Anishinabe
History


Rocky Boy Tribe
of
Chippewa Indians of
Montana








Pine Creek First Nation


This Saulteaux Ojibway First Nation is a part of the Kinistin Band of Ojibwa's. Population according to 2011 census, is 685. That does not include off-Reserve population. Below are several google earth photos of Pine Creek Reserve. They have no organized settlements at Pine Creek. All housing units which number 215, are located along roads within the Reserve including Highway 272, Townsite Road, McKays Point Road and W Road. Average household size is 3.2 persons per household. Ojibwa is yet spoken at Pine Creek yet not widely. About 150 people at Pine Creek have some knowledge of the Ojibwa Language. Pine Creek Ojibwa's are closely related to the Swan River Band of Ojibwa's who are the Cote, Keeseekoose (they were led by chief Keeseekoose who was related to Jacques Cardinal), Pine Creek, Sapotaweyak, The Key, Wuskwi Sipihk and Yellow Quill. They shared the same Reserve with them, as they did with the Crane River (aka O-Chi-chak-ko-sippi), Ebb & Flow, Keeseekoowenin, Rolling River and Waywayseecappo Ojibwa's. Their Reserve is Duck Mountain National Park and Riding Mountain National Park. In the 1880s, many of the Ojibwa's from Swan River Reserve, were relocated to Keeseekoose after flooding. Those who stayed are known today as the Sapotaweyak and Wuskwi Sipihk (they are also known as Shoal River Reserve besides Swan River Reserve), which (Wuskwi Sipihk) is around 25 miles to the northwest of Pine Creek.



On August 15, 1874, chiefs signed Treaty 4 but were not present at council at Qu'Appelle Lake. That's how it reads in Treaty 4 text. Only later would the so called signings take place. They happened on: September 21, 1874 at Fort Ellice; September 8, 1875 at Qu'Appelle Lakes; September 9, 1875 at Qu'Appelle Lakes; September 24, 1875 at Swan Lake; August 24, 1876 at Fort Pelly; and September 25, 1877 at Fort Walsh. We need to exclude two dates. First is August 24, 1876 and then September 25, 1877. Why? The war going on at that time. Of course, I'm referring to the 1876-1877 Black Hills War and Nez Perce War. Commencing in late 1876, 10,000s of Montana Ojibwa's commenced an exodus to the west and north. They came up from the north central Montana region, to the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Great Falls, Montana is 140 miles to their southwest. In Treaty 4 text, they are named Assiniboine which means Rocky Ojibwa's in Ojibwa. Translation means Iron Confederation. O-jib-bwa. Adding the Ojibwa plural "n" makes it O-jib-bwan. In Ojibwa, Assiniboine is pronounced "As-sin-i-bwan." Rocky in Ojibwa is pronounced "As-sin-i." So "Bwan" actually means Ojibwan or Ojibwas.



Another suspicious signing is the September 24, 1875 signing at Swan Lake. Remember, chief Yellow Quill signed Treaty 1 on behalf of the Ojibwa's of Swan Lake, Manitoba. That happened on August 3, 1871 or August 21, 1871. The signing on September 24, 1875 may have happened at Swan Lake, Montana. If it did, it means there is a cover-up. However, we already know that large numbers of Montana Ojibwa's fled north commencing in late 1876. Chief Sitting Bull was one of their leaders. They negotiated with white representatives at Fort Walsh which is located in the Cypress Hills. What happened on September 24, 1875 possibly led to the 1876-1877 War.



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