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Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana Needs Your Help
Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana needs funding to establish offices at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation and at Great Falls, Montana where Hill 57 Reservation is located. Our goal is to gain Tribal Recognition at Blackfeet Reservation, Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, Flathead Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation and Federal Recognition for Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians at Great Falls with Reservation. Your donation will be greatly appreciated. Below is my paypal link where you can donate to this very important cause for survival. If you are interested in becoming a member of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, you can fill out a form here . In comments box, please include your tribal affiliation. In Montana, members of Blackfeet, Crow-Northern Cheyenne, Flathead, Fort Belknap and Rocky Boys Reservation are automatically members of Rocky Boys Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. However, if you are a member from another tribe (Reservation) your application will be approved if you have proof of membership from your tribe (Reservation).
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Blackfeet Reservation (Real Rocky Boy's Reservation)
First Blackfeet Reservation (October 17,1855 Treaty)
On October 17, 1855, Judith River Treaty established a first Blackfeet Reservation including what is now Flathead Reservation. On land cession maps, western boundary of that first Blackfeet Reservation, is Main Divide or Continental Divide of them Rocky Mountains which is Rocky Mountain Trench. Flathead Reservation is really a part of Blackfeet Reservation. What is now Fort Peck Reservation, was not included as being within that first Blackfeet Reservation. On it's east, eastern boundary of that first Blackfeet Reservation, was mouth of Milk River then directly north to Canada's border. That September 1, 1868 Treaty is suspicious for not only being unratified but mistakes made in boundaries for a new Reservation. Two treaties were signed with Montana Ojibway leaders in September 1868 in which Ojibway leaders ratified and were content with their new Reservations. Below is a map of a 3rd Blackfeet Reservation established on April 15, 1874. That Reservation was never established. Why? Too much agriculture land. Both Indian leaders and white leaders knew it was best to find land with little agriculture land to be Indian Reservations. That location of 3rd Blackfeet Reservation on that map below, has Montana's most abundant agriculture land. That location of 3rd Blackfeet Reservation was ceded on September 1, 1868. It halted a war going on at that time. However, in early 1869, Ojibway leaders found out they were lied to and war resumed. Boundaries of 2nd Blackfeet Reservation commenced at 48° north latitude then extends east to source of Teton River. It then followed Teton River to it's junction with Marias River. It then followed Marias River to it's junction with Missouri River. It then followed Missouri River to Milk Rivers mouth. It then extended south to 49th Parallel of north latitude. You noticed south? It extends south to where Musselshell Rivers southern latitude is then extends west to main divide of Rocky Mountains then back to place of beginning. Teton River was a northen boundary. North of Teton River is Montana's most abundant agriculture land.
Second Blackfeet Reservation (July 5, 1873 Treaty)
After Mullan Road War diminished somewhat after 1870, another treaty was negotiated between United States and representatives from Ojibwa Nation who were instructed not to cede their Reservation set aside on September 1, 1868. What followed was illegal. There was no second Blackfeet Reservation set aside in 1873. Ojibway leaders continued to honor that September 1, 1868 Treaty that created their second Blackfeet Reservation. It led to what is well known among Ojibways from Montana. That's an infamous agreement known as 10¢ an Acre Treaty or McCumber Agreement. Later, chief Rocky Boy did agree to accept that infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty.
Third Blackfeet Reservation (April 15, 1874 Treaty)
Fourth Blackfeet Reservation (May 1, 1888 Treaty)
This treaty from May 1, 1888, is that infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty. Ojibway leaders refused to sign treaty. In fact, they continued to honor that September 1, 1868 Treaty which created their second Blackfeet Reservation. Fourth Blackfeet Reservation, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boys Reservation), Fort Belknap Reservation and Fort Peck Reservation were set aside in 1868. They were not set aside in 1888. In May of 1895, United States arrested several Montana Ojibway leaders and Deported them to Turtle Mountain Reservation of North Dakota, then for some, to Canada. Afterwards, many forced Deportations of Montana Ojibway's commenced. Those forced Deportations may have lasted up to 1940s. Chief Rocky Boy probably first rose to power in 1896. He would accept that infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty. That meant he recognized a fourth Blackfeet Reservation, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boys Reservation), Fort Belknap Reservation and Fort Peck Reservation.
In 1895, an agreement was reached between Blackfeet leaders including chief Little Dog, and United States, in which much of 4th Blackfeet Reservation was leased (opened to white settlement according to newspaper reports) to United States for 99 years. That agreement was ratified on June 10, 1896. That lease ended in 1995. Mineral land was supposedly ceded. United States claims that far western part of Blackfeet Reservation was sold for $1.5 million. However, chief Little Dog claimed it was Blackfeet Reservations eastern portion that was leased or sold as he supposedly told white negotiators. In an August 7, 1896 Great Falls Tribune article, it was reported that 500 whites were waiting to invade ceded portion of Blackfeet Reservation. Those 500 people were Ojibway's who were forced to relocate to Blackfeet Reservation during their forced Deportations in June and July of 1896. Below is that article:
FIVE HUNDRED WAITING
To Enter When the Ceded Portion of the
Blackfeet Reservation Is Opened.
A gentleman who has recently returned from a visit to the Blackfeet Indian reservation states that fully 500 persons are encamped on the borders of the reservation, awaiting patiently the time when the ceded portion of the reservation shall be opened, by proclamation of the president, to settlement. It is expected that this proclamation will name about September 12 as the date for the opening.
Among those encamped are men, women and children. They have come from all parts of the United States. There is a large colony from each Minnesota and North Dakota; some have come from Michigan, some have come overland from Utah, these principally being Mormons; many are disappointed and poverty stricken families who went a few years ago from Nebraska to the vicinity of Edmonton, N. W. T., where they found greater desolation than in the land which they had left; there are also many old prospectors from various portions of Montana.
The mineral wealth of the reservation is said to be something wonderful. Prospectors claim that the copper prosepects are as fine as any ever discovered in the state and two large copper companies, it is known, have made investigations and are favorably impressed with the mineral outlook.
The agricultural lands will not be opened immediately, but they are reported to be unusually fertile and productive and able to sustain a mining city of large population.
This section will be tributary almost entirely to Great Falls. The new telephone company, organized by Messrs, Lane, Stephenson and Gibbes of Great Falls, will extend its lines to the reservation as soon as the population there justifies the extension and this will result in close commercial relations, which will be made closer by the extension of a spur to the reservation by each the Great Northern railway and the Great Falls & Canada railway, which will certainly reach out for the business of the developing reservation.
The reservation now presents a lively appearance. Cowboys are arriving with cattle for the Indians, contracted for by the government. W. D. Deaton of Lewistown has just delivered 3,000 2-year-old heifers, of the "horseshoe-bar" brand, and others will be delivered immediately. The Indians are busy with their crops, which will give a good yield, and all are contented with the management of Maj. George Steell, the agent.
After ogima Rocky Boy sent a letter, which was written for him by Anaconda attorney J.W. James, to President Roosevelt requesting for a Reservation, it was reported in Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper on May 14, 1902, that his request was refused by Department of Indian Affairs which is a lie. When that petition was brought to commissioner, he instructed an Indian Agent at Flathead Reservation to visit Anaconda to determine if Chippewa's were American born. Another white excuse. American leaders were very interested in ogima Rocky Boy. They knew chief Rocky Boy was very willing to negotiate land deals and McCumber Agreement would be voted on shortly. They also knew Land Acts would happen within a few years. They knew they needed chief Rocky Boy's support. Below is an excerpt from that June 4, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain aricle:
READY TO LEAVE
HAVE BUCKS OUT LOOKING FOR
LAND WHERE THEY WILL
MAKE THEIR HOMES.
ST. MARY'S RIVER IS
When Squads Return From Idaho and
Northwestern Montana and Report
Indians Will Pull Down Their Houses
and Hit the Trail for New Homes
Far From the Slaughterhouse.
(SPECIAL TO INTERMOUNTAIN)
Anaconda. June 5. Since receiving word
from Washington that each of their num-
ber are entitled to 160 acres of land some-
where in this vast country, the band of
nomad Chippewas encamped near the city
of Anaconda have assumed an air of ac-
tivity to which they have been strangers
many long months.
The question which is now agitating
the members of the band is where they
shall settle down and till the soil, take up
the white man's burden and lose trace of
the noble aborigine.
The entire band is thoroughly imbued
with a desire to get away from their pres-
ent quarters and already Chief Rocky Boy
has dispatched runners to look over vari-
ous sections where they are to be allowed
No Suke, a half breed Chippewa, com-
monly known as "Jim" and who is a power
in the band is strongly in favor of the
band taking land in the vicinity of To-
bacco plains, or along St. Mary's river
in northwestern Montana.
The Best Place.
This Indian is familiar with the greater
portion of Idaho and Montana and of all
the country open for them to settle in he
considers that the most favorable.
However, there is some land in Idaho
that some favor and Indians are now ab-
sent looking over both strips. When they
return and report on the lands they have
seen the Chippewas will decide where
they want to go and will lose no time in-
striking their tepees and hitting the trail.
This will be good news to the residents
of Anaconda and vicinity and especially
to the ranchers living below in the Deer
To these ranchers the Indians have
proved a continual source of annoyance
because of their polluting the waters of
the creek with camp offal and the con-
sequent danger of disease.
What transpired back then or in May and June of 1902, led to many Chippewa's living in southwest Montana, relocating to Blackfeet Reservation, Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho and possibly Flathead Reservation. In another aticle from a Friday August 1, 1902 Kalispell Bee issue, they reported about chief Rocky Boy being in Helena trying to find American leaders to negotiate with. He had several letters of recommendations to show them which proved he was on a trek to settle on a new Reservation or Reservations. This happened nearly two months after those Chippewa scouts were out searching for new Reservations. Below is an excerpt from that August 1, 1902 article:
OF A HOME
Wandering Chippewa Indians Who
Are Looking for a Grub Stake.
ASK FOR “ MR . WASHINGTON ”
Who Helps the Red Men — Chief
Stony Boy Once Killed the Buffalo.
He Now Wants to Farm for Him
self and P e o p le.
Stony Boy, chief of the Chippewas,
an old Indian with a bronzed and
weather beaten face that showed the
marks of hardships and privations
without number, arrived in Helena
today in search of “Mr. Washington,”
who was in the habit, he had heard,
of assisting destitute red men, says
Stony Boy, accompanied by an in-
terpreter, Henry Peppo, called on
United States District Attorney Carl
Rasch today and explained his mission.
He said he and his people, as appeared
from various documents he
produced, were in search of farms,
and that they desired to secure grub
on which to make the march to the
“Mr. Washington,” said Chief Stony
Boy, “he makes the laws and he helps
the Indians, and we want him to give
us grub until we find our land.”
With that speech, given with some
difficulty through the interpreter, a
quarter breed Indian and French
Canadian, who himself spoke English
with some difficulty, Chief Stony Boy
produced a number of papers which
he exhibited to the district attorney.
One was a letter signed by John W.
James, an Anaconda lawyer, who
“The bearer is a homeless, honest
Chippewa Indian by the name, of
Stony Boy, who is looking for a piece
of land on which to locate and take
up under the laws in relation to Indian
homesteads. He will not harm
anyone nor anyone’s property. His
only desire is to be unmolested.”
Henry, the interpreter stated that
Chief Stony Boy and his people, consisting
of 12 lodges, had passed the
winter and spring in the neighborhood
of Butte and Anaconda, and
that they were now on their way to
Northern Montana, where they hoped
to take up lands and find homes for
themselves. They had not selected
any lands, but hoped to find a home
in the St. Mary’s lake country, to
which place they were now bound.
He said that they could not proceed
without grub, and that they had come
to Helena thinking that the government
would furnish them enough to
take them to their destination and
supply them until they could get their
farms established. The Indians, with
whom he lived, were camped seven
or eight miles west of Helena.
Among Chief Stony Boy’s letters
was one from the acting commissioner
of the general land office, explaining
the status of Indians not connected
with tribes, in relation to taking
up lands. The acting commissioner
stated that such Indians could
either take up lands under the homestead
law as ordinary citizens, or
might be allotted lands as Indians.
Referring to the allotment of lands,
the acting commissioner wrote:
“Indians applying for allotments
could be allowed to enter unsurveyed
lands of the United States—the lands
so entered to be subject to adjustment
of the public survey when extended
over them. Further, under
this section they would be entitled to
180 acres of agricultural land, or
double this if the lands are available
only for grazing purposes, while under
the homestead law, white and Indian
citizens are entitled to but a
quarter section of land.”
It was some time before District
Attorney Rasch could explain to
Chief Stony Boy and his companion
that “Mr. Washington” did not grub-
stake his Indians. The district attorney
told them that they would be
compelled to depend upon some other
source for their supplies. The old
chief was keenly disappointed, but he
did not express his views before the
district attorney. After he had left
Mr. Rasch's office, Stony Boy had a
word to say.
“Mr. Washington,” he said to his
interpreter, “don’t care for Indian.
Let the Indian starve; kill off the
buffalo, and then give him nothing
but land. We had all the land once.”
"This Indian was a big chief once,”
said Henry, speaking of Stony Boy.
His father was born in Minnesota
and was a chief there, but he was
born in this state, up north, where he
has lived for more than thirty years.
He used to kill many buffalo. In
those days the Indians had plenty to
eat and were happy. Now they don't
have anything and some of the children
have never seen a buffalo.”
“And what did you used to do?”
Henry was asked.
“I have lived always with the Indians—
I am an Indian,” he replied.
“I killed plenty of buffalo many years
With Chief Stony Boy in Helena,
was his son, Posse-e-teo, and a Cree
Indian called Ok-sin.
Henry said today that Chief Stony
Boy and his people would move on
up north without provisions, living
as best they could.
So we know when chief Rocky Boy settled on Blackfeet Reservation and Coeur d'Alene Reservation. In late summer of 1902. Rocky Boys Reservation (Blackfeet Reservation) was actually created in 1902 or two years before that infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty or McCumber Agreement was ratified in 1904. Other relocations happened later as a result of American leaders not keeping promises. Chief Rocky Boy was set aside a Reservation at Flathead Reservation in 1904. All dealt with that infamous 10¢ an Acre Treaty.
Chief Rocky Boy knew early in 1908 that American leaders were going to use force to relocate Ojibway's from Flathead Reservation (Swan Valley) if they didn't leave on their own. And ogima Rocky Boy did negotiate with Senator Dixon but Dixon already knew of United States plans of not honoring treaty. Dixon created a bill to raise money up for Deportations of 1909. And those 1909 Ojibway Deportations were major. Many were allotted land in Mission Valley but many were also relocated to Blackfeet Reservation, Cheyenne River Reservation, Standing Rock Reservation, and Reservations in Washington, and to Reserves in Canada, and to south Florida, and to Arizona and California.
Fifth Blackfeet Reservation or Rocky Boys Reservation
In 1908, unrest among Ojibway's was happening at Flathead Reservation and elsewhere in Montana. In response, United States sent Frank Churchill to Montana to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy. Churchill found ogima Rocky Boy at a small Chippewa village near Garrison, Montana. Either a Garrison, Montana located north of Deer Lodge or that historical Garrison, Montana 4 miles southwest of Ulm, Montana which is 8 miles from Great Falls.
Agreements were made in which Ojibway's were forced to gather near Helena. In 1910, they closed Fort Shaw Industrial Indian School Reservation which had an enrollment of near 400. That does not include Ojibway parents who lived nearby. By November 1909 (a year after Swan Valley Massacre) several hundred Ojibway's were camped near Helena waiting to be transported by train to Blackfeet Reservation. On November 13, 1909 they boarded train cars and reached Browning on November 14, 1909. Supposedly they were set aside an 11,500 acre Reservation between St. Mary and Babb. However, their Reservation (many newspaper articles wrote that chief Rocky Boy was granted a new Reservation within Blackfeet Reservation) is either between Milk Rivers forks and St. Mary Rivers forks, or it is all of Blackfeet Reservations western portion or a new Blackfeet Reservation or Fifth Blackfeet Reservation was created for chief Rocky Boy. Newspaper articles reported that Ojibway's led by ogima Rocky Boy including those from ogima Little Bear (Ma-koonse or Makoos), were granted land 20 miles from Browning, along base or edge of mountains. Browning is about a mile north of a base or edge of mountains. Forks of Milk River is 20 miles north of Browning.
Chief Pennato and that 1910-1912 Exodus
In December of 1910 or shortly after 100s (obviously many more) of Chippewa's settled at Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy's brother became agitated about actions of American leaders. At issue was Chippewa children attending white boarding schools. Chippewa parents knew that whites were brainwashing their children. They complained to their leaders and surprisingly ogima Pennato (Rocky Boy's brother) rose to occasion. He was determined to preserve Ojibway Nationality. So determined he ordered an exodus off Blackfeet Reservation. It went on for some time before it was halted. Ogima Pennato was arrested and confined to near Fort Harrison. He, nor anyone else, could stop whites from brainwashing Ojibway children. Ogima Pennato knew he was going to die according to a companion. On a trip to Blackfeet Reservation, he passed away mysteriously on May 15, 1912. His brother, ogima Rocky Boy, remained at Blackfeet Reservation until 1913. Though Ojibway children were a major issue, theft of much of their Reservation (Glacier National Park and Blackfeet Reservations eastern portion) is what caused that exodus. They were lied to. And chief Pennato obviously adhered to an Ojibway Reservation located adjacent to Great Falls.
In November of 1909, ogima Pennato refused to relocate to Blackfeet Reservation with his brother. He was one of 15 to 20 Ojibway's who were defiant and did not accept ogima Rocky Boy as their leader. However, both ogima Pennato and ogima Rocky Boy were brothers. Before chief Pennato died on May 15, 1912, he told his brother Rocky Boy, to negotiate for an Ojibway Reservation near Bear Paws Mountains (remember Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation already existed there in those times) which is really located adjacent to Great Falls or is really Hill 57. He left Blackfeet Reservation in August 1913 with 37 other Ojibway's. They settled at Hill 57. Within a year, an Ojibway Population at Pennato Reservation adjacent to Great Flls, was 700. That's according to a July 1914 news article. Chief Rocky Boy told reporters he was now headquarted at Great Falls and population of Pennato Reservation was 700.
Demographics of Blackfeet Reservation
I used zip code areas of Babb, Browning, East Glacier Park Village and Heart Butte to determine size and population of Blackfeet Reservation. I excluded Blackfeet Reservations eastern portion because it's predominantly white. Nearly all Indians who live in Cut Banks zip code area, live at Cut Bank and Little Browning or Seville. Their population is 1,061 out of a total population of 4,757. Whites make up 3,446 of it's population of 4,757. Cut Bank had a population of 2,869 in 2010. Indians made up around 560 of Cut Banks population. Indians made up around 200 of Little Brownings or Sevilles population of 206 in 2010. As you can tell, there are nearly three times as many whites living in Cut Banks zip code area (not including Cut Bank and cdp of Little Browning or Seville) than Indians. Nearly all of Cut Banks zip code area is located within Blackfeet Reservation. Determining Blackfeet Reservations or Rocky Boys Reservations size was easy. Though they won't accept an estimated 2,080 sq. mi. it covers, it's probably correct. Peigan or Blood Reserve in Alberta, is located adjacent to Blackfeet Reservation. We know from Peigan historians that their correct boundaries are Waterton River and St. Mary's River. Including that area covered by Blood Reserve, total area of both is over 3,000 sq. mi. Including 2011 population of Blood Reserve (not including non Indians), their total population is 14,064.
Covers 2,080 sq. mi. (over 3,000 sq. mi. including Blood Reserve)
Population is 9,385 (14,064 including Blood Reserve)
Indian 8,434 when including mixed bloods 8,612 (92%)
white 748 (8%)
mixed 178 (2%)
other 11 (0.1%)
black 9 (0.1%)
Asian 5 (0.0%)
Blackfeet Reservation Communities - 2010 population is 9,152 - does not include non Indians.
East Glacier Park Village
Hill 57 (it's located adjacent to Great Falls, Montana)
Little Browning (aka Seville)
Old Agency (Blood Reserve)
Omaktai (Blood Reserve)
South Stand Off (Blood Reserve)
Two Medicine Lake
The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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