The 1863 Little Shell Treaty (Old Crossing Treaty)
After the failed 1862 treaty between Ogima Little Shell, other high ranking Anishinabe leaders, and American representatives, the Anishinabek of northwestern Minnesota, eastern North Dakota, and northeastern South Dakota rose up to defend their land against the invading white Americans. Over 1,000 whites and Anishinabek were killed or wounded in the 1862 Minnesota War. In 1863, after the war was over, Ogima Little Shell and other high ranking Anishinabe ogimak (leaders), met with the victorious Americans and signed the 1863 Old Crossing treaty, which ceded to the United States, the land in central and southern Minnesota, the Anishinabe Nation claimed as theirs by right of conquest. As part of the treaty agreements, the United States set aside all of central and northern Minnesota, to be an Anishinabe Reservation, that includes land in the Red River Valley. After ogima Little Shell signed the 1863 treaty, he told the whites he would never cede anymore Anishinabe land to the whites. He kept his promise.