastward migration took the Anishinabe people to the southern portion of the Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Nunavut, and northern Ontario, and possibly northern Quebec. They simply used their ancient roads to return back towards the east. However, they kept north of the white settlements. Field described the Sekani Ojibway's as being hostile and not willing to accept treaty 8, in 1910. Field reported that the Slave Indians agreed to accept treaty 8. A few Sekani Indians did accept treaty 8 in 1911 at Fort Nelson. The quest to convince the eastward migrating Ojibwa's to adhere to treaty continued on well into the 20th century. According to the same report, the Sekani of the Fort Graham area of British Columbia, which is about 115 miles northwest of Moberly Lake (the Saulteau First Nations) and 165 miles southwest of Fort Nelson, it was suggested that an attempt be made to bring the Ojibwa's of the Fort Graham region (Williston Lake) into treaty 8. The Fort Nelson area was not the only part of British Columbia where Anishinabe people refused to accept treaty.



Big Bear First Nations


  • Ahtahkakoop


  • Reserve Population 1,661

    Map

  • Alexander


  • Reserve Population ?

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  • Alexis


  • Reserve Population 972

    Map

  • Beardy's & Okemasis


  • Reserve Population 1,094

    Map

  • Beaver


  • Reserve Population 446

    Map

  • Beaver Lake


  • Reserve Population 352

    Map

  • Bigstone


  • Reserve Population 2,702

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  • Big Island Lake


  • Reserve Population 761

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  • Big River


  • Reserve Population 2,216

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  • Canoe Lake


  • Reserve Population 938

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  • Chipewyan Prairie


  • Reserve Population 364

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  • Cold Lake


  • Reserve Population 1,319

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  • Dene Tha'


  • Reserve Population 2,021

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  • Duncan's


  • Reserve Population 144

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  • Enoch


  • Reserve Population 1,617

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  • Fishing Lake


  • Reserve Population 530

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  • Flying Dust


  • Reserve Population 515

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  • Fort McKay


  • Reserve Population 383

    Map

  • Fort McMurray


  • Reserve Population 268

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  • Frog Lake


  • Reserve Population 1,886

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  • Heart Lake


  • Reserve Population 201

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  • Horse Lake


  • Reserve Population 463

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  • Island Lake - Saskatchewan


  • Reserve Population 1,021

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  • James Smith


  • Reserve Population 1,952

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  • Kehewin


  • Reserve Population ?

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  • Kinistin


  • Reserve Population 379

    Map

  • Lesser Slave Lake Reserves Including Driftpile, Kapawe'no, Sawridge, Sucker Creek, and Swan River


  • Reserve Population 2,214

    Map - Hit minus sign to enlarge to see all Reserves

  • Little Pine


  • Reserve Population 849

    Map

  • Little Red River


  • Reserve Population 4,316

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  • Lac La Ronge Including Peter Ballantyne


  • Reserve Population 6,017

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  • Lubicon


  • Reserve Population ?

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  • Lucky Man


  • Reserve Population 31

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  • Makwa Sahgaiehcan


  • Reserve Population 1,052

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  • Mikisew


  • Reserve Population 783

    Map

  • Mistawasis


  • Reserve Population 1,177

    Map

  • Montreal Lake


  • Reserve Population 2,245

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  • Mosquito-Grizzly Heads-Lean Man's


  • Reserve Population 730

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  • Muskoday


  • Reserve Population 612

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  • Nekaneet


  • Reserve Population 206

    Map

  • O'Chiese - Sunchild (same Reserve)


  • Reserve Population 1,682

    Map

  • Onion Lake


  • Reserve Population 3,400

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  • Pelican Lake


  • Reserve Population 1,127

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  • Paul


  • Reserve Population 1,351

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  • Poundmaker


  • Reserve Population 901

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  • Red Pheasant


  • Reserve Population 824

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  • Saddle Lake - Whitefish Lake


  • Reserve Population 6,291

    Map

  • Samson including the Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Montana First Nations


  • Reserve Population 11,798

    Map (all 4 First Nations share same Reserve)

  • Saulteaux - Moosomin (same Reserve)


  • Reserve Population 1,819

    Map (both share the same Reserve)

  • Stoney


  • Reserve Population 4,301

    Map

  • Sturgeon Lake - Alberta


  • Reserve Population 1,435

    Map

  • Sturgeon Lake - Saskatchewan


  • Reserve Population 1,848

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  • Sweetgrass


  • Reserve Population 698

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  • Tallcree


  • Reserve Population 536

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  • Watehen Lake


  • Reserve Population 950

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  • Witchekan


  • Reserve Population 497

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  • Wood Mountain


  • Reserve Population 8

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  • Woodland


  • Reserve Population 782

    Map

  • Yellow Quill


  • Reserve Population 965

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    The Treaties and Isolated Communities


    Anishinabe leaders did not cede their land in the treaty 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 land areas. That land continues to be Anishinabe land. There are numerous isolated Anishinabe communities from northern Ontario, northern Manitoba, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, northern Alberta, and the Northwest Territories. A few have year round road access but they rely on ferry's to cross rivers to reach the roads. The Anishinabe land around these scattered isolated communities is largely covered over by the Boreal Forest of Canada. It is also a land covered with marshes and swamps, as well as tundra. Countless lakes are scattered throughout their vast country. Many of which are large. The climate is subarctic. The region closest to Hudson Bay in Nunavut have no summers nor spring like weather. The warmest locations are in central Manitoba, the region east of Lake Winnipeg, and the southwestern part of the Northwestern Territories. Those locations have a good 5 months of spring like and summer like weather.



    The Saulteau Nation located in British Columbia, is barely holding on to their Anishinabe Nationality. They are possibly in the progress of re-learning the Ojibway Syllabic Writing System, or will in the near future. The further east one goes, the Ojibway Syllabic Writing System is yet in use. Those locations are mainly in Manitoba, Nunavik, Nunavut, and northern Ontario. Their isolation kept the Ojibway Syllabic Writing System alive. In Nunavut, the Anishinabe people and Dene, mixed with Asian peoples including Chinese. Some Asians obviously forced their way into northern North America after the Anishinabe invaded Siberia long ago. And we can't exclude the whites allowing several thousand Asians to settle down in both Nunavik and Nunavut. Historical evidence suggests that Canada relocated some Inuit families from Quebec in the 1950s, to the Nunavut region so a possible relocation of Asians born in North America to not only Nunavik and Nunavut but also Greenland, must not be ruled out. They settled from Alaska, to the northern parts of Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik or northern Quebec, and Labrador. William W. Warren actually thought the Lakota may have been recent Asian invaders to North America. Below is information about the treaties.



    June 29, 1905: Duncan C. Scott and Samuel Stewart are appointed as treaty commissioners by the Government of Canada. Daniel MacMartin is appointed by the province of Ontario. They would jointly conduct the negotiations with northern Ontario First Nations communities. The whites had long been in contact with the Anishinabe people of northern Ontario. They did conduct treaty signings back in the 19th century but scores of Anishinabe people from the west, had migrated to northern Ontario during the late 1890s and early 20th century. Not as many as in Manitoba but yet quite a few. The last of the treaty 9 adhesion signings happened in 1930. I have included a few Treaty 5 and 8 communities along with those from treaties 9, 10, and 11. They are isolated communities. They must stay that way! If year round roads are built to their communities, they will be destroyed by white culture.





    Treaty 9 Adhesion Signings


    3 July 1905: Agreement between province of Ontario and the federal Canadian government in support of Treaty 9
    12 July 1905: Osnaburgh signing
    19 July 1905: Fort Hope signing
    25 July 1905: Marten Falls signing
    3 August 1905: Fort Albany signing
    9 August 1905: Moose Factory signing
    21 August 1905: New Post signing
    7 June 1906: Abitibi signing
    20 June 1906: Matachewan signing
    7 July 1906: Mattagami signing
    16 July 1906: Flying Post signing
    19 July 1906: Fort Hope signing
    25 July 1906: New Brunswick House signing
    9 August 1906: Long Lake signing
    5 July 1929: Big Trout Lake signing
    18 July 1930: Windigo River signing
    25 July 1930: Fort Severn signing
    28 July 1930: Winisk signing


    2011 Diaries kept by Daniel MacMartin, treaty commissioner for the Government of Ontario when the agreement was signed in 1905, were discovered by historians at Queen's University archives. Legal Council Murray Klippenstien, claimed that in MacMartin's diaries oral promises had been made that contradicted the written Treaties and supports Elders' claims. He quoted from Commissioner MacMarten’s diary, "it was explained to them that they could hunt and fish as of old" and "they were not restricted as of territory" and "they could hunt wherever they pleased." Klippenstien argued that oral promises that are part of the Treaty should override legislation like the Far North Act. Elders among the Anishinabe population of northern Ontario, have always claimed that their land was never ceded to the whites. They took treaty according to Anishinabe elders, to form peaceful relationships with Canada. The same can be said for the Anishinabe signings to treaties 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. The treaty 5 adhesions happened in 1908. Canada is probably honoring the treaty agreements including the adhesion signings reached between 1898 and 1930. That be to an extent. An ongoing dispute over the lands minerals and other resources is causing tension. However, the Anishinabe land is yet with very few roads. No road building! It will only lead to the Anishinabe people leaving their communities to live in white communities. They will be destroyed!





    The Isolated Communities


    Akulivik, Nunavik

    Population 615



    Albany First Nation

    Reserve Population 2,952 - Hectares 36,345.70

    Map

    Arctic Bay, Nunavut

    Population 690

    Arviat, Nunavut

    Population 2,060



    Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation, Alberta treaty 8

    Reserve Population 240 - Hectares - 34,767.10 (unusual)

    Map

    Attawapiskat First Nation

    Reserve Population 1,937 - Hectares 27,275.9

    Map

    Aupaluk, Nunavik

    Population 195

    Baker Lake, Nunavut

    Population 1,728



    Barren Lands First Nation, Manitoba (August 22, 1906 treaty 10 adhesion signing)

    Reserve Population 459 - Hectares - 4339.40

    Map

    Bathurst Inlet, Nunavut

    Population 5



    Bearskin Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 463 - Hectares 12,626.30

    Map

    Behdzi Ahda (Colville Lake) First Nation treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 179 hectares 0

    Map

    Berens River First Nation Treaty 5 (not an adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,889 - Hectares 2891.70

    Map

    Black Lake First Nation, Saskatchewan (July 1899 treaty 8 adhesion signing)

    Reserve Population 1,593 - Hectares - 32,219.70 (unusual)

    Map

    Bunibonibee (Oxford House) First Nation (treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 2,385 - Hectares 17,559.5

    Map

    Cambridge Bay, Nunavut

    Population 1,477

    Cape Dorset, Nunavut

    Population 1,236



    Cat Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 569 - Hectares 1,771

    Map

    Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut

    Population 332

    Churchill, Manitoba

    Population 813

    Clyde River, Nunavut

    Population 820

    Coral Harbour, Nunavut

    Population 769



    Dechi Laot'i First Nations Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 159 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Deer Lake First Nation (treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,011 - Hectares 1,653.6

    Map

    Deline First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 840 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Eabametoong First Nation

    Reserve Population 1,459 - Hectares 25,900.30

    Map

    Fond du Lac First Nation, Saskatchewan (July 1899 treaty 8 adhesion signing)

    Reserve Population 1,045 - Hectares - 36812.10

    Map

    Fort Good Hope First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 578 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Fort Severn First Nation

    Reserve Population 518 - Hectares 3,958.70

    Map

    Gameti First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 333 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Gjoa Haven, Nunavut

    Population 1,064



    God's Lake First Nation (treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,447 - Hectares 10,292.7

    Map

    Grise Fiord, Nunavut

    Population 141

    Hall Beach, Nunavut

    Population 654



    Igloolik, Nunavut

    Population 1,538

    Inukjuak, Nunavik

    Population 1,597

    Iqaluit, Nunavut

    Population 6,184



    Island Lake First Nations, Manitoba (4 Reserves - treaty 5 adhesion)

    Garden Hill 3,727 - St. Theresa Point 3,584 - Wasagamack 1,752 - Red Sucker Lake 899

    Reserve Population is 9,962 - Hectares 35,847.2

    Garden Hill Map - Hectares 18,104.3

    St. Theresa Point Map - Hectares 5,687.4

    Wasagamack Map - Hectares 8,333

    Red Sucker Lake Map - Hectares 3,722.5

    Ivujivik, Nunavik

    Population 370

    Kangiqsualujjuaq, Nunavik

    Population 874

    Kangiqsujuaq, Nunavik

    Population 696

    Kangirsuk, Nunavik

    Population 549



    Kasabonika Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 1,001 - Hectares 10,806.50

    Map

    Kawawachikamach First Nation

    Reserve Population 596 - Hectares 0

    Keewaywin First Nation

    Reserve Population 534 - Hectares 20,116

    Map

    Kimmirut, Nunavut

    Population 411



    Kingfisher First Nation

    Reserve Population 497 - Hectares 6,962.6

    Map

    Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation

    Reserve Population 1,053 - Hectares - 29,937.60

    Map

    Kugaaruk, Nunavut

    Population 688

    Kuglugtuk, Nunavut

    Population 1,302

    Kuujuaq, Nunavik

    Population 2,375

    Kuujjuarapik, Nunavik

    Population 657



    Lac John - Matekush First Nation

    Reserve Population is 782 - Hectares 94.20

    Map

    Liidli Kue First Nation or Fort Simpson Treaty 11 (road access but missing a bridge)

    Population is 1,216 820 of whom are Indian

    Map

    Little Grand Rapids First Nation Treaty 5 (not an adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,219 - Hectares 2005.80

    Map

    Lutsel K'e First Nation treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 512 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Manto Sipi (God's River) First Nation (Treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 703 - Hectares 2042

    Map

    Marcel Colomb First Nation (August 10, 1898 treaty 6 adhesion - an extension of Mathias Colomb)

    Reserve Population 317 - Hectares - 2327

    Map

    Marten Falls First Nation

    Reserve Population 360 - Hectares - 7,770.10

    Map

    Mathias Colomb First Nation (August 10, 1898 treaty 6 adhesion)

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares - ?

    Map

    McDowell Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 22 - Hectares - 0

    Map

    Moose Cree First Nation

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares - ?

    Map

    Muskrat Dam Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 228 - Hectares - 1,939.70

    Map

    Nahanni Butte First Nation Treaty 11 (road access but missing a bridge)

    Reserve Population is 125 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Nanisivik, Nunavut

    Population 77 (2001)



    Neskantaga First Nation

    Reserve Population 332 - Hectares - 831.50

    Map

    Nibinamik First Nation

    Reserve Population 351 - Hectares - 0

    Map

    Norman Wells

    Population is 761 300 of whom are Indian

    Map

    North Caribou Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 796 - Hectares - 9,172.30

    Map

    Northlands First Nation (August 22, 1906 treaty 10 adhesion signing)

    Reserve Population 866 - Hectares - 2,137.40

    Map

    Pangnirtung, Nunavut

    Population 1,325



    Pauingassi First Nation (Treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 560 - Hectares 260.50

    Map

    Pehdzeh Ki First Nation Treaty 11 (road access but missing a bridge)

    Reserve Population is 266 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Pond Inlet, Nunavut

    Population 1,315



    Poplar River First Nation Treaty 5 (not an adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,216 - Hectares 1537.80

    Map

    Puvirnituq, Nunavik

    Reserve Population 1,692

    Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut

    Population 473

    Quaqtaq, Nunavik

    Reserve Population 376

    Rankin Inlet, Nunavut

    Population 2,358

    Repulse Bay, Nunavut

    Population 748

    Resolute, Nunavut

    Population 229



    Sachigo Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 489 - Hectares - 8,144.6

    Map

    Salluit, Nunavik

    Reserve Population 1,347



    Sambaa K'e (Trout Lake) First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 107 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Sanikiluaq, Nunavut

    Population 744



    Sayisi Dene First Nation (used to live at Churchill which obviously includes Churchill) Treaty 5 adhesion

    Reserve Population is 311 - Hectares 212.10

    Map

    Shamattawa First Nation (Treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 1,327 - Hectares 2316.90

    Shefferville, Nunavik

    Population 213

    Map

    Slate Falls First Nation

    Reserve Population 194 - Hectares - 0

    Map

    Taloyoak, Nunavut

    Population 809

    Tasiujaq, Nunavik

    Population 303



    Tulita First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 380 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Umingmaktok, Nunavut

    Population 0

    Umiujaq, Nunavik

    Reserve Population 444



    Wapekeka First Nation

    Reserve Population 402 - Hectares - 5,631.5

    Map

    War Lake First Nation (Treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 127 - Hectares 201.20

    Map

    Wawakapewin First Nation

    Reserve Population 50 - Hectares - 5,221

    Map

    Webequie First Nation

    Reserve Population 738 - Hectares - 34,279

    Map

    Weenusk First Nation

    Reserve Population 273 - Hectares - 5,310

    Map

    Wha Ti First Nation Treaty 11

    Reserve Population is 598 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Whale Cove, Nunavut

    Population 353



    Whapmagoostui First Nation

    Reserve Population 812 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Wrigley or Pehdzeh Ki First Nation Treaty 11 (road access but missing a bridge)

    Reserve Population is 113 - Hectares 0

    Map

    Wunnumin Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 559 - Hectares - 9,649.5

    Map

    York Factory First Nation (treaty 5 adhesion)

    Reserve Population is 453 - Hectares 967.4

    Map



    Treaty 9 Ontario Communities With Road Access


    Abitibiwinni First Nation (Quebec)

    Reserve Population 553 - Hectares 8,046.1

    Map

    Aroland First Nation

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares ?

    Map

    Brunswick House First Nation

    Reserve Population 194 - Hectares 9,314

    Map

    Chapleau Cree First Nation

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares ?

    Map

    Chapleau Ojibway First Nation

    Reserve Population 34 - Hectares 890.7

    Map

    Constance Lake First Nation

    Reserve Population 845 - Hectares 6,218.5

    Map

    Flying Post First Nation

    Reserve Population 1 - Hectares 5,957.10

    Map

    Ginoogaming First Nation

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares ?

    Map

    Matachewan First Nation

    Reserve Population 47 - Hectares - 4,158.60

    Map

    Mishkeegogamang First Nation

    Reserve Population 1,136 - Hectares - 18,696.4

    Map

    Missanabie Cree First Nation

    Reserve Population ? - Hectares - ?

    Map

    Mattagami First Nation

    Reserve Population 175 - Hectares - 5,261

    Map

    Taykwa Tagamou Nation

    Reserve Population 136 - Hectares - 2,188.8

    Map

    Wahgoshig First Nation

    Reserve Population 141 - Hectares - 7,770.10

    Map



    Treaty 5

    Treaty 5 covers all of south central Manitoba and all of northern Manitoba. The Anishinabe Nation did not cede treaty 5 land area. The following is a list of treaty 5 communities which have year round road access to white communities.



    June 26, 1908: Split Lake adhesion signing

    Split Lake (Tatasweyak)

    Reserve Population is 2,319 - Hectares 17,594.6

    Map

    July 8, 1908: Norway House adhesion signing

    Norway House

    Reserve Population is 4,071 - Hectares ?

    Map

    July 15, 1908: Cross Lake adhesion signing

    Cross Lake

    Reserve Population is 5,631 - Hectares 8,310.9

    Map

    August 24, 1908: Fisher River adhesion signing

    Fisher River (it is really a part of the Peguis Reserve)

    Reserve Population is 1,847 - Hectares 6,318.9

    Map

    Opiponnapiwin, Manitoba (it was recently a part of Nisichawayasihk)

    Reserve Population is 1,052 - Hectares 2.90

    Map



    Treaty 10


    Treaty 10 also involved land in far northern Manitoba. Some of the text of treaty 10 goes like this: Treaty was reached with the Chipewyan (Chippewan), Cree, and other Indians. Exactly who the other Indians are is a mystery. We know the Chippewan are really Chippewa's. Even the Chippewan know something is not right. They all have known their entire lives that Chippewan sounds like Chippewa. They have to live their entire lives with the strange feeling that they are really Chippewa but can't do nothing about it. They need to read the Seven Fires Prophecy. The Anishinabe Nation did not cede treaty 10 land area.



    August 28, 1906: Île-à-la-Crosse signing
    September 19, 1906: Canoe Lake band signing
    August 19, 1907: Lac du Brochet signing for Barren Lands band of Manitoba
    August 27, 1907: another Lac du Brochet signing for Hatchet Lake band



    List of Treaty 8 & 10 Saskatchewan First Nations


    Birch Narrows First Nation (August 28, 1906 treaty 10 signing)

    Reserve Population 407 - Hectares - 2,902.4

    Map

    Buffalo River First Nation (August 28, 1906 treaty 10 signing)

    Reserve Population 696 - Hectares - 8,259.70

    Map

    Clearwater First Nation (signed treaty 8 in 1899)

    Reserve Population 793 - Hectares - 9511.10

    Map

    English River First Nation (August 28, 1906 treaty 10 signing)

    Reserve Population 773 - Hectares - 20,879.30

    Map

    Hatchet Lake First Nation (August 19, 1907 treaty 8 adhesion signing - suspicious because a Reserve was not set aside until 1965)

    Reserve Population 1,282 - Hectares - 11,020

    Map



    Treaty 11

    Treaty 11 was signed relatively late in the treaty signing process. Considering the isolation of the region and other obvious reasons for the delay, can attribute for the late date of the treaty signing. Another possible factor is the Saulteau Nation of British Columbia probably negotiated with Canadian leaders sometime between 1898 and 1916, about the land area of treaty 11. The Anishinabe Nation claimed the entire land area of treaty 11. The Anishinabe Nation did not cede their land in treaty 11 land area. The whites had forced their way into the region from the Yukon but two decades earlier. They also used the Beaufort Sea to force their will over the people of that region. They used the McKenzie River to travel south to the Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake region. They easily brainwashed the Indians living there. Their population is quite small considering the vastness of their land. They should number in the 100,000s but don't. Most of the Ojibwa's fled east to avoid the whites. Only a few stayed. Thus, the reason for their small population there. They are mixed with the Dene and Asians. The Chippewan also did not cede their land. Today, they claim as their domain the Akaitcho Territory, Dehcho Territory, Sahtu Territory, and the Tlicho Territory. The Wood Buffalo National Park must be included as well. We will mind to other business when the topic about those four nations rises, or respect their rights.




    June 27, 1921: Fort Providence signing
    July 11, 1921: Fort Simpson signing
    July 13, 1921: Fort Wrigley signing
    July 15, 1921: Fort Norman signing
    July 21, 1921: Good Hope signing
    July, 26 1921: Arctic Red River signing
    July 28, 1921: Fort McPherson signing
    August 22 1921: Fort Rae signing



    List of Treaty 11 First Nations


    Acho Dene Koe First Nation
    Aklavik First Nation
    Behdzi Ahda First Nation
    Dechi Laoti' First Nation
    Deh Gah Gotie Dene Council
    Deline First Nation
    Dog Rib Rae First Nation
    Fort Good Hope First Nation
    Gameti First Nation
    Gwicha Gwich'in First Nation
    Inuvik Native First Nation
    Jean Marie River First Nation
    Ka'a'gee Tu First Nation
    Liidli Kue First Nation
    Nahanni Butte First Nation
    Pehdzeh Ki First Nation
    Sambaa K'e (Trout Lake) Dene First Nation
    Tetlit Gwich'in First Nation
    Tulita Dene First Nation
    West Point First Nation
    Wha Ti First Nation



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