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The 1860-1867 War

It would have a devastating effect on Indians throughout the western United States and Minnesota. It will be the work of future historians to learn exactly what occurred between the years of 1861-1865. Of course, i am referring to the so called American Civil War. Events were occurring in the western part of North America including Mexico, during those years which seem to indicate a possible conspiracy is in place to cover-up what really occurred during those times, especially in Mexico. Anishinabe soldiers had brought Mexico back under their control, soon after the United States toppled Anishinabe controlled Mexico during the 1846-1848 Mexican-American War. France and probably other white nations, forced their way into the south of Mexico during the early 1860s. That alone indicates a possible direct link to the so called American Civil War. Ane we can't forget that the Anishinabe people of the Texas region (white historians refer to them as Comanche and Kiowa) had forced all white Texas settlements to retreat back over 100 miles to the east, during the so called American Civil War.

In the early 1850s, the United States intruded into the affairs of the Anishinabe Nation in the Minnesota region. Supposedly the United States reached treaty agreements with the Dakota people of central and southern Minnesota, in which the Dakota people of Minnesota ceded their land (it was Anishinabe land by right of conquest) to the United States. In exchange for the Anishinabe controlled land in Minnesota, the United States set aside small Reservations for the Dakota people of Minnesota. However, the land involved was Anishinabe controlled land by right of conquest and the United States knew that. American leaders knew they had to reach a treaty agreement with Anishinabe ogimak, over the Anishinabe land ceded to the United States, by the Dakota people. And, of course, the Americans tried to reach an agreement over the land dispute but Anishinabe ogimak refused to recognize the treaty the Dakota people and United States signed. Anishinabe ogimak considered the treaty fraudulent.

After several attempts by the United States to peacefully reach an agreement with Anishinabe ogimak over the Minnesota land dispute, in the late 1850s and early 1860s, the United States tried one last time in August of 1862, to force the Anishinabe Nation to recognize the treaty made between the Dakota people and United States, as being legitimate. Anishinabe ogimak not only refused they became extremely enraged with the conduct of the corrupted whites. The land involved in the August 1862 treaty negotiations, was not located along the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota, but it was located in all of central and southern Minnesota. After being insulted and tramped on by American representatives during the August 1862 treaty negotiations, Anishinabe ogimak abruptly ended the treaty negotiations then ordered their brave soldiers to launch a massive military campaign against the white settlers and American military forces, in central and southern Minnesota. However, Minnesota was not the only location where Anishinabe people were dealing with the corrupted whites. Other locations included California, Colorado, the Dakotas, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. Arizona and New Mexico, must also be included as well.

These wars which were really one war, are known as the 1860 Paiute War (the war in California must be included under this one), the 1860-1862 Apache War, the Great Sioux Uprising of 1862, the Snake River War of 1862-1868, the 1865-1867 Ute War (it is better known as Black Hawk's War), and the 1866-1868 Red Clouds War. In northern California, the war ended by 1864. In Nevada, it ended in 1860. The whites quickly grew to hate Nevada. In Utah, the war had ended by 1867. During the years this war was fought, 1,000s of casualties were inflicted on the Indians and whites who fought in this war. Most of the casualties occurred in Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico. The costliest war in terms of casualties was the Snake River War. Nearly 2,000 Indians and whites were killed and wounded in that area of this conflict. After the whites discovered gold and silver in Montana in 1862, a massive white invasion into southwestern Montana commenced, in which as many as 1,000 or more whites were killed within a couple of years. A couple of the battles was fought in western Texas, after a large group of Anishinabe people left Kansas and Oklahoma, to flee to Mexico. And Texas was an area which was part of this conflict, as was Colorado and Kansas. In Nevada and Utah, the whites early on grew to hate the land there. Not much death occurred in that area of the war. The same might be said for Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas but the whites took that area more seriously because of Mexico. White settlers were killed in the 100s, if not in the 1,000s, each in Arizona, Minnesota, and Montana in this war.

The April 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty

In early 1868, the United States and the Anishinabe Nation of the north and west and their allies, met at Fort Laramie, Wyoming to hold peace negotiations. After several long years of fighting, both the Anishinabe Nation of the north and west and their allies, and the United States, obviously wanted a halt to the constant killings. A formal peace agreement was signed and the United States promised the Anishinabe Nation of the north and west and their allies, a huge Reservation which covered all of northern Minnesota, all of the southern California desert; nearly all of North Dakota; around half of South Dakota; all of Arizona; all of Idaho; all of Montana; all of Nevada; all of New Mexico; central and eastern Oregon; all of extreme western Texas; all of Utah; much of Washington; and all of Wyoming. However, Anishinabe ogimak and American leaders, knew that the United States would not allow the Anishinabe Nation and their allies, to keep the Promised Land. The whites did not care for the deserts in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and west Texas. And the whites did not care for the entire Great Basin. However, the whites greatly desired the Anishinabe land in Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. In the south, Anishinabe ogimak continued on with their diasporas, especially to the north of Mexico, but also to the west, into Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. And American soldiers were ordered to continue to attempt to halt the Anishinabe diasporas. Around 8 years after the Promised Land was set aside for the Anishinabe Nation and their allies, as expected, the United States stabbed the Anishinabe people and their allies, in the back. Below is a list of the many battles fought in this long war. It does not include the 1,000s of Anishinabe raids on white settlers.

Indian Island Massacre

Williams Station Massacre

First Battle of Pyramid Lake

Second Battle of Pyramid Lake

Battle of Mimbres River

Bascom Affair

Siege of Tubac

Battle of Cook's Canyon

Cook's Canyon Campaign

Battle of the Florida Mountains

Gallinas Massacre

Battle of Placito

Battle of Pinos Altos

Battle of Dragoon Springs

Battle of Apache Pass

Battle of Redwood Ferry

Battle of Lower Sioux Agency

Battle of New Ulm

Battle of Fort Ridgely

Siege of Fort Abercrombie

Battle of Lake Wood

Bear River Massacre

Battle of Big Mound

Battle of Dead Buffalo Lake

Battle of Stoney Lake

Battle of White Stone Hill

Battle of Mount Gray

Battle of Killdeer Mountain

First Battle of Adobe Walls

Sand Creek Massacre

Battle of Dove Creek

Battle of Fort Buchanan

Battle of the Tongue River

Salina Canyon Fight

The Squaw Massacre

The Manti Massacre

Circleville Massacre

Battle of Gravelly Ford

Battle of Thistle Valley

Battle of Diamond Fork

Fetterman Massacre

Fort Buford Massacre

Haystack Battle

Battle of Fort Kearny

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