Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Kawacatoose First Nation
It is one of two Chippewa communities located within the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve. Kawacatoose has a population of 1,147 according to the 2011 census. That does not include the Kawacatoose citizens living in white communities. Since they are surrounded by numerous white communities, most of the Chippewa's have moved to white communities. The other Chippewa Big Touchwood Hills community is Day Star. Below is a map of the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve. Both communities are largely Cree Ojibwa according to historians, with a smaller Saulteaux Ojibwa poulation. They have close relations with Little Touchwood Hills Reserve which include Gordon and Muskowekwan, as well as the Qu'Appelle Reserve. Last Mountain Reserve was probably a part of the Touchwood Hills Reserves before being stolen in 1918. It was larger than the Little Touchwood Hills Reserve. It covered an area of land totaling 27,972 hectares or 69,120 acres.
If all three Reserves were connected, the size of the Reserve was much larger than a few hundred square miles. The Reserve may have led to the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. After the 1876-1877 War in Montana, 10,000s of Montana Saulteaux Ojibwa's fled up to southern Alberta and southern Saskatchewan. They settled around the Cypress Hills. Canada did not want a large Indian population living in southwestern Saskatchewan (the land was prairie land) and southern Alberta. They coerced many to relocate to central and southeastern Saskatchewan, where the land was covered by a great many lakes and forests. I suspect Canada set aside a large Reserve which included the Touchwood Hills Reserves, Last Mountain Reserve, Qu'Appelle Reserve, Files Hills Reserve, Crooked Lakes Reserve, and Fishing Lake Reserve. In 1885, Canada broke treaty and the war followed. Chief Kinistin led many Ojibwa People to northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan and to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Chief Little Bear and other Saulteaux Ojibwa leaders, led large numbers of Ojibwa People to northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. From there, they migrated to Yukon and further west.
Their ogimak signed treaty 4 on September 15, 1874, with Canada which established the Kawacatoose First Nation of Saskatchewan. An interesting subject about the Chippewa leader who supposedly signed the September 15, 1874 Treaty, which set aside the Kawacatoose Reserve, is his name which was Kawacatoose. It supposedly means Poor Man which was the original name of this First Nation. Apparently, the correct translation of Kawacatoose, is Lean Man. If it is, it means the Lean Man First Nation which is connected to the Grizzly Bears Head, Mosquito, and Red Pheasant First Nations, is directly related to ogima Ka-wac-a-toose.
The population of the Kawacatoose First Nation is 1,147. There is another First Nation (Day Star) which adjoins the Kawacatoose Reserve. Both Reserves are connected or the same. Below is a link to a map of the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve. You must remember that the map is not only a map of the Kawacatoose Reserve but also the Day Star Reserve. Both are known as the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve. The size of the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve is 16,396 hectares or 40,515 acres. The population of the Big Touchwood Hills Reserve is 1,286. Much of the Reserve is covered by a forest. It's obvious that the leaders of the Reserve do care more for the earth than money.