Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

The Battle of Mississinewa December 17-18, 1812

This battle was fought near where present day Jalapa, Indiana is situated. Supposedly the whites were going to destroy several Miami Anishinabe villages in that region, but most Miami were either neutral or they were allied with whites. The same can be said for the Delaware Anishinabek and the Illini Anishinabek. The real goal of the white soldiers was to wage war on the Anishinabe people of that region, even if they were nuetral. A force of 900 white soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John B. Campbell, set off from Fort Greenville on December 14, 1812, to march to neutral Miami and Delaware villages. They took one Delaware village without any violence and took 42 captive, but they deliberately attacked two Miami villages, inflicting large numbers of casualties on the villages inhabitants, and took 76 captive. Within a short time the news of the white soldiers attack on the neutral Miami villages reached the nearby Anishinabek, who quickly assembled scores of their brave soldiers, then quickly marched towards where the white soldiers were leading the captive Indians to, which was Fort Greenville. On the morning of December 18, 1812, the force of Anishinabe soldiers caught up to the white soldiers holding 118 Delaware and Miami captive, then launched an attack on the large white military force. In the battle that followed 12 white soldiers were killed, and another 48 were wounded. However, they did defeat the Anishinabe soldiers. The whites eventually learned that more Indian reinforcements were soon to arrive then quickly marched to Fort Greenville. Although the whites had won the military campaign they paid a dear price. Over 300 white soldiers had suffered severe frostbite as a result of bitterly cold temperatures.

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