The 1878 Anishinabe Exodus
At around the same time the Anishinabe exodus out of Montana, to Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Canada occurred, another event was occurring between Oklahoma and Nebraska which white historians have named the Cheyenne Exodus of 1878-1879. We have good reasons to strongly suspect that an exodus did not occur. According to white historians, a large group of Anishinabe people (of course the whites refer to them as Cheyenne) numbering 1,000 or more, surrendered to the United States at Fort Robinson, Nebraska which was a few miles south of the Pine Ridge Reservation. Those Anishinabe ogimak (chiefs) who surrendered at Fort Robinson were Dull Knife, Little Wolf, Standing Elk, and Wild Dog. Another Anishinabe ogima named Two Moon, surrendered at Fort Keogh in southeastern Montana. These events occurred in 1877, or around the time of the Anishinabe exodus from Montana, to the west and the north occurred.
After they supposedly surrendered at Fort Robinson, the Anishinabek expected to be allowed to live on the Great Sioux Reservation of western South Dakota, with the Dakota's and Anishinabek who did not participate in the recent war. They were expected to live on the Great Sioux Reservation by the April 29, 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty. Many Anishinabek refused to settle down on the South Dakota Reservation. They continued to live free in central and western Nebraska, especially in the Sand Hills area of Nebraska which was a large area with virtually few white invaders. The Sand Hills area of Nebraska covers 10,000s of sq. mi., and it is surprising that the whites did not set that entire area aside to be an Anishinabe Reservation. The only use for the Sand Hills was, and still is, for raising cattle. Many Anishinabek also continued to live free in western Kansas. In fact, they also continued to still live free in western Oklahoma.
According to historians it was the United States that refused to allow the Anishinabek to settle down on the Great Sioux Reservation of South Dakota, which is a flat out lie. The United States was very aware that a few thousand Anishinabek were still living free, from South Dakota to Oklahoma. Their goal was to force the few remaing Anishinabek living free between South Dakota and Oklahoma, to surrender and cede their land. That information is extremely important because it can be used to link it to ogima Little Shell II and ogima Little Shell III, refusual to cede anymore Anishinabe land after the 1863 Old Crossing Treaty was signed.
After the Anishinabek under the leadership of ogimak Dull Knife, Little Wolf, Standing Elk, and Wild Dog supposedly surrended at Fort Robinson, Nebraska and requested to be allowed to settle down on the Great Sioux Reservation, the United States confronted them and told them no they had to relocate to Indian Territory or Oklahoma. You must understand that the Anishinabe people of Oklahoma were using the Oklahoma region to migrate to Mexico. The whites did not want that to occur. So the historical records pertaining to the United States forcing the Anishinabek from Nebraska and South Dakata, to relocate to Oklahoma is fabricated. What really occurred was the few thousand remaining Anishinabek living in western Nebraska agreed to surrender to the United States. They did so at Fort Robinson, Nebraska in 1877. The events which occurred in Kansas and Oklahoma are related to this obvious short war. However, certain historical figures are not mentioned by white historians who always named ogimak Dull Knife, Little Wolf, Wild Dog, and Left Hand as being the Anishinabe leaders in Kansas and Oklahoma.
The Battle of Turkey Creek
American leaders next targeted the Anishinabek living in Oklahoma to ruin their innocent lives. On October 28, 1867, the United States signed a treaty with Anishinabe (they refer to them as Arapaho and Cheyenne) ogimak, in which they set aside the area in Oklahoma known as the Cherokee Outlet to be their country. Below is a map of the huge Anishinabe (Arapaho and Cheyenne) land area in western Oklahoma. You'll notice two distinct areas in western Oklahoma designated as belonging to the Arapaho and Cheyenne. The northern one was established by the October 28, 1867 treaty. On September 9, 1878 the United States launched the war to subjugate the few Anishinabek still living free in Kansas, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. They came up from the south and commenced to launch raids on the Anishinabek in extreme northwestern Oklahoma, near the Kansas border. It forced the innocent Anishinabek to flee. Next they commenced to searching for Anishinabek in Kansas (Clarke County) but Anishinabe scouts learned of their movements and planned an ambush. In the battle that followed in Oklahoma on September 10-14, 1878, Anishinabe soldiers prevailed and continued on with an exodus away from the whites. Anishinabe casualties were 6 killed and 6 wounded. White casualties were 4 killed and an unknown number wounded.
Battle of Punished Woman Creek
After the white invaders launched the war on September 9, 1878, they eventually raised over 10,000 soldiers and over 3,000 civilians, to fight a war against a few thousand innocent Anishinabek who probably did not have more than 1,000 soldiers. On September 27, 1878, a force of white soldiers came up from the south to war upon the innocent Anishinabek in northern Kansas. Anishinabe scouts were constantly on the lookout for danger and they learned of the approach of the American military force. An Anishinabe soldier screwed up the Anishinabe plans by shooting off his gun before being ordered to by his commanders. However, Anishinabe soldiers were very careful in the battle against the 250 American soldiers and prevented them from dominating. Anishinabe soldiers killed and wounded several of the American soldiers, including Captain William Lewis.
Massacre of the 40 Whites
Anishinabe ogimak in northwestern Kansas and Nebraska, were aware of the war by late September of 1878 and commenced to organizing their brave soldiers to launch retalitory strikes against the white invaders. Between September 30 and October 3, 1878, 100s of Anishinabe soldiers launched raids against the white invaders in northwestern Kansas. Those white invaders who invaded the northwestern Kansas region, were recent immigrants from eastern Europe. Anishinabe soldiers killed 40 white men and white boys in the raids. They raped at least 25 white women and white girls. After these Anishinabe raids, the Anishinabek from Kansas and Oklahoma fled up to the Sand Hills of Nebraska, where they joined with the Anishinabek who had long lived in that region. The location was an ideal one because the land was not conducive for agriculture operations. As well, the Sand Hills of Nebraska covered 10,000s of sq. mi., which made it extremely difficult to find the Anishinabek living there. So the 13,000 to 14,000 white soldiers and civilians, could do very little to advance upon that region.
Fort Robinson Massacre
Those Anishinabek being held as POWS at Fort Robinson since 1877, stayed there until the whites decided to relocate them elsewhere. That probably be Montana and Wyoming. Anishinabe ogimak did not want to relocate and attempted to escape on January 9, 1879, but were caught before they could actually carry out their plans to escape from Fort Robinson. In the ensuing battle, 47 Anishinabek were killed and 23 were wounded. Of the 65 who returned to the fort, 42 were not injured in the battle. Of the 150 who attempted to escape, around 38 managed to escape from the POW camp but they were caught about two weeks later. Either these Anishinabe people led by ogima Dull Knife, did surrender at the fort (Fort Robinson) in 1877, or they were forced to surrender at Fort Robinson on October 25, 1878. I don't trust white historians.
Hat Creek Bluffs Massacre
After the Fort Robinson Massacre, the 38 Anishinabek who managed to escape from the Fort Robinson POW camp, were caught about 35 miles northwest of Fort Robinson. That occurred on January 22, 1879. A total of 18 men and boys, along with 14 women and children, were attacked by 150 American soldiers led by Captain Wessells. Of the total of 32 Anishinabek attacked by the white soldiers, 24 were killed. Only 8 survived the massacre. A few white soldiers were killed and wounded, including Captain Wessells who was wounded. Ogima Dull Knife made it to the Pine Ridge Reservation in January of 1879. After several months of waiting, the remaining Anishinabek under ogima Dull Knifes leadership, were supposedly? relocated to Fort Keogh, Montana. The whites did not want ogima Dull Knife and the Anishinabek he led, settling down on the Great Sioux Reservation because they knew he was prone to follow prophecy and might take to the warpath again.
They only needed to set aside a large Anishinabe Reservation for them in north central Nebraska but refused. However, i do suspect that Fort Niobrara, Nebraska was in fact set aside on June 23, 1879, to be an Anishinabe Reservation but some event eventually occurred which ruined it. Fort Niobrara covered over 94 sq. mi., and was located just south of the Pine Ridge Reservation. The Fort Robinson Massacre and Hat Creek Bluffs Massacre, may have been white retaliations against the Anishinabek. After this war, the whites forced the remaining Anishinabek to relocate to the Pine Ridge Reservation, after they eradicated the Fort Niobrara Reservation and probably before.