Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana








Battles of Saratoga September 19 and October 7, 1777


Up in central and northern New York State, the whites were having an extremely difficult time fighting the Anishinabek and their allies in the summer of 1777. From the Montreal region, a white military force of 14,550 soldiers was ordered to head for central and eastern New York State (the Albany region) to meet up with an even larger white military force under the command of William Howe. The white military force from Canada included 1,000 warriors from the Iroquois Tribes. Their main objective was to defeat the Anishinabek who were still in control of the Lake Champlain region, which allowed them to freely access lands towards the east, south, and the west. William Howe had other plans instead of doing what he specifically had been instructed to do, which was advance towards Albany, New York to meet with the English, French, and German military force of 14,550 soldiers advancing towards the southern shores of Lake Champlain. Howe instead marched his large white military force to Philadelphia.



It was in June of 1777, when the large white military force of 14,550 soldiers under the command of John Burgoyne, set off on their military campaign to attempt to defeat the Anishinabek who were in control of the central, northern, and western New York State region. They had already fought the battles at Bennington, Fort Ticonderoga, Fort Stanwix, and Hubbardton. For some reason Burgoyne ordered his large military force to march to Albany over land instead of sailing to the Albany region. Either the large white military force was without enough sufficient sailing vessels, or some other unknown reason forced them to march over land. On September 19, the battle at Saratoga commenced after an early morning fog lifted. With their superior weapons and being more numerous than the Anishinabe soldiers, the whites fought extremely hard to gain an area known as Freemanís farm, but they endured many casualties and were incapable of defeating the Anishinabek who did not leave the region after the battle ended. Both military forces dug in to prevent defeat.



Since the Anishinabe Army was in control of the region, they had easy access to nearby Anishinabe and other Indian Nations communities, who could send reinforcements to aid them in their battle against the much larger white military force. By October 7, the English had grown tired of waiting for an anticipated arrival of new white reinforcements and decided to attempt to end the predicament they were in. After the new battle commenced it lasted the rest of that day (October 7) and did not go as the whites had hoped. After agreeing with his top ranking officers, Burgoyne led his soldiers off in a retreat away from the Anishinabek. They were going to attempt to reach Fort Ticonderoga but they were eventually surrounded by the Anishinabe soldiers, which led to Burgoyne starting to think over the inevitable. On October 17, 1777 the once large white military force which had come down from the Montreal region, surrendered to the greatly upset and retaliating thinking Anishinabek. A total of 1,650 white casualties occurred at the Saratoga battles. Those whites who surrendered to the Anishinabek (5,971 soldiers) were either allowed to return to their homes as history indicates, or they were later on killed which is likely what happened.



What brought about the failure of the large white military force which had come down from the Montreal region, can be summed up by claiming the Anishinabek occupied lands just west of Montreal, central, northern and western New York State, and had the support of some Iroquois. Then anticipated white reinforcements who didnít arrive, also led to their defeat. The whites were not pleased about losing their military campaign to defeat the Anishinabe Army in the upper New York State region.



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