Mattagami First Nation
Located in northern Ontario, 12 miles northeast of Gogama, is an Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation settlement known as Mattagami. Below are several google earth photos of Mattagami's land. Mattagami has a population of 193 according to 2011 census. There are 100 housing units or dwellings, with 80 lived in. Mattagami has a 3.1 persons per household size average, which is about normal for Ojibway settlements. On July 7, 1906 four Ojibway leaders from Mattagami signed Treaty 9. They were closely related to Ojibways from Mattagami River to headwaters of Moose River at James Bay. They are under an impression that they are also Oji-Cree. They are not Oji-Cree. There is evidence that indicates another theory about Oji-Cree People that is very disturbing. White Christian missionaries forced their converts to speak Cree at Island Lake, Manitoba. Written below is excerpt from 1930, about Island Lake Ojibwa's from northeastern Manitoba. Big Trout Lake is 200 miles east of Island Lake, Manitoba.
Linguistically, the Island Lake natives may be characterized by calling them Saulteaux or better perhaps, Saulteaux-Ojibwa, indicating more clearly by this hyphenated term the close relationship of their language to Ojibwa proper. Locally, they are said to speak a mixed dialect of Saulteaux and Cree. This mixture is reported to be especially typical of the Maria Portage groups, while the natives at Smooth Rock are reputed to speak a purer Saulteaux. It may be pointed out in this connection that Cree is utilized in the United Church services and at the Catholic mission, too, so that in recent years practically all of the lslandlakers have learned to understand Cree and many speak it. The assimilation of Cree would consequently appear to be partly the result of christianization and partly due to contact with the Norway House Cree since the canoe route referred to has been open. The linguistic base at Island Lake may very well be Saulteaux-Ojibwa with an overlay of Cree due to modern conditions. On the other hand, it is not impossible that a much older contact with Cree-speaking peoples has affected the language much more deeply than a superﬁcial inspection would indicate, since the Saulteaux of this region may have been marginal to Cree bands for a considerable period, because to the south and east we find only Saulteaux spoken today.
Anishinabe language is not doing good at this settlement with only around 15 speaking Anishinabe. About 10 people at Mattagami are non Indian. You can tell by pictures, just how rocky that soil of this Treaty 9 Ojibway Reservation is in that region. However, further north, land becomes more swampy. Near Hudson Bay coast, it's almost like tundra. Near Attawapiskat, tundra is especially widespread.