Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Seine First Nation & History
This band of Chippewa Indians live in far western northwestern Ontario, near the border to Minnesota. Their tribal history probably involves many Anishinabek from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin fleeing to their land seeking asylum in the 19th century. Their ancestors signed Treaty 3 with Canada. But in all likelihood, they did so with the belief that they were not ceding their land. Treaty 3 was first conceived in 1869 after Canada supposedly acquired the Northwest Territories and Ruperts Land, from Hudson Bay Company. It was an illegal transaction. The land was owned by the Ojibwa Nation. In Northern Ontario, on out to the plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and in British Columbia, Canada named the southern Canadian Ojibwa's, Saulteaux.
In 1869, the whites living in southern Manitoba who had been subjugated by the Ojibwa Nation since the War of 1812, were causing trouble. Louis Riel was the main white troublemaker. Canada did not want trouble with the Saulteaux north of Lake Superior and desired the land in southern Manitoba, far more than the land north of Lake Superior. During negotiations between the Ojibwa Nation and Canada, in 1869, Ojibwa leaders told Canadian representatives they would be willing to allow a right of way through their territory. Not in southern Manitoba. In northern Ontario north of Lake Superior. Canada wanted to liberate the white colony in southern Manitoba and Ojibwa leaders cleverly negotiated to allow the Red River Colony to become independent as long as all of Treaty 3 land remained Ojibwa. Both Treaty 1 and Treaty 2, are related very closely to Treaty 3. Saulteaux leaders allowed around 1,000 Canadian soldiers to travel through their land to reach the Red River Colony. Little violence occurred during the 1869-1870 Red River Rebellion, simply because the whites of Red River Colony selected to become a part of Canada.
Of the 1,500 Saulteaux who gathered for the negotiations on June 19, 1870, it was estimated 600 were from Minnesota and North Dakota. Saulteaux leaders told the Canadian negotiators that the Ojibwa's would not allow white farmers to settle on their land. They also supposedly told the Canadian representatives they wanted to wait to see how the Saulteaux of southern Manitoba would be settled with and whether their land would be taken from them. You must remember that Treaty 1 and Treaty 2, were signed before Treaty 3. Treaty 1 dealt with Saulteaux land in southeastern Manitoba, while Treaty 2 land dealt with Saulteaux land in southwestern Manitoba and a small area of southeastern Saskatchewan. Treaty 1 was signed on August 3, 1871, while Treaty 2 was signed on August 21, 1871. Treaty 1 Saulteaux were left with small Reserves at Roseau River, Long Plain-Dakota Tipi, and Swan Lake. Peguis and Sandy Bay are also Treaty 1 Reserves but there is historical evidence indicating there never was a St. Peters (Peguis) Reserve. Sandy Lake is on the fringe of the Boreal Forest or Taiga Forest, which indicates they agreed to relocate north, or are a part of Treaty 5, as are Brokenhead, Peguis, and Sagkeeng (Fort Alexander). So only 3 Saulteaux Reserves were created in southern Manitoba.
Treaty 2 Saulteaux Reserves are actually located between Lakes Manitoba and Winnipeg and must be included as being communities of the Chippewa Treaty 9 Reservation. Saulteaux leaders were content with how both Treaty 1 and Treaty 2, substantiated that the Treaty 1 and Treaty 2 Saulteaux, were dealt with fairly. In other words, there was no need for war. Saulteaux leaders did not cede any Treaty 3 land. They did agree to allow Canada to build canals, railroads, roads, and allow for government buildings to be constructed. Treaty 3 was signed on October 3, 1873. By signing Treaty 3, Saulteaux leaders agreed to both Treaty 1 and Treaty 2. Violence was avoided. Red River Colony was allowed to become independent. The population of the Chippewa Treaty 3 Reservation community of Seine or First Nation, is 312.