Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

1862: The Whites Invade Montana

In 1862, the whites discovered gold in southwestern Montana and also British Columbia, and it set in motion a stampede of illegal white settlers to Montana and it did lead to Anishinabe reprisals. What occurred in the British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana region between 1862-1868 was a part of the 1862-1868 Snake River War and also the 1866-1868 Red Clouds War. Through an agreement from an earlier Stevens Treaty, Anishinabe ogimak allowed the whites to use the Missouri River to send trade goods to Fort Benton by steam boat. They also allowed the whites to expand the Indian road (Lewis and Clark mentioned the road, and in fact, they probably used the road to reach the Pacific Ocean instead of going through the Lemhi Valley) historians refer to as the Mullan road, so trade items could reach Anishinabe settlements west of Fort Benton. This occurred at least two decades after the first white settlement was established in Montana.

Many people claim Fort Benton was the first white settlement in Montana but that is wrong. They won't admit that St. Mary's Mission (today it is known as Stevenville, Montana) was in fact the first white settlement in Montana because it was established by white Christians. In 1841, the Salish Indians living in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana, requested to have white Christian missionaries sent to the Bitterroot Valley so the Salish people could become to know about that religion. It was a mistake. Once they requested to have white Christian missionaries sent to their Bitterroot Valley homes, they unknowingly allowed the whites to settle down to live in the Bitterroot Valley. The white Christians had no intentions on converting the Salish people to Christianity. They went to the Bitterroot Valley to colonize the Bitterroot Valley. Once the Anishinabe people realized the evil intentions of the white Christians they acted on instinct.

Other Salish people to the west in Idaho and Washington, also requested to have white Christian missionaries sent to their communities. They also unknowingly set in motion the white settlement of their land which was controlled by the Anishinabe Nation. All was not well with the Anishinabe Nation. They wanted nothing to do with any religion and absolutely did not want the whites colonizing their land. They knew from prophecy what the whites intended on doing. After Father De Smet received the news about the Indians in the Bitterroot Valley desiring to become to know of Chistianity, he traveled to the Bitterroot Valley in 1840 and also the Gallatin Valley of Montana. He returned to St. Louis afterwards. Father De Smet returned to the Bitterroot Valley in early 1841 and commenced the white colonization of western Montana. The first white settlement in Montana was named St. Mary's Mission. Today, it is known as Stevensville, Montana. And no Indian communities exist in that region now. The Kootenai, Nez Perce, and Salish asked for it and got it in the back.

For the first few years the St. Mary's Mission was carefully watched by Anishinabe soldiers who lived in the Bitterroot Valley. From time to time they harassed the whites living there. Then in 1850, as Anishinabe ogimak had been expecting to occur, St. Mary's Mission was sold to the United States. The United States sent in Major John Owen and he turned the corrupted settlement into a white military fort and trading post. That did not go well with Anishinabe ogimak. One Anishinabe raid in 1849 was intense enough to force the whites to abandon St. Mary's Mission. Thus, the reason the United States sent their military to the settlement to establish a fort and also a trading post. The beginnings of the Montana War start in 1841 and escalated after the United States snuck in to the Bitterroot Valley and turned St. Mary's Mission into a fort and trading post. That is what they intended on doing all along. The fathers who lived at St. Mary's Mission relocated to other missions where the Flathead Reservation is now and in Idaho. In 1853, more American soldiers were stationed at Fort Owen (St. Mary's Mission). And so did more illicit white activities such as cattle ranching, occur.

With all the illicit white activity occurring in the Bitterroot Valley and at what is now the Flathead Reservation in the early 1850s, the United States sent their representatives to the Montana region and also the Idaho, Oregon, and Washington region, to negotiate with enraged Anishinabe ogimak. Their goal was to end the hostilities and fool the Indians into ceding their land. They did that by a series of fraudulent treaties known as the Stevens Treaties. The last one was reached on October 17, 1855. Before that treaty, another treaty was reached on July 16 of 1855 known as the Hell Gate Treaty. The Hell Gate Treaty has a mirage included as does the October 17, 1855 treaty. In the Hell Gate Treaty, the mirage is about a future possible Reservation in the Bitterroot Valley if deemed desirable. The treaty is fraudulent. It was negotiated in order to end the hostilities occurring and allow the whites to increase trade and also lease Anishinabe land for cattle ranching. It was also negotiated to allow the whites to use the Missouri River to sail steam boats up to the Fort Benton trade post and expand the Indian road known as Mullan road. Fort Benton trade post eventually was bought by the government of the United States and turned into a fort in 1869.

Fort Benton was established in 1847 as a trading post. Historians paint a picture of the whites moving about the Montana region between the North Dakota border to the Rocky Mountains, as being peaceful but that is a lie. The whites through a treaty with the Anishinabe Nation, were allowed to bring their trade items by steam boat to the Fort Benton region. They were not allowed to bring illegal white settlers into Anishinabe domain as historians claim. Those illegal white settlers (gold miners and land settlers) had no choice but to invade Montana from the west and southwest. As for the so called Mullan Road, it was used by white merchants for trade purposes only. The Mullan Road was obviously an ancient Anishinabe road and it was guarded by Anishinabe soldiers.

Most of what is now Montana, was a part of Nebraska Territory at the time (1855) and the 1854-1855 Kansas-Nebraska Act, was a leading cause of the so called 1861-1865 American Civil War. You'll learn more about this as you read on. Peace in Montana followed for a few years but ended after the whites discovered gold in Idaho, southwestern Montana, and British Columbia. White leaders knew they needed a reason to have large numbers of whites invade and colonize Idaho, Montana and British Columbia, especially British Columbia (they knew the Anishinabe Nation would try and resume contact with the Anishinabek of Siberia). That reason was gold. The gold was not discovered accidentally. It was discovered by European government hired surveyors who were paid to search for gold and other valuable metals in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia. Before the discovery of gold in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia in 1862, a series of wars were fought in British Columbia (the 1858 Fraser Canyon War), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington after the Stevens Treaties.

It did not take Anishinabe ogimak long to realize they had been knifed in the back by the whites. The last of the Stevens Treaties which was reached on October 17, 1855, was negotiated at probably what is now the Great Falls, Montana region and not at the other Montana location (near the mouth of the Judith River in Nebraska Territory which is east of Great Falls, Montana) specified. All the earlier Stevens Treaties had to be ratified by the government of the Anishinabe Nation which controlled almost all of western North America. Thus, the reason for the October 17, 1855 treaty.

After learning that the United States had deliberately sent surveyors into their lands to search for and discover gold and other valuable metals, Anishinabe ogimak sent their brave soldiers out to once again fight the white invaders. It was really an extension of the 1861-1865 American Civil War. Anishinabe soldiers were obviously tired of all the fighting which had occurred in the Idaho, Oregon, and Washington region in the 1850s, but they were determined to defend their land. They commenced to launch raids against the whites in British Columbia, southern Idaho, and southwestern and western Montana, in the early and mid 1860s. After news of the gold discovery in Montana was learned of, within a few years 10,000s of illegal white settlers had invaded southwestern Montana. By 1866, Montana supposedly had a white population of over 28,000. However, only a couple of years later the white population in Montana had been reduced by nearly half that number. In British Columbia, after gold was discovered in 1858, a stampede of more than 30,000 illegal white settlers invaded inland British Columbia. Nearly all the white invaders were men. Most were later forced to leave the region. There is a reason for it. White historians are not being honest about those events.

Confederate Gulch

Supposedly in 1864, a group of Confederate soldiers ventured up to Montana and discovered gold near where present day Townsend, Montana is located. Actually it occurred in the Big Belt Mountains, which are about 50 miles south of Great Falls, Montana. What is so important about that? I strongly suspect the so called 1861-1865 American Civil War, was really a war between the Anishinabe Nation and the United States and the white confederation of Europe. If i'm correct it means those Confederate soldiers were Anishinabe. They came up from the Texas region most likely to support the Anishinabe soldiers battling the whites in British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana. As mentioned earlier, up to 30,000 illegal white settlers (at least 75% of them men) invaded southwestern Montana by 1866, and more than 30,000 invaded British Columbia. They didn't need the support of the military of the white confederation. They were handed out all the revolvers and machine guns (gatlin guns) and ammunition they needed to fight the brave Anishinabe soldiers who did not have the latest weapons of war the whites did. That did not stop the Anishinabe soldiers from fighting the white invaders.

The whites established many settlements in southwestern Montana including Bannack, Deer Lodge, Helena, Missoula, Virginia City, and Diamond City (Diamond City was the largest with a population of over 10,000 in 1866 but it was reduced to less than 100 by 1869 and is now known as Townsend) which was located in the Big Belt Mountains, in the early and mid 1860s. Barkerville and Fisherville in British Columbia, also had populations of over 10,000 at around the same time. However, it was reduced and reduced quickly. In Montana, the whites focused their attentions on the region between Helena and Missoula including Deer Lodge, where the Indian road (Mullan road) was situated. Lewis and Clark mentioned this Indian road. Anishinabe and other Indian travellers from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington used the road to travel from the interiors of Oregon and Washington, to the Great Falls region to hunt for buffalo. This Indian road did not stop at Fort Benton but continued on to Minnesota. East of Fort Benton it was known as the Fisk wagon road. The Whoop-up trail also merged in the Fort Benton region. The Whoop-up trail was used by the Anishinabek and other Indians, to travel up to Alberta and Saskatchewan.

After Anishinabe soldiers launched military offensives against the white invaders in southwest and western Montana, the whites had no choice but to congregate in the Deer Lodge, Helena, and Missoula regions. Their goal was to control the Indian road (Mullan road) to prevent Anishinabe soldiers from Idaho, Oregon, and Washington from merging with Anishinabe soldiers in the Great Falls region. They were partially successful but Anishinabe soldiers were capable of keeping their soldiers in the Garrison, Montana region which is a few miles north of Deer Lodge and was located on the Indian road (Mullan Road). Though Anishinabe soldiers were capable of keeping their presence on the Indian road (Mullan road) between Helena and Missoula, they did not have the superior weapons the whites did. That means the whites dominated the Indian road between Helena and Missoula but at a cost in a great many casualties.

Wild Horse Cree War

In 1862, a war erupted in British Columbia and intensified by the mid 1860s. Historians refer to the war as the Wild Horse Creek War. Actually there was several wars fought in this same time period (1862-1868) in British Columbia. They are known as the Lamalcha War of 1863; Chilcotin War of 1864; the Fisherville War of the mid and late 1860s; Tobacco Plains War of the mid and late 1860s; Rossland War of the mid and late 1860s; and Wild Horse Creek War of the mid and late 1860s. The Lamalcha War was fought in western British Columbia near the coast and the Anishinabe soldiers fought in that war. The Chilcotin War was fought near Anahim, British Columbia which is quite far from the Montana region yet it was Anishinabe soldiers who fought that war which was more severe than histians claim. The other four wars were fought near the Montana region. The Rossland War, the Fisherville War, Tobacco Plains War, and Wild Horse Creek War were fought just north of northwestern Montana. I will refer to these four wars fought near the Montana region as the Wild Horse Cree-k War. That is for a good reason. The name Wild Horse is important to Anishinabe people. Ogima Big Bear had a son with the name Wild Horse (he was probably the famous Crazy Horse) and he was likely one of the principle Anishinabe military commanders during the war. He may have been young at the time but his family was a high ranking family in the military of the Anishinabe Nation.

Very little is known about these wars fought in British Columbia and the same can be said for the Snake River War. White historians claim the Snake River War was the deadliest war in the west. However, not much information exists about the Snake River War. An event occurred in British Columbia which enraged Anishinabe ogimak to the point where they commenced to send their brave soldiers out to wage war on the white invaders.

The Whites Launch a Massive Plague Warfare Assault

In 1862, the whites once again deliberately launched a massive plague warfare assault on the Indians who lived in western British Columbia. It was done to decimate the Indian population. Since Anishinabe ogimak knew from prophecy that the whites would use diseases to decimate Indian populations they took action to defend themselves. It is one of the reasons why the Anishinabe people are so numerous now. White historians claim 14,000 Indians were killed in the plague war of 1862 but the number of Indians killed was much higher. Many of the people killed were Chinese. The Chinese established settlements along the western coast of North America nearly 200 years before the whites invaded in 1492. White historians claim that at least one/third of the Indian population of British Columbia was killed in the epidemic. They also claim they innoculated thousands of Indians to prevent them from catching the plague. We are not stupid! The whites started the plague warfare assault by innoculating the Indians.

Barkerville, British Columbia

This settlement was initiated in 1862 after a white surveyor hired by the white confederation of Europe to search for gold and other valuable metals, discovered gold in the Barkerville region. After Billy Barker (he was a native of England and was hired to search for the gold) discovered what he was sent there to discover, a stampede of illegal white settlers invaded the region. They needed to build a road in order to get to Barkerville which is in north central British Columbia, not too far from the Alberta region. The road constructed was named the Cariboo Wagon Road. Two years (1866) after the gold was discovered, the population of Barkerville reached nearly 5,000 (it was actually 10,000), with half of the population Chinese. Anishinabe ogimak knew about the illicit activities of the whites and their Chinese slaves and did send their soldiers to the Barkerville region to battle the whites. The whites had the revolver and machine gun at the time and that is why Barkerville still exists today. However, in 1868 a force of Anishinabe soldiers attacked Barkerville and a third or more of the city was destroyed in the blaze. The population of Barkerville has never recovered. Around half or more of the Chinese were forced out of the city. Many other towns were established around the Barkerville region but they were destroyed by Anishinabe soldiers.

Fisherville, British Columbia

This settlement was located just north of northwestern Montana in Kootenai country. The Kootenai are really Anishinabe who absorbed a great many non Algonquian Indians. Several whites hired by the white confederation of Europe, slipped into southeastern British Columbia to search for the gold. They discovered the gold in either 1863, 1864 or 1865, along Wild Horse Creek. Some claim Jack Fisher was first to discover gold along Wild Horse Creek. Others say the discoverers came from the region around Missoula, Montana. After they discovered the gold they went to a trading post on the Tobacco Plains and notified their government. An immediate stampede of illegal white settlers with their Chinese slaves, invaded southeastern British Columbia. Fisherville sprung up immediately and reached a population of 5,000 in 1865 and a war soon erupted. By 1866, the population of Fisherville was reduced to 300 Chinese and 100 whites. Fisherville was eventually forgotten. Other towns were established near Fisherville with Fort Steele becoming the dominant one. The fort was built to defend the whites against Anishinabe assaults. The whites eventually established Cranbrook in 1898 and it became the major white city in southeastern British Columbia, just north of Montana.

This war which is known historically as the Snake River War and Red Clouds War, was far more severe than history tells. Anishinabe soldiers constantly launched raids on the whites in southern Idaho (along the Snake River where ogima Big Bear was stationed) and throughout southwestern Montana. These Anishinabe military onslaughts were strong enough to force a great many of the whites to evacuate the Montana region. Starting in 1866, they intensified their raids against the whites and their newly established towns. In Idaho, Anishinabe soldiers likely used the mountains north of the Snake River to launch raids against the white invaders in southern Idaho, and also up in southwestern Montana. From the Great Falls, Montana region, 1,000s of brave Anishinabe soldiers launched raids into southwestern Montana to combat the white invaders. They probably did so by crossing the Big Belt Mountains and following the Missouri River towards the Helena region. By 1868, the white confederation had enough of the fighting and requested from Anishinabe ogimak to negotiate a peace. The peace treaty (the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty) established the peace and set aside all of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and western South Dakota as an Anishinabe Reservation.

As part of the treaty agreements the United States abandoned their forts in the Montana, Wyoming, and western Dakotas region. This war supposedly only had around 1,700 Indian and white casualties. However, the true number of Indian and white casualties were much higher. In 1870, the United States actually carried out a census in Montana to learn how many whites lived in Montana. From the over 28,000 in 1866, it had dropped to over 16,000 (several thousand were obviously native Indians) by 1870. Helena was the largest city in Montana. The population of Helena was over 3,000 in 1870. Many of the new white settlements established in southwestern Montana, were either abandoned or destroyed by Anishinabe soldiers. Many of the whites who remained in Montana obviously fled to Helena and those other white settlements in southwestern Montana which survived the war. Montana was very, very unsafe at the time and remained that way until 1880. However, the whites knew (they had the superior weapons which were revolvers and machine guns) they were now established in Montana.

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