Anishinabe
History


Rocky Boy Tribe
of
Chippewa Indians of
Montana








Kehewin First Nation


Located about 13 miles south of Bonnyville, Alberta, is an Ojibway Kehewin First Nation Reserve that may have been chief Big Bears main village. They are from chief Big Bears Ojibway's from Montana. After American Soldiers attacked Ojibway's living in Montana in 1876, chiefs Big Bear and Sitting Bull led 10,000s to Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills. Chief Big Bear told white treaty negotiators in August or September of 1876, at Fort Carlton, he would sign treaty in 1877. However, he waited or signed Treaty 6 or 7 in 1877. His subjects eventually demanded that he sign another treaty adshesion which he did in December of 1882. However, chief Big Bear was also leader of Ojibway People in both Canada and United States, which means there was probably white lies about chief Big Bear's signed treaties. Ojibway leaders warned whites not to cross South Saskatchewan River because it was a boundary, as was Saskatchewan River. Chief Big Bear ceded much land in 1871. He possibly had another name whites gave him which was possibly Yellow Quill or Blue Quill. In Ojibway, it's pronounced as O-za-wa-sko-kra-na-bi.



Chief Big Bear's Reserves & 1885's Northwest Rebellion


Map of Chief Big Bears Reserves

His Ojibway subjects were set aside a large Reserve near Fort Pitt in 1877 or 1878. It took time for chief Big Bear's Ojibway's from Montana, who fled to Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills in 1876, to migrate 100's of miles north to their large Reserve that was located mainly in Alberta. Chief Big Bear and his subjects, settled north of Saskatchewan River in Alberta and Saskatchewan. When chief Big Bear signed an adhesion to treaty in December of 1882, land south of Saskatchewan River was ceded, in Alberta and Saskatchewan. In early 1885, Canada demanded land north of Saskatchewan River which chief Big Bear refused. It led to 1885's Northwest Rebellion. Chief Big Bear continued to refuse to cede land after that conflict ended. Further east, Canadian Soldiers were stationed at Batoche. They were instigators of 1885's Northwest Rebellion. White greed for land was land north of Saskatchewan River yet Saskatchewan River was a boundary. All land north of Saskatchewan River was Ojibway land. White leaders wanted farmland. Most farmland north of Saskatchewan River, was located from where South Saskatchewan Rivers mouth is, west into Alberta or where chief Big Bear and his Ojibway People lived.



Canadian leaders first tried negotiating for land cessions yet chief Big Bear refused. He then agreed to land cessions in exchange for a large Reserve located mainly in Alberta, with a large area in Saskatchewan. He also demanded large Reserves for Ojibway People to his east. Canadian leaders agreed to chief Big Bear's land cession proposal yet soon after they signed treaty, Ojibway leaders found out that they had been lied to. Their Reserves were suppose to be large. Indian Reserves north of Saskatchewan River, from where South Saskatchewan Rivers mouth is, are really much larger. Ojibway leaders would never accept land allotments as their Reservations. They also considered one mile to be one league which is three miles. Ahtahkakoop, Big River, Mistawasis, Muskeg and Pelican Lake are actually one Reserve. We have to include Witchekan Lake Reserve as well. They were clinging to their Ojibway Tribal Identity until early 20th century. They did not take treaty as did both Jackfish Lake and Waterhen Lake Saulteaux Ojibway's, until they signed adhesions to Treaty 6 in 1950's. Today, they are claiming they are Cree, except Jackfish Lake Saulteaux Ojibway's. However, we know Waterhen Lake and Witchekan Lake are Saulteaux Ojibway. They will not get anywhere (that be a future) by claiming they are Cree. We won't accept them and whites won't accept them. Their reason for claiming they are Cree is Seven Fires Prophecy. By claiming they are Cree, we are being told by them, that they will not follow prophecy. Chief Big Bear ordered his commanders to send Ojibway Soldiers to near Batoche. Fort Carlton was located very near Saskatchewan River on ceded Ojibway land, while Batoche was a white town located east of South Saskatchewan River on ceded Ojibway land.



Ojibway Soldiers attacked whites near Duck Lake, which is 11 or so miles east of Fort Carlton, first. They then launched assaults at Fort Battleford, Saskatchewan, Frog Lake, Alberta, Fort Pitt, Saskatchewan, Lac la Biche, Alberta and Green Lake, Saskatchewan both of which were actual looting expeditions. They continued their assaults in Fort Carlton's vicinity by battling Canadian Soldiers at Fish Creek and attacking Batoche. Then chief Big Bear ordered one of his main commanders Wandering Spirit, to battle Canadian Soldiers at both Frenchman's Butte and Loon Lake which is where Makwa Sahgaiehcan Reserve is. After Battle of Loon Lake was fought on June 3, 1885, commander Wandering Spirit surrendered at Fort Pitt. However, chief Big Bear continued to move north towards Big Island Reserve and Waterhen Lake Reserve. White historians are liars. Chief Little Bear never fled to Canada. He told whites in Lewistown, Montana in 1913, that he sided with American's during 1876-1877 War. He actually fought alongside American Soldiers against his own people. It was chief Rocky Boy who fled to Canada in 1876. After June 3, 1885's Battle of Loon Lake, chief Big Bear instructed chief Rocky Boy, who may have been his son, which would mean he was chief Little Bear's older brother, to return to Montana which he did. He made his way south to where Babb, Montana is located then possibly moved to Flathead Reservation. Chief Big Bear never ceded his large Reserve. It's yet intact. It includes Beaver Lake, Blue Quills, Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, Kehewin, Makwa Sahgaiehcan, Ministikwan and Onion Lake as well as Buffalo Lake, Elizabeth, Fishing Lake and Kikino Metis Settlements.



A smaller Reserve located entirely within Saskatchewan, is located to it's east. It includes Ahtahkakoop, Big River, Mistawasis, Muskeg, Pelican Lake and Witchekan Lake. None of them will accept being Ojibway. However, we know they are Ojibway. It's well known that Pelican Lake and Witchekan Lake, were considered Saulteaux Ojibway's in early 20th century. Even Sunchild First Nation of Alberta was considered Ojibway. In fact, they were considered to be a part of Jackfish Lake Saulteaux Ojibway's from Saskatchewan. Don't tell them that. They'll get upset. As this 20th century progressed on, a movement to identify as Cree commenced. It was caused by Seven Fires Prophecy. They are using this internet to destroy themselves. Visit www.creenationsheritagecentre.ca to learn how they are doing it. Ojibway People are suppose to follow prophecy. A prophecy that predicts a Rebirth of an Ojibway Nation. Not a Cree Nation. We won't accept you if you identify as being Cree. Whites will not accept no matter what you are.



Population of Kehewin is 976 according to a 2016 census. There is one location that has an appearance of a small town. It's a first link below. Kehewin is supposedly pronounced as "Ke-he-win." Ke-hew means "eagle." Kehewin means "Land of the Eagles" supposedly. However, that "win" represents a present tense in Ojibway. It don't make sense. In old Ojibway dictionaries, they included Cree words. In Cree, eagle is Ki-yiw. In Ojibway, an "iw" sound is identical to English sounds like do, shoe, too, you, ect. It's correctly pronounced as "Kid-jiw-win." In Ojibway, a "d" is placed before a "ji" to let a learner and speaker know "ji" is pronounced like "g" in English. If there is no "d" before "ji" than "ji" is pronounced like "zhi or shi." So "Kid-jiw-win" almost sounds like "Ki-yiw-win." It has nothing to do with eagle. It's possibly related to mountains. Mad-jiw or Wad-jiw, is an Ojibway word for mountain. It depends on Ojibway Dialects. Kid-jiw-win could mean "Land of Mountains." On this settlements south are small mountains. Below are some google earth road views of Kehewin or Kid-jiw-win.



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