Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Peter Chapman First Nation
Located just north of Kinistino, Saskatchewan, is the Anishinabe Peter Chapman First Nation which is now a part of the James Smith First Nation. In history, the brother of the Anishinabe ogima (chief) John Smith (he established the Chippewa or Saulteaux Muskoday First Nation), who was James Smith of course, signed treaty six in 1876 evidently, which established this First Nation. An interesting bit of historic information concerning the James Smith Reserve, is they supposedly originally lived on the St. Peters Reserve in Manitoba. Their Reserve was located a few miles north of Winnipeg which is too south for the Muskego or northern Ojibwa's the whites call Cree. Below is a link to a map of the James Smith, Chakastaypasin, Kinistino, and Peter Chapman Reserve.
There was the St. Peters Mission in the Great Falls, Montana region which was closed by Ojibway soldiers after the 1865-1866 Sun River Stampede. After the Black Hills War an Anishinabe Exodus to the west occurred and to the north or to Alberta and Saskatchewan. The whites claim the Nez Perce fled to the east but it was really Anishinabe people following the Seven Fires Prophecy, who fled first to the west into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. White soldiers stopped the westward exodus but not the northward exodus. Ogimak Big Bear and Sitting Bull, led 10,000s of Chippewa's and other Indians up to Alberta and Saskatchewan. Most settled around the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Chippewa's from the St. Peters Reserve of Manitoba, moved up to where the Peguis First Nation is in Manitoba.
Chippewa and Dakota leaders tried negotiating with Canadian leaders about having a large Reserve set aside in the Cypress Hills Region but Canada refused. The Canadians forced the Chippewa's to relocate to eastern Saskatchewan and northern Alberta and northern Saskatchewan. A number of Reserves were set aside including the James Smith Reserve and the Muskoday Reserve. The Smith brothers arrived to Saskatchewan in 1875. Among the other Chippewa's who joined with the Smith brothers, especially James Smith, were the Chakastaypasin and Peter Chapman Chippewa's. The Chakastaypasin lived around the James Smith Reserve and actually had a Reserve of their own which was connected to the James Smith Reserve. The whites claim they had moved off their Reserve by 1898.
They probably followed prophecy and fled to the north. Ogima Kinistin probably led them there. A link to the first picture below shows the Kinistino 459 Reserve. The whites claim it is a municipal district but we know better. It means the James Smith Reserve is also a Kinistin Reserve because the Kinistino Reserve is connected to the James Smith Reserve. Ogima Kinistin is well known for leading many Chippewa's to the north into the land of the Dene. He eventually returned south and was set aside a Reserve in 1900. It was originally known as Kinistino. The Peter Chapman Chippewa's also had a Reserve of their own which was connected to both the Chakastaypasin and James Smith Reserves. In 1902, Canada forced the three Reserves which was really one Reserve, to amalgamate. The Chakastaypasin and Peter Chapman Reserves were no longer recognized. Canada sold the Chakastaypasin Reserve. This First Nation has a discrepancy in its history. As mentioned, many probably followed prophecy and fled to the north.
James Smith Reserve is largely covered by a forest. It is a land of countless large and small lakes and wildlife. Their country must be kept as it is now, especially to protect their lands wildlife. Their real country begins about 3 miles to the north where the Canadian wilderness begins. Below is a picture of the region where the Chakastaypasin, James Smith, and Peter Chapman Reserve is. The first 5 pictures. Just north of the Reserve is an area of farm land which is from 3 to 5 miles wide. To the north is the country of these Montana Chippewa's. Pictures 6 through 13. There are two Reserves which make up the James Smith First Nation. They cover an area of 15,099 total hectares or 37,310 total acres. Total population is 3,019, with most (1,878) living on the Reserve, while 1,106 live off-reserve, and 32 live on other Reserves, and 3 live on crown land. Many can trace their origins back to Montana, where they originally lived but were driven out by the whites, after the 1868-1886 war.