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Fort Alexander First Nation

This Ojibway Kasba Reservation community known as Fort Alexander First Nation, is located along southeastern shores of Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba. Below are google earth photos of their community. Their population is 1,929 according to 2016's census. Their population decreased from 2,099 in 2011, to 1,929 in 2016. In 2006, their population was 2,121. That's a loss of 192 people. They have 790 dwellings with 524 lived in. Average household size is 3.6 persons per household.

Fort Alexander First Nation History

Alexander Henry wrote in 1775, that this location was home to Cree People. Their real tribal name is Beaver Indians. There are no Cree First Nations in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. They must be listed as Athabascan! His description of their women is disgraceful! Their husbands had up to 3 wives and gladly sent 1 off to strangers to live with and that they were obedient. Many mixed bloods lived there. Trade Post Maurepas or Trade Post Rouge, was located at this location which lured Ojibway's from their Hunter Totem or Gaossed Dodim. Members from their their Odahwa Totem or Odahwa Dodim were also lured to the trade post. In fact, there may have been Civil War among Ojibway's at this location.

Before Henry reached this location, he had visited other Ojibway Villages that were not inclined to be friendly. After leaving this location, Henry sailed Lake Winnipeg to Grand Rapids or Pawistic. From there, they sailed to "Pas-qua-yah." The year before, whites, Eskimos, Ojibway's and mixed bloods forced their way to where Cumberland House, Saskatchewan is and established a fort. At "Pas-qua-yah" Henry met with hostile Ojibway's that used threats to intimidate the whites. They demanded items from the whites they shouldn't have. Their item of choice was rum. Cha-tique who led the Ojibway Village of Pasquayah (it's now The Pas, Manitoba), let the whites leave his village yet not long after they left, he caught up to them in his canoe and demanded another keg of rum or he would have the whites killed or intimidated them with threats if the rum he demanded, was not given to him. Henry and his force did not have the nerve to stay at Pasquayah. After giving what Cha-tique demanded, they quickly left. As explained, Cha-tique chased them to get another keg of rum.

After the incident, Henry and his force quickly made for Cumberland House which is 40 miles or 64.4 kilometers northwest of The Pas, Manitoba. They then went to old French trade posts of De La Corne (near what is now James Smith First Nation) and Le Jonquiere (near what is now Prince Albert, Saskatchewan). From there, they went south to visit Assiniboine People who treated them well. They possibly went as far south as southeast Alberta and southwest Saskatchewan. Henry wrote the wind changed to the south and the weather turned warm. They then traversed north to near Lake Athabasca and met Chipewyan People. They then went east to Churchill River in Manitoba. In his book he wrote "they then decided to go west again to Lake Athabasca yet i doubt that." Henry wrote they spoke Cree which is corrupted Ojibway Language according to Lewis and Clark. In contrast to chief Cha-tique and his hostility, the Ojibway's at Fort Alexander were friendly and shared their women, while the Ojibway's at Pasquayah, were hostile and openly warned the whites that if they didn't comply they could be killed. Why such a contrast? Ojibway's at Pasquayah were aware of the newly constructed white fort (it was not a trade post) at Cumberland House. At Fort Alexander, a population of Ojibway's, Eskimos, whites and mixed bloods lived. Ojibway People named them "Kin-ish-ti-no." It means "Mix: Not Equal People" or "Mix: Not Same People." In Ojibway Language, their word for "Mix" may be "kin." Their word for "equal, like, same" is "di-no." Ojibway's used "ish" as a pejorative. They didn't like Cree People because they were mixed. Thus, "Kin Ish Dino." It means "Mix: Not Equal People or Mix Not Same People." Alexander Henry was not off on an exploration in 1775 and 1776. He was at war! When those whites returned to north Minnesota, Ojibway's living there knew a new war was going on. England broke Proclamation of 1763's Treaty and declared independence from Ojibway rule. They forged alliances with Cree People (their real tribal name is Beaver Indians) and possibly Chipewyan People also.

This location in Manitoba was very pleasing to Ojibway People. It's climate was acceptable to them. Though winters are long and very cold, summers are short and warm. Ojibway People of this location were largely from the Fisher Totem or Fisher Dodim of Ojibway People. Ojibway leaders allowed whites to establish a trade post in this location in mid 18th century. What Ojibway leaders possibly didn't know about whites, was their real intentions. There was yet contact between Ojibway People of North America and Ojibway People of Siberia. England, France and Russia were in an alliance to stop contact between Ojibway's of North America and Ojibway's of Siberia. That's what they didn't know! After Trade Post Maurepas was built, white traders lured Ojibway's from the Ojibway Hunter Totem to their trade post in order to commence trade. What followed, was a shift in attitudes of members of the Ojibway's Hunter Totem. White traders signed contracts with individual Ojibway's and coerced them into thinking they owned land that belonged to individual Ojibway's. Ojibway People did not have laws pertaining to individual Ojibway's owning their own land. All land was held in common and could not be bought and sold. White traders used alcohol and other trade items to convince them to act on their own. It led to conflict with Ojibway law. It also led to Civil War. Further south, Ojibway leaders had to send in large numbers of Ojibway Soldiers to locations further north to prevent whites from causing civil strife.

During Pontiac's War, employees at HBC (Hudson Bay Company) Forts on Hudson Bay's west coast, reported that Northern Ojibway's had forced their way to York Factory and further north. They did not report the truth. Most Ojibway's followed Ojibway law, while a minority of Ojibway's acted on their own and stayed near white trade posts and forts. We will name them Cree. It's derived from "kwe" which means woman in Ojibway Language. Whites also sent many Eskimos to their forts and even to their trade posts. Ojibway reinforcements commenced to take control of central and northern Manitoba during the so called "French and Indian War." They forced Cree's to flee west. Many Cree's were living near or at white trade posts in southern Manitoba. Trade Post Dauphin and Trade Post Maurepas were two of them. Most people living at these white trade posts were Ojibway Traitors, Eskimos and Mixed Bloods. Only a few whites lived at them. Whites armed them with guns and ammunition. It changed dramatically during Pontiac's War. French traders established these interior trade posts white historians name forts. However, they were trade posts. They were not forts! Below is a list of French trade posts located inland in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, built before 1755. They were captured by Ojibway Soldiers either during the French and Indian War or during Pontiac's War!

Trade Post Maurepas (1733): Location was either Fort Alexander or Winnipeg, Manitoba. Probably Fort Alexander!

Trade Post La Reine (1738): Location was Portage La Praire, Manitoba.

Trade Post La Rouge (1738): Location was either Fort Alexander or Winnipeg, Manitoba. Probably Fort Alexander!

Trade Post Bourbon (1741): Location was near what is now Grand Rapids, Manitoba.

Trade Post Dauphin (1741): Location was at or near what is now Dauphin, Manitoba.

Trade Post Paskoya (1741): Location was near what is now The Pas, Manitoba. They moved this trade post to what is now The Pas around 1750.

Trade Post Bas De La Riviere (1750): Located at either what is now Winnipeg or Fort Alexander, Manitoba.

Trade Post Le Jonquiere (1751): Location was near what is now Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.

Trade Post De La Corne (1753): Location was near what is now James Smith Reserve in Saskatchewan.

According to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Ojibway People gave rise to Chipewyan People, Copper People, Cree People and Dogrib People. Staff at HBC trade posts named Northern Ojibway People "Nakawawuck or Nekawawuck and Lake Indians." Andrew Graham wrote in 1771, that Ojibway's forced their way to York Fort (aka York Factory) in 1762 or during Pontiac's War. They were there to prevent white expansion inland. They did trade now and then according to Andrew Graham who also wrote that Northern Ojibway People commanded all lakes (thus why they were named Lake Indians) from York Fort Rivers (Nelson River and Hayes River), leaving Lowland Cree (they were really Ojibway Traitors, Eskimos, Mixed bloods and whites) very little room between them and Hudson Bay. Staff at HBC trade posts named Cree People "Beaver Indians and Keskatchewan Indians." As more Ojibway Soldiers were sent north, Keskatchewan People or Beaver People, retreated west and south. Northern Keskatchewan People were named Beaver Indians. Below are 18th century maps that can help you. Frenchmans Lake and Little Sea are Lake Winnipeg. On their left, are latitude numbers which are from 48° to 58° north latitude. Notice how Lake Winnipeg and Lake Manitoba are situated? Almost horizontal instead or vertical. It looks like whoever drew that map, was looking northwest. Churchill looks like Northern Ojibway Territory's north boundary which was possibly Churchill River. However, Churchill is at 58° north latitude. York Fort (aka York Factory) is at 57° north latitude. During their war against whites and their Eskimo allies who were stationed at white forts around Hudson Bay and James Bay, Ojibway Soldiers captured many Eskimos and absorbed them into their population.

Long before 1775, French invaders were allowed to establish a trade post (not a fort) in Manitoba. First "Trade Post Maurepas" was built in either 1733, 1734 or 1735. It was located 5 leagues or 15 miles from Winnipeg Rivers mouth. They reported that Trade Post Maurepas produced 600 packages of furs in 1735. However, Ojibway leaders became enraged after hearing news that those idiotic Ojibway's lured to Trade Post Maurepas, died at the post as a result of white deceit. Trade Post Maurepas was supposedly relocated to where Winnipeg, Manitoba is and named Trade Post Rouge in 1739. However, it was relocated to where Powerview-Pine Falls, Manitoba is located now which is 5 miles or 8 kilometers southeast of Fort Alexander. They lured Ojibway Hunters to their trade post and it led to serious trouble among Ojibway People. Ojibway's from other Ojibway Totems were also lured to Trade Post Maurepas. The Odahwa or Ottawa (it means trade) Totem, were just as prone to the lure as the Ojibway's Hunter Totem or Gaossed Dodim. Henry and his force were at Trade Post Maurepas in 1775. English invaders with their Eskimo allies and those Ojibway's that betrayed their people and mixed bloods, continued to live in this region of southern Manitoba. During War of 1812, Ojibway Soldiers defeated them and subjugated them until 1869. In 1817, they set aside Red River Colony for them. Ojibway People had much trouble with them. There was Civil War among Ojibway People in this location.

Around 290 speak Ojibway Language at Fort Alexander First Nation. It is one of Manitoba's larger Ojibway communities. This Ojibway community has no real town. Their housing units are located along Highway 11, on Winnipeg Rivers west and along Northshore Road, on Winnipeg Rivers east. In Ojibway, they name this location "At The Outlet." It's a locative. Ojibway's used their word for "tree" as a locative. Their word for tree is "tig." They used "ig" in "tig" to be a locative, more frequently than "tig." Ojibway's used "Tree Trail Markers" to identify important boundaries, locations and maps. They usually spell it this way "Zaa'giing." They pronounce it as "za-geen." The "geen" rhymes with seen and teen. However, it's not pronounced that way. If it's pronounced "za-geen" it means something else. It should be pronounced "Za-gi-ig or possibly Za-gi-tig." Similar to "Ba-wi-tig." The Ojibway word for Sault Ste. Marie. It means "Rapids Place." For some reason whites use an "n" in Ojibway locatives. Instead of "eng" it should be "ig." Translated, it means "River Entry Place, River Mouth Place, ect." As mentioned, it's a locative.

Map of their real Reservation

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup

Fort Alexander Road Closeup


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