Chief Broken Arm
He is an historical figure the whites love to ignore. Why? Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon (chief Borken Arm who is sometimes called chief Crooked Arm) was probably the principle ogima of the Anishinabe Nation. Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon was probably born into an affluent Anishinabe familiy, in what is now the State of Montana, though historians claim he was born in either Alberta or Saskatchewan. It was said of ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon that he had the temper. According to some unreliable source, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon actually scalped his wife alive, and nearly killed a man near Fort Edmonton, which is now Edmonton, Alberta. Ogima Maskipitoon and three other Anishinabe ogimak (one was Assiniboine who are really Anishinabek who absorbed a great many Dakota people amongst them), were invited to, of all places, Washington D.C. That occurred in 1831, when ogima Maskipitoon was either 23 or 24 years old. Why would the government of the United States invite who, to them, were Canadian Indians, to Washington D.C.? They were not from Canada but from what is now the Montana region, including the Pacific Northwest. Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon may have been born in 1807.
We have another chief Broken Arm or chief Crooked Arm, who signed the October 2, 1863 Old Crossing Treaty to include when we relate to chief Broken Arm or Chief Crooked Arm. These two historical figures may be one leader the whites are hesitant to freely admit are the same man. In the 1840s, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon (that is his fabricated Cree Name), or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay (that is his Red Lake Chippewa Pembina name) became well acquainted with white Christian missionary's. He obviously had to deal with them in a quiet but distant manner because he did not care for Christianity at the time. According to Peter Jones 19th century book "History of the Ojebway Indians", the Chippewa and Cree spoke the same language which means the two widely different names just mentioned which both mean broken arm and crooked arm, have some sort of problem.
According to white historians, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was taught to write and read in the Anishinabe syllabic writing system, by white Christian missionary's. However, he already knew how to write and read in the Anishinabe syllabic writing system. The whites did not invent the ancient Anishinabe syllabic writing system. It was the Anishinabe people who very, very long ago, invented the Anishinabe syllabic writing system. By the mid 1860s (1865), ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was supposedly on very good terms with the white Christian missionary's and allowed himself to be baptized by them. They gave him the Christian name of Abraham, while they gave his wife (most likely not the one he scalped alive - if that really occurred) the Christian name of Sarah. The events leading to ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon's or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay's assassination, were now in place.
Upon learning that their Git-chi O-gi-ma (ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay) had converted to Christianity, other high ranking Anishinabe ogimak quickly grew to dislike and distrust ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay. Within four years, they may have conspired to have ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay assassinated. According to white historians, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, walked into a Blackfoot camp to attempt to reach a peace agreement with them unarmed. In the process the Blackfoot killed him. However, those Native Americans who have done their homework, will agree that ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was assassinated by his own people for converting to Christianity. After ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, had been assassinated, either ogima Mis-sta-hi Mus-qua (chief Big Bear) or another unknown Anishinabe ogima, took control of the Anishinabe Nation.
All indications point to ogima Big Bear as being the one who took control of the Anishinabe Nation. Ogima Big Bear would rule for the next 19 years. And you must remember that the Blackfoot are really Anishinabe, as are the Chippewa and Cree. Read William W. Warrens 19th century book "History of the Ojibway People" and the Seven Fires Prophecy, to learn the Indian side of these historical events. Don't be played by the whites. Too many Native Americans are being played by the whites and that leads to open identity disputes among the Anishinabe people.
In the mid 1850s, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, acted on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation during the series of Stevens Treaties, which occurred between 1854-1855. What the United States wanted was the land the Anishinabe Nation controlled in the Montana region, especially the Anishinabe controlled land in Washington, Oregon, and central and northern California. In fact, the Americans met with and signed treaties with the native Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest including California, before they negotiated with the nation which controlled that land by way of conquest. That nation was the Anishinabe Nation. If you researched the 1854-1855 Stevens Treaties, you will find only one treaty in which ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay signed. That was the last one, or the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty.
However, when the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty was signed, the signing of that October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, also ratified the other Stevens Treaties within the Anishinabe National Government at, or near, what is now the Great Falls, Montana region. What both nations agreed upon was the Anishinabe Nation in fact owned the land involved in the treaties. However, the United States had other intentions. The land involved in the October 17, 1855 Treaty is especially important to present day Anishinabe people. That land covered nearly all of northern Montana, as well as much of central Montana and southwest Montana. The Anishinabe people sued the United States for compensation for losing that land. In 1974, the United States won the lawsuit. They claim the Chippewa nor the Cree, were not native to Montana but that information is incorrect. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy.
Soon after the treaties were ratified by the Anishinabe National Government, the United States initiated an invasion into the Oregon and Washington lands, controlled by the Anishinabe Nation. The United States did so because they actually thought the treaties they signed with the native tribes of the Pacific Northwest, were legitimate. They were not legitimate. Within a short time, scores of Anishinabe soldiers were sent into the California, Oregon, and Washington region to attempt to halt the illegal white invasion into that region. It was by far worse in the California region. Early on, the whites commenced a war of Genocide against the Indians of central and northern California, including the Anishinabek. The wars in California would last until the early 1870s. In Idaho, Oregon, and Washington the wars were short but intense. From 1855 to 1858, the war dragged on. In 1858, both the United States and the Anishinabe Nation, agreed to end the war. A treaty was signed in which the United States agreed to set aside a vast amount of land in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington to be an Anishinabe Reservation. However, both the United States and the Anishinabe Nation, knew the United States would not keep their promise.
Once ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, converted to Christianity in 1865, the Anishinabe National Government knew that ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, had to be replaced. In 1859, the whites were allowed by the Anishinabe Nation to build a mission near what is now Choteau, Montana. They moved the mission on March 13, 1860 to near where present day Fort Shaw, Montana is located. Anishinabe ogimak were probably extremely suspicious of the white Christian Missionaries and through negotiations with them, forced them to relocate the mission further to the south. Then on February 13, 1862, they were forced to move St. Peter's Mission to where present day Ulm, Montana is located. The whites wanted to establish the mission further north of what is now the Great Falls, Montana region but Anishinabe ogimak were not willing to allow the whites to build the mission in that location. A hint will soon follow. It was prime buffalo ranch land and Anishinabe ogimak knew the whites would deliberately kill their livestock.
In late 1865 (it coincides with ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, converting to Christianity), white settlers launched an invasion (the hint) into the Sun River Valley or what is now the Great Falls, Montana region. In January of 1866, up to 1,500 white settlers had forced their way into the Sun River Valley but were driven back to the Helena region by extremely cold weather. That is according to white historians. Since 1862, a war was being fought in Montana between the Anishinabe military and the white invaders. After Anishinabe ogimak learned that St. Peter's Mission allowed up to 800 of the white invaders sanctuary (the same hint), they became enraged. The white Christians stationed at St. Peter's were forced to flee to St. Ignatius and the war intensified.
Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, had led the Anishinabe Nation during the wars in the Pacific Northwest including in California. Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, also refused to cede all Anishinabe land in the Pacific Northwest to the United States, after signing the Stevens Treaties. That includes Anishinabe controlled land in the Great Basin, Arizona, and New Mexico. After ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, converted to Christianity, the act was seen as being an act of subjugation by the Anishinabe Nation. In the early 1860s, the United States initiated an invasion into the south of Idaho then into southwestern Montana. That made matters very uneasy within the Anishinabe National Government. In 1869, or about one year after the 1862-1868 Red Clouds War and Snake River War, ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was assassinated.
His replacement had an uphill battle to fight and knew from prophecy that his white enemies would be triumphant. According to ogima Little Bear (the son of ogima Big Bear and who was possibly the famous Crazy Horse), his father was originally from Idaho. Ogima Little Bear (he may have been the famous Crazy Horse) told reporters in 1913, that his father ogima Mis-sta-hi Mus-qua (chief Big Bear), originally lived along the Snake River in Idaho. Although ogima Little Bear said his father moved to the Butte, Montana region long ago from the Idaho region in that 1913 statement, in all likelihood, ogima Big Bear was forced to relocate from Idaho, up to the Butte, Montana region, during the 1862-1868 Red Clouds War and Snake River War.
Ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was possibly the Anishinabe ogima who directed the Anishinabe government in the campaign in the southern California region, during the 1830s and 1840s. He instructed Wakara to send Anishinabe soldiers down to southern California to battle the whites who invaded that region. They faced obstacles which prevented them from bringing the southern California region (the area between Los Angeles and San Diego) under Anishinabe control. Just east of Los Angeles and San Diego, are mountain ranges which were difficult for Anishinabe soldiers to deal with, especially the mountains just east and northeast of Los Angeles. They first had to deal with the desert between those mountains east of Los Angeles and San Diego, before reaching those mountains.
Although the Anishinabe Nation did not bring the area between Los Angeles and San Diego, under their control, they did, however, control a good portion of the mountains east of Los Angeles and San Diego. When the United States initiated a war against the Anishinabe Nation for control of the California region in 1846, Anishinabe soldiers did attempt to prevent the United States from invading the southern California region. However, the number of Anishinabe soldiers stationed in southern California were few, and many of the native tribes of southern California allied with the whites, instead of defending their own race against the evil intentions of the white race. In 1851, an Anishinabe attempt to bring the native tribes of southern California peacefully into their confederation failed. Once again the native tribes of California sealed their demise, by allying with the whites.
Though i have no historical records which can prove ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay, was the Git-chi O-gi-ma of the Anishinabe Nation, i do strongly suspect the whites are covering up this historical Anishinabe figure, to rob the Anishinabe people of their great history. Future historians will have better tools (the time machine) to learn about the life of ogima Ma-ski-pi-toon or ogima Kaw-wash-ke-ne-kay. He may be an insignificant historical figure to present day Anishinabe people but that may change in the future.