Anishinabe
History


Rocky Boy Tribe
of
Chippewa Indians of
Montana








Ochapowace First Nation


It is one of four Ojibway communities located around Crooked Lakes. Below are google earth photos and map of this Reserve. To learn about their history, we have to learn about southwest Manitoba and southeast Saskatchewan history and include Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills as well. Chief Pasqua lived at Leech Lake with 50 Ojibway families and chief Little Bone (Okanese) also lived there with his Ojibway subjects. Chief Okanese and his subjects also lived well west of Leech Lake, where File Hills Reserve is located. They were farmers and hunters, as well as fished for food. They traded with HBC's Fort Ellice post in southwest Manitoba. Leech Lake is located 30 miles or 48.3 kilometers north of Crooked Lakes Reserve. They are closely related to White Bear Ojibways who live south of Crooked Lakes Reserve and Qu'Appelle Lakes Ojibways at Muscowpetung and Pasqua. They are also related to Cote, Keeseekoose and The Key Ojibways who live to their north and Gordon/Muskowekwan Ojibway's west of them. At Round Lake (Ochapowace), at least seven Ojibway families lived there before a Reserve was set aside. However, that's just on Round Lakes north side. A great many more Ojibway families lived around what is now Crooked Lakes Reserve, before it was a Reserve. These Ojibway People are native to Saskatchewan.



James Smith and Muskoday Ojibways, came up from St. Peters Reserve which was an Ojibway Reserve presumedly located near Selkirk, Manitoba, were not native to that region. Most were forced to relocate to where Peguis is in Manitoba, around 1906-1907. Chief Yellow Quill (he may have been chief Big Bear) came up to settle at Fishing Lake, Kinistin and Yellow Quill Reserve, from a southern location presumed to be Manitoba. Could have been Montana however. All of southeast Saskatchewan was Ojibway land.



During 1876-1877's War in Montana, chief's Big Bear and Sitting Bull, led 10,000's of Montana Ojibway's to Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills. Canadian leaders refused to allow them to live there. Attempts were made to set aside an Ojibway Reserve near Cypress Hills or within Cypress Hills yet Canada was too greedy. They knew land in southwest Saskatchewan and southern Alberta, was ideal agriculture land. Many Cypress Hills Ojibway's relocated to Ojibway Reserves along Qu'Appelle River or near Qu'Appelle River. Most were led north to near Fort Pitt by chief Big Bear. Thus, why southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, have no Indian Reserves, excepting a couple. There is a difference now because of an influx of Montana Ojibway refugees. That difference is Cree People who are really Ojibway People. We have to deal with this conspiracy. You may favor ignoring it yet prophecy must be followed. Two leaders were of importance to Crooked Lakes Reserve. One was chief Kakisheway and another was an Ojibway chief named Chacachas. If you investigate their histories, you'll be fooled into thinking they are Cree. They are Ojibway. They (Ojibway People) were living around Crooked Lakes, long before a Reserve was set aside there.



Ojibway chief's Cowesses and O'soup, were yet living in them Cypress Hills. Both were Ojibway chiefs who really didn't want to leave them Cypress Hills. However, they did. Chief O'Soup was among them first Montana Ojibway's to settle at Crooked Lakes Reserve. Later, his brother chief Cowessess, settled there. They named a Crooked Lakes Reserve District after him. As for chiefs Kakisheway and Chacachas, they kept in contact with Cypress Hills Ojibway's. Both signed Treaty 4 which was really an adhesion signing to Treaty 1, which supposedly involved Ojibway land in southern Manitoba, from extreme southern Lake Winnipeg, west to Lake Manitoba, then south to international border. It really involved land south of from where Hudson Bay at Fort Albany is, to where South Saskatchewan Rivers mouth is in Saskatchewan. Chief Yellow Quill (he may have been chief Big Bear) was principle Ojibway leader who signed Treaty 1. There actually may have been two chief Yellow Quill's. One may have had Blue Quill as his name. One of them had a relation with Short Bear as his name. This Short Bear, which they wrote his Ojibway name incorrectly, was a traitor. They wrote his name this way: "Kees-kee-ma-qua." Ojibway People who speak Ojibway, know that's incorrect. Short is a diminutive. It must be written "Ma-kos." It means Little Bear. When chief Yellow Quill (it was really chief Big Bear) signed Treaty 1 on August 3, 1871, he didn't have to deal with chief Little Bear who was his son and an heir to his throne. He wasn't of age in 1871.



By October of 1873, it was reported that a group of chief Big Bear's Ojibway's wanted to secede from him. They were led by chief Little Bear. They wrote he was a grandson of chief Black Robe (it was really chief Black Powder who was chief Big Bears father) who became an excuse. Chief Little Bear claimed that he was recognized as an hereditary chief by half of chief Big Bear's subjects. This led to civil strife among Ojibway People. Chief Big Bear wanted large Reserves, while chief Little Bear could care less. In 1876, chief Little Bear accepted a small Reserve (Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation which is now Rocky Boy's Reservation) in north central Montana and became allies of the whites. He told whites in Lewistown, Montana in December 1913, that his father chief Big Bear, was biggest chief in Canada and also belonged in the United States. He also told them he joined with American Soldiers to help them fight his fathers subjects who fled to Alberta's and Saskatchewan's Cypress Hills. This civil strife was so serious, chief Big Bear had to have a guard or guards, protect him from his son at all times.



Total size of Crooked Lakes Reserve is 73,555 hectares or 735.5 sq. km. or 181,758 acres or 284.0 sq. mi. However, that is their original Reserves. Land added on brings it's size to 92,473.6 hectares or 924.7 sq. km. or 228,507 acres or 357.05 sq. mi. Cowessess is their largest District. It covers 37,865.8 hectares or 93,566 acres. Ochapowace has an on-Reserve population of 426. That does not include off Reserve population. Population of Crooked Lakes Reserve is 1,615. Crooked Lakes Reserve's Indian population is declining. Their leaders must change that. Many citizens of Crooked Lakes Reserve can trace their origins back to Montana, where they originally lived but were driven out by whites. Chief's Big Bear, Rocky Boy and Sitting Bull led them up to Canada.



Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Crooked Lakes Reserve From Road

Map of Crooked Lakes Reserve


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