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Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana Needs Your Help
Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana needs funding to establish offices at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation and at Great Falls, Montana where Hill 57 Reservation is located. Our goal is to gain Tribal Recognition at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation and Federal Recognition for Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians at Great Falls with Reservation. Your donation will be greatly appreciated. Below is my paypal link where you can donate to this very important cause for survival. If you are interested in becoming a member of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, you can fill out a form here . In comments box, please include your tribal affiliation. In Montana, members of Blackfeet, Crow-Northern Cheyenne, Flathead, Fort Belknap and Rocky Boys Reservation are automatically members of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. However, if you are a member from another tribe (Reservation) your application will be approved if you have proof of membership from your tribe (Reservation).
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Saulteaux First Nation
It is very difficult to learn about the correct history of the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux of Saskatchewan, which is one of the many communities (excluding the Jackfish Lake Region) of the Chippewa Treaty 9 Reservation. Either their status was established back in the 19th century, or after 1950, when both the Saulteaux from Alberta (the O'Chiese and Sunchild) and Saskatchewan (the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux, Waterhen Lake Saulteaux, and Witchekan Lake Saulteaux), signed adhesions to treaty 6. An obvious discrepancy about the Saulteaux of Saskatchewan is very evident. The Ojibway's of the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux of Saskatchewan, obviously wanted to cling to their Anishinabe Nationality, as did the Ojibway's of Alberta. That may be the origins of the discrepancy. I have called the government of the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux and even they don't know when there status was established. However, i was told the Saulteaux First Nation was established long before the Cochin treaty 6 adhesion signings of 1954 and 1956. Below is a link to a googlemaps map of the Moosomin-Saulteaux Reserve of Saskatchewan. There is also a list of the known Saulteaux First Nations of Saskatchewan below. Most will deny being Saulteaux Ojibway's.
Map of the Moosomin-Saulteaux Reserve
An online website has information about how the Saulteaux First Nation of Saskatchewan was established. A group of 6 Saulteaux (Ojibwa) families agreed to sign an adhesion to treaty 6 in 1954. The 6 families probably numbered around 30 or 40. Those 6 families obviously were not the only Ojibwa's in the Jackfish Lake region. Today, they number 610. They were originally known as the Jackfish Lake Band. However, the Moosomin were already living there. A map from 1922 (it is below) shows an Indian Reserve along the eastern shores of Jackfish Lake. To it's southwest is the old Moosomin-Thunderchild Reserve. To the west of the old Moosomin-Thunderchild Reserve, is the Little Pine-Poundmaker Reserve. Around 1908-1909, the Moosomin-Thunderchild Reserve was illegally eradicated and the Indians forced to move elsewhere. Moosomin moved to Jackfish Lake, while the Thunderchild moved to the northwest of Jackfish Lake. We know both are Saulteaux Ojibway's, especially the Thunderchild.
Some think the Jackfish Lake Band became history after the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. What actually happened was their defiance to not take treaty. They continued living in the Jackfish Lake region living off the land. Even up to the 1950s, much of the region around Jackfish Lake was a wilderness. Many of the current Saulteaux from the Saulteaux First Nation, are descended from Big Bears Band of Saulteaux. White historians claim ogima Big Bear was born and raised in the Jackfish Lake region of Saskatchewan. However, his son ogima Little Bear told the whites his father lived near the Snake River in southeast Idaho. He was driven from southeast Idaho by the whites, up to Montana. He fled up to Alberta and Saskatchewan from Montana, around 1877, settling in the Cypress Hills region of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Ogima Big Bear obviously became attracted to the Jackfish Lake region. Some of the Saulteaux from the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux, are descended from the Ojibwa's from Chitek Lake, which is a few miles north of the Witchekan Lake First Nation.
According to a report by J.A. Rowland in 1916, the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux, Witchekan Lake Saulteaux, and Waterhen Lake Saulteaux were without treaty. Rowland also mentioned in his report that the Moosomin, Thunderchild, and Waterhen were a mixture of Ojibwa and northern Ojibwa or Muskegowuk or Swampy People who are called the Cree by the whites. Rowland recorded the Jackfish Lake and Witchekan Lake Bands as being Saulteaux, which means a discrepancy about the Witchekan Lake community is now being utilized by the whites because Witchekan Lake is now considered Cree. Rowland also mentioned in his report, that all communities were expanding farming operations except the non status Saulteaux who were, of course, living off the land. The new Thunderchild settlement was recorded to not be conducive to agriculture, which means Rowlands information about the new Thunderchild Reserve, is quite off.
The Moosomin, Saulteaux, Thunderchild, Waterhen, and Witchekan Lake communities, are Saulteaux or Ojibwa. So are the Mosquito, Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man, and Red Pheasant Reserves. Lean Man has links to the Kawacatoose Ojibwa's. Chief Kawacatoose name translates to Lean Man, and also Poor Man and Skinny Man. However, the correct translation is Lean Man. Kawacatoose First Nation was originally known as Poor Man First Nation. The whites have forced the Ojibwa's of all those First Nations to lose their Nationality, except the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux. Their motivation, the Seven Fires Prophecy. However, we have historical records which prove they are in fact Saulteaux or Ojibwa. At the current time there is a movement in Saskatchewan by the Saulteaux or Ojibwa of Saskatchewan, to regain their Anishinabe Nationality. They face a tough struggle because the leaders of the Saskatchewan First Nations will most likely ignore them. The Ojibwa's of Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon must also take action to regain their Anishinabe Nationality. In Alberta, at least four groups are clinging to their Anishinabe Nationality. They are the O'Chiese, of course, and the Foothills Ojibway Society, and the Nakcowinewak Nation, and the Asiniwuche Winewak. Both the Foothills Ojibway Society and Nakcowinewak Nation, are related to the O'Chiese Ojibways. The Asiniwuche Winewak are from the Saulteau First Nations of British Columbia. The Asiniwuche Winewak have been negotiating with the whites and now claim to be primarily Cree and Iroquois.
The first Cochin treaty 6 adhesion signing on August 18, 1954, was signed by Ojibwa representatives from the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux of Saskatchewan. That is clearly written in the treaty agreement. The second Cochin treaty 6 adhesion signing on May 15, 1956, is quite the opposite. It was signed by the Saulteaux Indian Band of Saskatchewan. It did not mention a First Nation nor a Reserve, which does indicate the adhesion was signed by non status Ojibway's. The information at that website is probably very reliable. Some 6 non status Ojibwa families signed an adhesion to treaty 6 and that led to the establishment of the current Jackfish Lake Saulteaux community. Long before that occurred, the Moosomin First Nation had relocated to where the Saulteaux First Nation is. The Moosomin were treaty Ojibwa's who signed away their Anishinabe Nationality. On November 25, 1950, a number of Saulteaux or Ojibwa leaders from Witchekan Lake, signed an adhesion to treaty 6 and also signed away their Anishinabe Nationality. That occurred at Witchekan Lake. They numbered 14 families or between 75 and 100 people. The information below will be helpful.
Chief Little Bear
During the years between the June-July 1896 Deportations and 1905, the Saulteaux of Montana were under the impression that they had Reservations in western Montana. In fact, they did have Reservations in western Montana but the United States did not want the large Chippewa population living in Montana. Those Saulteaux who lived on the plains around Great Falls and north central Montana, were continuously told they would have to relocate. Chief Little Bear had connections with Canada and on February 10, 1905, wrote a letter to the American (suspicious) Secretary of the Interior Ethan Hitchcock, requesting that the Saulteaux (Cree according to white historians) be allowed to settle on Onion Lake Reserve in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which was set aside for the Saulteaux in 1879. Supposedly, the Canadian Secretary of the Department of Indian Affairs J.D. McLean, replied back to chief Little Bear. McLean wanted to know more about chief Little Bears subjects which chief Little Bear consented.
Afterwards, Canadian Indian Commissioner David Laird, agreed to chief Little Bears request in August of 1905. He told chief Little Bear the Saulteaux would be allowed to settle on the Onion Lake Reserve of Alberta and Saskatchewan. They had to, however, pay their way for the relocation to Onion Lake. At that time, Onion Lake Reserve was without a leader. They were accused by Canada of participating (the Frog Lake Massacre) in the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. Onion Lake Reserve was set aside for the Saulteaux led by chief Big Bear who was chief Little Bears father, in 1879. Chief Big Bear rejected it because he wanted a larger Reserve. In fact, he wanted a Reserve extending in a line from Wakaw, Saskatchewan, to Buffalo Lake (probably Rocky Mountain House or the Rocky Mountains) in Alberta, and all land to the north. Canada refused to cooperate. Chief Little Bear agreed but also demanded that the Montana Saulteaux be allowed to settle at other Reserves, particularly, in the woodlands where they could live off the land. This Montana Saulteaux relocation to Alberta and Saskatchewan lasted years (between 1905 and 1920) and involved 1,000s of Montana Saulteaux. Most settled at the Montana Reserve and Onion Lake Reserve. They were not native to Canada. As mentioned, the United States did not want the large Chippewa population in Montana. Nor did Canada. They were aware of prophecy. Below is a list of the Reserves which were under chief Big Bears leadership.
Big Bear First Nations
Ahtahkakoop in Saskatchewan
Alexander in Alberta
Alexis in Alberta
Beardy's-Okemasis in Saskatchewan
Big River in Saskatchewan
Enoch in Alberta
Flying Dust in Saskatchewan
Frog Lake in Alberta
Lean Man (Mosquito-Grizzly Bears Head-Red Pheasant included) in Saskatchewan
Little Pine-Poundmaker in Saskatchewan
Kehewin in Alberta
Makwa Sahgaiehcan in Saskatchewan
Ministikwan-Onion Lake-Thunderchild or Saulteaux in Alberta and Saskatchewan
Moosomin-Saulteaux in Saskatchewan
Mistawasis in Saskatchewan
Montana Reserve including Erminskin, Louis Bull, Montana, and Samson in Alberta
Muskeg Lake in Saskatchewan
One Arrow in Saskatchewan
Paul in Alberta
Saddle Lake in Alberta
Sweetgrass in Saskatchewan
and Thunderchild or Saulteaux in Saskatchewan
Later, Big Island Lake in Saskatchewan; Pelican Lake in Saskatchewan; Saulteaux in Alberta (the O'Chiese and Sunchild); Saulteaux in Saskatchewan; Waterhen Lake in Saskatchewan; and Witchekan Lake in Saskatchewan formally agreed to Treaty 6 as extensions of Big Bear First Nation. Both the Foothills Ojibway Society and Nakcowinewak Nation of Alberta, are yet independent.
In 1909, the Thunderchild Reserve was supposedly eradicated and the citizens forced to move where the present day Jackfish Lake Saulteaux community is, and about 35 miles to the northwest, between Brightsand Lake and Turtle Lake, where a new Reserve was set aside. It wasn't just the Thunderchild who lost their Reserve in 1909, the Moosomin Reserve was also eradicated and their citizens forced to relocate with the Thunderchild, to the location where the present Jackfish Lake Saulteaux are. What also happened, was a forced relocation of 100s of Montana Chippewa's, to the area where the Jackfish Lake Saulteaux are, during the November 1909 Chippewa Deportations in Montana. Ogima Little Bear negotiated for them while in Montana. Before 1909, both the Moosomin and Thunderchild Reserves, were connected or the same. The Reserve was located about 15 miles southwest of the present day Jackfish Lake Saulteaux. The whites not only wanted to reduce the size of the Reserve, they also wanted to relocate many of the landless Montana Chippewa's there. The area was an active location during the 1885 Northwest Rebellion.
The Cote Saulteaux (it includes Cote - both are connected or the same Reserve)
Cowessess Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Kahkewistahaw, Ochapowace, and Sakimay)
Day Star Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Kawacatoose)
Fishing Lake Saulteaux
Gordon Saulteaux (it includes Muskowekwan - both are connected or the same Reserve)
Grizzly Bears Head Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Lean Man, Mosquito, and Red Pheasant)
Kahkewistahaw Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Cowessess, Ochapowace, and Sakimay)
Kawacatoose Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Day Star)
Keeseekoose Saulteaux (it includes Cote - both are connected or the same Reserve)
Lean Man Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Grizzly Bears Head, Mosquito, and Red Pheasant)
Little Black Bear Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Okanese, Peepeekisis, and Star Blanket)
Mosquito Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man, and Red Pheasant)
Muscowpetung Saulteaux (it includes Pasqua, Piapot, and Standing Buffalo Reserves which are connected or the same Reserve - don't let the park fool you)
Muskowekwan Saulteaux (it includes Gordon - both are connected or the same Reserve)
Ochapowace Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Cowessess, Ochapowace, and Sakimay)
Okanese Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Little Black Bear, Peepeekisis, and Star Blanket)
Pasqua Saulteaux (it includes Muscowpetung, Piapot, and Standing Buffalo Reserves which are connected or the same Reserve - don't let the park fool you)
Peepeekisis Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Little Black Bear, Okanese, and Star Blanket)
Peter Ballantyne Saulteaux (they are connected to Treaty 5 through Beaver Lake or Amisk Lake including Denare Beach & Sturgeon Landing)
Piapot Saulteaux (it includes Muscowpetung, Pasqua, and Standing Buffalo Reserves which are connected or the same Reserve - don't let the park fool you)
Red Pheasant Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man, and Mosquito)
Sakimay Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Cowessess, Kahkewistahaw, and Ochapowace)
Standing Buffalo Saulteaux (it includes Muscowpetung, Pasqua, and Piapot Reserves which are connected or the same Reserve - don't let the park fool you)
Star Blanket Saulteaux (they share the same Reserve with the Little Black Bear, Okanese, and Peepeekisis)
The Key Saulteaux
Waterhen Lake Saulteaux
White Bear Saulteaux
Witchekan Lake Saulteaux
Yellow Quill Saulteaux