Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Colville Indian Reservation
Located in northern Washington State, the Colville Reservation has a bitter past and, probably a corrupted history written for them by the whites. Why? The obvious Chippewa presence in that region of North America! In the mid 19th century, the whites initiated an invasion into the California, Oregon, and Washington region. Most of the Indians at the time of that invasion, were subjugated by the military and police totem (the Chippewa's) of the Algonquin Tribe. Starting in the late 1840s, Algonquin soldiers commenced to fight the invading whites who were using Plague Warfare against them, as a means to decimate Indian populations. At the time, the whites had superior weapons (the revolver) and easily dominated the brave soldiers of the Algonquin's. More wars erupted in the 1850s which led Anishinabe ogimak (leaders) to reach an agreement with the whites which ended the fighting by 1859. Part of the agreements obviously included setting aside large areas of land in Oregon and Washington, to be a Reservation for the Chippewa's and the Indian Tribes they subjugated. Colville-Spokane Reservation is a part of the Little Shell Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation.
A few years after the peace treaty was reached, the corrupted whites once again initiated trouble with the Chippewa controlled land they promised them. In either 1874 or 1876, the Americans illicitly broke treaty promises and commenced to war upon the Chippewa's of Montana who had yet to be defeated. After defeating the Chippewa's of Montana, Chippewa ogimak ordered their soldiers to commence an exodus to the west as told to do in the Seven Fires Prophecy. It was not the Nez Perce who fled east, it was the Chippewa's from Montana who fled to the west, using the Mullan Road. After the United States learned about the exodus they commenced to send soldiers into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington to stop the exodus. They then sent more soldiers to Montana to halt the exodus but Chippewa soldiers commenced another exodus up to Canada. In all, 10,000s of Chippewa's fled into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington which led to the problems in the late 1870s, between ogima Moses and the Chippewa's under his leadership, and the white settlers. In Canada, 10,000s of Chippewa's were led there by ogimak Big Bear and Sitting Bull.
After the 10,000s of Chippewa's invaded the Idaho, Oregon, and Washington region, in the 1876-1877 time period, trouble arose between them and the white settlers in Washington, as well as Idaho and Oregon. In response to the unrest, the United States met with ogima Moses who was probably the Chippewa leader who led the 10,000s of Chippewa's into the Idaho, Oregon, and Washington region, from Montana. To calm the terrified Chippewa's, the United States agreed to set aside a new Reservation for them which bordered both the Colville and Yakima Reservations. You'll learn the Columbia Reservation was much smaller but white historians are not being honest about this ancient historical event. The new Reservation was established on April 18, 1879. The Reservation included the scablands of Washington. It did not last long because the whites could not conduct themselves in a brave, honorable, and lawful manner.
Early in 1882, a war nearly erupted in Washington. A war nearly occurred because the Chippewa's of the Columbia Reservation knew the United States was going to illegally eradicate their Reservation. White settlers began attacking Chippewa property and the Chippewa's did retaliate. On July 7, 1883 an illegal agreement was reached which eradicated the Columbia Reservation. The Chippewa's of Washington were offered two choices. They could accept land allotments or they could relocate to the Colville Reservation. Most chose to accept land allotments. Many more relocated to the Colville Reservation.
The Colville Reservation
Originally, the Colville Reservation set aside for the Chippewa's and their Salishan allies, covered millions of acres. By millions, i mean 10,000,000s of acres. Colville Reservation and possibly the Columbia Reservation, were set aside on July 16, 1855, when Chippewa leaders met Isaac Stevens near Missoula, Montana and signed the Hell Gate Treaty. It would get the worse of the whites and lead them to create the filthy 1887 Dawes Act. The 1871 Memorandum Treaty is fraudulent! The supposed original Colville Reservation established on April 9, 1872, covered 2,825,000 acres. In 1892, the northern half of the Reservation (1.5 million acres) was stolen by the whites. The Colville Reservation was left with 1,354,880 acres. Then on October 10, 1900, the southern half of the Colville Reservation was opened to white settlement. By 1914, Indians were allotted 333,275 acres of land on the southern Colville Reservation. Many, if not most, of the Indians sold their land to non Indians. It is difficult to correctly ascertain exactly how much of the Colville Reservation is owned by the Colville Tribes. I do know that in 1956 around 800,000 acres was returned to the Colville Reservation and the Reservations leaders are still claiming over 200,000 acres are alienated, which means of the 1,354,880 acres the Colville Reservation was left with after the 1892 land theft or the 10 cent an acre Treaty occurred and the subsequent land theft in 1900, the Reservation covered less than 300,000 acres. It is very confusing to read about this Reservations past. Today, the Colville Reservation supposedly covers 2,117 sq. mi. or 1,354,880 acres but some of that land is owned by non Indians. This Reservation has corruption emanating from it. It will be a good idea to ignore what has been written about the size of the current Colville Reservation. Too much confusing surrounds it.
The Bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Rocky Mountain Trench
In the 19th century, the United States made a blunder by placing the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains in the wrong place on maps. It continues to this day. It is the Rocky Mountain Trench which is the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountain Trench extends south from near the Yukon border to Montana then into the Flathead Valley where Flathead Lake is and south into the southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley) which is within the boundaries of the bogus Flathead Reservation. Why is the Flathead Reservation bogus? Because of the Rocky Mountain Trench! As mentioned, the United States made a blunder by placing the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains in the wrong place on maps. It is not 20 to 30 miles east of the bogus Flathead Reaervation. It is in the middle of the bogus Flathead Reservation. It means the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty never happened and the Flathead Reservation is really a part of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation.
In fact, the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation follows the Rocky Mountain Trench to the Saulteau Chippewa Treaty 8 Reservation in British Columbia, which follows the Yukon River into Yukon then into Alaska. It extends west to the Pipeline highway then turns north and extends up to the Arctic Ocean. It inludes much of the southern part of the western part of Alberta. It also includes all of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, all of northern Saskatchewan, most of Manitoba, and most of northern Ontario, and much of Quebec.
Chief Rocky Boy became the principle Chippewa leader of Montana and the rest of the Pacific Northwest, by 1902. The death of ogima Little Shell III, led to ogima Rocky Boy becoming the leader of the Chippewa's of the Pacific Northwest. Chief Little Bear reluctantly began to follow ogima Rocky Boy. He had no choice. The whites commenced to negotiating with ogima Rocky Boy in 1902 about the knife in the back. Chief Rocky Boy possibly played a major role in the rip off year of 1904 (the year the 10 cent an acre Treaty was ratified), by agreeing to sign away that dear to the Chippewa people and accepting the knife in the back. Or he refused to sign the treaty. There is evidence he refused to cooperate. In early 1902, ogima Rocky Boy commenced negotiations with white leaders who eventually included Montana Congressman Joseph Dixon. Dixon, Montana (it is located on the bogus Flathead Reservation) is named for Congressman Dixon. It was through Dixon, that the United States delivered the knife in the back. Dixon may have tried to help the Chippewa's but the government of the United States became deaf. Ogima Little Bear became so upset about the knife in the back in 1904, he contacted Canadian leaders to request to have the Chippewa's in Montana directly under his leadership, the opportunity to relocate to Canada. Canadian leaders agreed to help.
Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
That knife in the back was really delivered by the Newlands Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902. They may claim the issue was about irrigation projects and other subjects but the goal of the United States was to Steal More Indian Land. Ogima Rocky Boy and other Chippewa leaders, quickly learned about the intentions of the United States. They were defenceless and the United States took every advantage of it. Ogima Rocky Boy contacted a lawyer in 1902 and sought help from affluent whites to attempt to save the huge Chippewa Reservation in the Pacific Northwest. They tried to have a bill passed in congress to save the Reservation (white historians claim it was about land allotments) but the United States supposedly rejected it. It would take a few years before the illegal land acts commenced. To learn that the Coeur d'Alene, Flathead, Kalispell, Kootenai, Pend O'reilles, Okanagan including the Chelan, Columbia or Sinkiuse, Entiat, Lake, Methow, Nespelem, San Poil, Spokan, Wenatchee, Wiyot, Yurok, and the Yuki including the Wappo, are Algonquin Chippewa click here. Ukiah, California is named after the Yuki. And Nacomis Rancheria is named after Nokomis which is the Chippewa word for Grandmother. To learn that the Athabascan's or Dene people including the Apache, Navajo, and Chipewyan are Algonquin Chippewa click here. The Edinburgh Encyclopedia is from 1832 and far more reliable than later books about Indian languages.
The Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
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The Creation of the Chippewa Flathead Reservation
In early 1902, chief Rocky Boy commenced negotiations about the eventual land acts which would eventually open up surplus land throughout the vast Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. White leaders were attracted to the available farm land between Polson and the region south of St. Ignatius where the Mission Mountains extend west to Ravalli. It extends nearly 30 miles from north to east, and about 13 miles from west to east. It covers around 300 or more sq. mi. or nearly 200,000 acres. That region eventually became some of the surplus land the whites would force the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation to cede. However, not all land in the southern Flathead Valley or Mission Valley, was ceded. Some was left to the Reservation, especially along the eastern slopes of the Mission Mountains. Land north of Mission Creek to the slopes of the Mission Mountains, between Flathead River, from Flathead Lake to Jocko River, was the ceded land, or the land of the bogus Flathead Reservation Land Act which is directly related to President Taft's May 22, 1909 Proclamation, or the refusal of the United States to honor treaty agreements, which is related to the April 23, 1904 Act of Congress, which is obviously related to the ratification of the 10 cent an acre Treaty in 1904.
On May 14, 1902, chief Rocky Boy reached an agreement with United States representatives about the new Chippewa Reservation within the bogus Flathead Reservation. It includes all land west and north of the Flathead River, from Flathead Lake to where the mouth of the Jocko River is. It includes all land south of Mission Creek which commences in the Mission Mountains then flows west to the area where it merges with Post Creek then flows to the Flathead River, and land between Jocko River, to the eastern and southern part of the bogus Flathead Reservation. It also includes all land south of the Flathead River, from where the mouth of the Jocko River is, west to the western border of the bogus Flathead Reservation. The entire area is nearly all mountainous. Though the press reported that the United States did not agree to set aside the Reservation chief Rocky Boy requested for early in 1902, it was a misprint.
Senator Dixon's Amendment
In 1908, Senator Dixon won an amendment to an Indian Department appropriations bill for $30,000 to find a home for the Chippewa's on the bogus Flathead Reservation. They claim on an existing Reservation but we know it's the bogus Flathead Reservation. The land act took effect at the bogus Flathead Reservation in that same year (1908). The new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation was nearly all mountainous. Ogima Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation's minerals and timber, as well as to allow for individual land allotments but not to have any area of the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation opened to white settlement. The $30,000 was to help those Chippewa's with necessary supplies. Most of their land allotments were eventually sold to non Indians because the Chippewa's faced discrimation and really didn't have enough money to become successful farmers.
The Mission Mountains on the east of the Flathead Reservation is left to the bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation. Land allotments also followed. In fact, the land allotments may have played an even more crucial role in the events of 1908-1909, or after the May 22, 1909 Proclamation. However, land allotted away from the surplus land remains bogus Flathead Reservation land. The United States illegally allowed Indian citizens of the bogus Flathead Reservation the right to sell their land allotments. That really agitated Reservation leaders. Although the land within the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation has much farm land, it is nowhere as abundant as the land within the surplus land or ceded land area. Most is located around the Arlee region and the region between Hot Springs and Lonepine. It is very important for Reservation leaders to purchase more land between Pablo and the Mission Mountains. As mentioned, the Mission Mountains remain a part of the bogus Flathead Reservation.
The Creation of the Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation
Chief Rocky Boy could not save the entire bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation. However, that does not mean the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation is lost. The June 21, 1906 Act of Congress singled out the nonmineral and unreserved agriculture land within the boundaries of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation but not the mountainous areas of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Chief Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservations minerals and timber and to allow individual land allotments which could be sold. The area of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation which had an extensive area of farm land, was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The western half of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The eastern half from the southern border east of Highway 95, northeast to Saint Maries, Idaho and further northeast to the northeastern point of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation, west to the southern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, following the same lake south to just north of the Benewah County border, then southwest to Plummer, then follows the mountains south back to the southern border east of Highway 95, is the bogus Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation. It includes the area where De Smet and Tensed are located.
The Creation of the Chippewa Colville-Spokane Reservation
The bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation proved to be an extremely volatile location in 1902. The United States was already trying to forcefully take land from the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation in 1902 but the Chippeway's responded by raising soldiers to prevent the illegal actions of the United States. Ogima Rocky Boy was obviously involved in the negotiations at the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation. The bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation are the same Reservation. However, the United States went after the minerals and timber and yet Chippeway soldiers protested. Very little of the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation is farm land. It is a land which is rugged and mountainous. If the region had an abundance of farm land it would have been different.
Proclamation of May 22, 1909 (The Reservation is Illegally Eradicated)
On May 22, 1909, President Taft took full advantage of a defenceless people and illegally eradicated the huge Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation the United States promised the Chippewa's by signing the 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. President Taft's actions singled out the Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, and Flathead areas first, or the northwestern part of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy and the other Chippewa leaders, were exasperated about the actions of the whites and completely dejected. They were defenceless. They were living throughout the entire land area of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation in 1909. They were not landless as white historians lie to you about. The bogus Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, Kalispel, Kootenai, and Flathead Reservations are what remains of the northwestern part of original Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation.
In 1908, ogima Rocky Boy and Dixon increased their contacts for they knew the Land Acts were about to take hold. They knew the United States was going to steal much of the the Reservation and allot land to individual Indians and soon. They feared Chippewa repraisals! It was probably in early 1908, when an agency farmer on the bogus Flathead Reservation made contact with Senator Dixon (by 1908 Dixon had been voted in to be a Senator of Montana) about the Chippewa's. Both Rocky Boy and Dixon knew something had to be done to stop the terrified Chippewa's from releasing their great rage. In 1908, Senator Dixon made an effort to stop what everyone knew would occur but he was ignored. They began to prepare for an exodus! Indian Inspector Franch C. Churchill arrived in September of 1908. Serious problems were already occurring in the Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming region. In 1906, the Ute Exodus had occurred. It was really a large number of Chippewa's who most likely fled from land east of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation. They were caught in southeastern Montana, a few miles southeast of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, in October of 1906, and relocated to the Cheyenne Agency Reservation of South Dakota.
The Creation of the Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation
As mentioned, on May 22, 1909, President Taft illegally eradicated the huge Chippewa Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy carried on negotiations with Senator Dixon and Frank Churhill and affluent whites, before President Taft illegally eradicated the vast Reservation. Churhill helped to have a 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in Valley County, Montana. Then in response to the available farm land located in the east side of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, the United States negotiated with ogima Rocky Boy about setting aside a new Chippewa Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. The citizens of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation were allotted land and much of that land was sold to whites. The land allotments were obviously a factor in the 1910-1911 Chippewa Exodus off the 4th Blackfeet Reservation.
With the arrangements in place at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy knew early in 1909 that a new Chippewa Reservation was set aside within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. It is located between the forks of the St. Mary River and the forks of the Milk River. It extends up to the Canada border and to the southern border of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Land east of the boundary has many a farm. Most may be owned by non Indians, or individual Blackfeet citizens lease the land to non Indians to earn an income. Land to the west has few farms and is rugged terrain. From the forks of the Milk River, the land extends to 5 miles north of Browning and includes the land between the river north of Browning and the river south of Browning, and land east of Browning, to Kipp Lake. It includes land southeast of Kipp Lake to Mission Lake. It also includes land southeast of Mission Lake to Alkali Lake. From Alkali Lake, it includes land all the way to Swift Reservoir. All land north and west, is the Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909.
After the 1908 Swan Valley Massacre, ogima Rocky Boy negotiated with American leaders about having those Chippewa's living on the bogus Flathead Reservation who considered him their leader, and in southwestern Montana, to be relocated to their new Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. The Chippewa's of southwestern Montana where ogima Rocky Boy was born, are the Piegan Blackfoot who are also known as I-nuk'sik. The hostile Chippewa's from the bogus Flathead Reservation, were early on transported to near Fort Harrison, Montana which is very near Helena. In November 1909, many Chippewa's from southwestern Montana, the bogus Flathead Reservation, and northern Idaho (the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation) had congregated in Helena to be transported to their new Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Many obviously moved up to the Blood and Piegan Reserve which is connected to the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. Their goal was to preserve their Nationality.
Chief Pennato and the 1910-1911 Exodus
In 1910-1912, or shortly after the 100s (it may have been more) of Chippewa's settled the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy's brother became agitated about the actions of the United States. At issue was Chippewa children attending white boarding schools. Chippewa parents knew that the whites were brainwashing their children. They complained to their leaders and surprisingly ogima Pennato (Rocky Boy's brother) rose to the occasion. He was determined to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. So determined he ordered the commencement of an exodus off the Reservation. It went for some time before it was halted. Ogima Pennato was arrested and confined to near Fort Harrison. He, nor anyone else, could stop the United States from brainwashing Chippewa children. Ogima Pennato knew he was going to die according to a companion. On a trip to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, he passed away mysteriously. His brother, ogima Rocky Boy, remained at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation.
Ogima Little Shell III Honored Treaty Agreements
In 1895, ogima Red Thunder and many other Chippewa leaders, took refuge in a fort and demanded that they wanted to hear from Washington D.C. They had obviously sent a message to the government of the United States about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation which the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation is a part of. In early May of 1895, ogima Little Shell III made his last attempt to persuade the government of the United States to honor treaty agreements. A Chippewa leader named Laspelle Langan had been arrested and that bothered the other Chippewa leaders. White newspapers circulated the event as the Turtle Mountain Indian War but it was not a war. As mentioned, the Chippewa's took refuge in a fort to wait for news from Washington D.C. about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. When they realized a number of white police officers had surrounded their fort, they knew the government of the United States would not honor treaty agreements. After the leader of the white police officers warned the Chippewa's in the fort that they would attack if they refused to surrender, they quickly decided to surrender.
Once they noticed the white police officers preparing shallow rifle pits, it was undeniable proof that it was news from Washington D.C. Among those who were arrested was ogima Red Thunder. He attacked a white police officer with his knife. He was 87 years old at the time. Those Chippewa leaders who were arrested numbered 7. They were transported to Rolla, North Dakota. Ogima Little Shell III, led around 150 Chippewa's to the fort to attempt to reinforce the fort. They arrived too late and ogima Little Shell III was arrested. He was also transported to Rolla, North Dakota. The 150 Chippewa's who were with ogima Little Shell III, were allowed to go back to their homes. This event happened in northeastern Montana. White historians will tell you it happened in Rolette County, North Dakota.
With the real leaders of the Anishinabe Nation in jail, the United States commenced to eradicate the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. As with ogima Joseph (chief Joseph), and ogima Sitting Bull, the United States forced ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and the other Anishinabe leaders, to live in Rolette County, North Dakota. They did not want them in Montana which still had a very large Chippewa population. Ogima Joseph was first sent to Oklahoma with many Chippewa's. In the mid 1880s, they were sent to the bogus Colville Reservation in Washington State. Ogima Sitting Bull was sent to the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation of South Dakota. In 1895, there was still 10,000s of Chippewa's living in Montana. The United States did not want a large Chippewa population living in Montana. It was probably around this time the United States commenced to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, or Rocky Boy became the principle Chippewa leader of the west.
And the eradication of the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation was not a peaceful one. The United States was caught off guard in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Up to 20,000 or more Chippewa's had fled to Isle Royale in Lake Superior. The 1889 Nelson Act provoked many to flee. Then the Curtis and Nelson Acts of 1898 was the ignition that led to the 1898 War. It was a short brutal war with 10,000s of casualties. It also led to the United States returning land to the Chippewa's of those locations.
First of the Deportations (forced relocations)
In 1896, the United States refused to conduct themselves in a honorable manner. Most of the Little Shell Chippewa's who were forced to relocate, lived in the Great Falls, Montana region. However, many fled into what is now the Bob Marshall Wilderness region and the adjoing Swan Valley. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was an issue white settlers refused to ignore. A map of the Fort Assinibone Indian Reservation is below. Havre, Montana was located within the boundaries of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation which is also known as the Fort Assiniboine Military Reservation. Today, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is known as Rocky Boy Reservation. However, in 1896 it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. White settlers would not tolerate the Chippewa's living so close to Havre and they complained constantly. By 1896, the United States reached an agreement with Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation. They accepted new land in the western part of the Southern Ute Reservation of southwestern Colorado and in Alberta. Those who moved to Alberta settled primarily at the Montana Reserve which is just south of Edmonton. Those who moved to Colorado, settled at what is now the Ute Mountain Reservation in 1897 and at the Chemehuevi Reservation located around what is now Joshua Tree National Park in southern California. Ute Mountain Reservation was created in 1897. And it was not a peaceful one. Many Chippewa's strongly protested. That's why most of the Chippewa's who were relocated, lived around Great Falls.
Trains brought the Chippewa's who probably numbered at least a couple of hundred to over a 1,000, to the Ute Mountain Reservation and Chemehuevi Reservation. In 1918, the Southern Ute Reservation and Ute Mountain Reservation, consolidated. In 1916, Rocky Boy Reservation was dramatically reduced in size. It was not created in 1916. We know from late 19th century maps, that the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was located where Rocky Boy Reservation is now and it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. From over 1,000 sq. mi. it was reduced to a little under 100 sq. mi. Many of the Chippewa's who lived at the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation were relocated to the Papago Indian Reservation of Arizona in 1916 and the Navajo Indian Reservation around the same time. On the Navajo land additions map, look for the year number 1918. Early on, ogima Rocky Boy played a very important role in having the new Reservations set aside with the help of affluent whites. Joseph Dussome and other Chippewa leaders, also played important roles in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, in having new Chippewa Reservations set aside.
Other historical events which have links to Montana, are the Ute Exodus of 1906 to the Pine Ridge Reservation and the 1907 Lemhi forced relocation to the Fort Hall Reservation of southeastern Idaho. In 1906, the Ute supposedly fled their Utah Reservation for the Pine Ridge Reservation. We know Montana is involved because the Ute's were halted in southeastern Montana. They were being forced to leave their Montana lands for land allotments in South Dakota. Historians claim the Lemhi Shoshone were forced to leave their Reservation near Salmon, Idaho, for new land at the Fort Hall Reservation. The Lemhi Reservation was eradicated in 1889. It was over 500 Chippewa's who were forced to leave their homes in southwestern Montana, for new land at Fort Hall Reservation and a Reservation at the Navajo Reservation. Look for the year numbers 1905 and 1907 on the Navajo land additions map. That is where the Fort Shaw Chippewa's, Lemhi Chippewa's, and Ute Chippewa's settled at. We can trace the origins of the Fort Assinibone Chippewa's or Rocky Boy Chippewa's, relocation to Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Washintgton, to 1896, or about a year after ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and Other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, were arrested in 1895.
The Creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
A number of Chippewa families returned to their native Montana from the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewam in early 1879, or a couple of years after the 1877 exodus, where they settled down to live in northern Montana. It was among these Chippewa's who lived in northern Montana, that new Chippewa leaders emerged in the early 20th century. They kept with them very important historical information.
We know about the creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana through Howard Paul who was the son of Joseph Paul. According to Howard Paul, a number of Chippewa's held a meeting on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewiston, Montana in 1920 or 1921, when he was 7 years old. According to Lloyd Paul who did an extensive genealogy report on the Montana Paul's, Howard Paul was born in 1914 at Forest Grove, Montana which is between Grass Range and Lewistown and directly south of the bogus Fort Belknap Reservation. Howard Paul was referring to a meeting held on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewistown, in 1921 and not 1920. According to these Chippewa leaders from the 1920s, they claimed to be from chief Red Bear (Red Thunder) and from chief Rocky Boy and Pembina Chippewa also.
Joseph Paul was obviously a leader among the Chippewa's in the Fergus County, Montana region well before 1920. His birth is very suspicious. Genealogy reports indicate he had two mothers. His father, Elzear Paul, married Rose LaPlante on January 21, 1878. Joseph Paul is listed as being one the four children of Elzear and Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante. Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante, died in 1881. Joseph Paul's birth date is supposedly either 1886, 1887, or 1888. His obituary stated that Joseph Paul was born on October 1, 1883. His age at the time of death in 1959 was 75. He could not have been born in 1883. His father, Elzear Paul, was without bride. He was born at Fort Maginnis, Montana. However, there were 2 Forts in Montana with the name Fort Maginnis. One was located near Lewistown, while the other a few miles south of Cut Bank. Fort Maginnis near Cut Bank, was closed in 1879. So 1879 was probably the year Joseph Paul was born. After Elzear Paul's first wife died, he married Rose Daniels in 1886. Joseph Paul is listed as one of Rose Daniels children. So there is some problem we can't set aside. If Rose LaPlante gave birth to Joseph Paul, it had to have been between 1878 and 1881.
He and several members of his family including his father Elzear Paul, were allotted land in Fergus County. He eventually sold his land allotments and moved to Great Falls, as did his father Elzear Paul. While in Great Falls, Joseph Paul became the Representative for the Chippewa's of the Great Falls region. On June 9, 1939, the representatives of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, met at the home of Joseph Paul in Great Falls. Something transpired which led to some sort of friction. Joseph Dussome represented Reservation Chippewa's, while Raymond Gray formed an organization in Great Falls he named the Montana Landless Indians. Gray's organization was the most threatening to Joseph Paul. Joseph Paul wanted to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. Dussome focused on Reservations.
The Meeting and the Blackfeet Reservation
We know from the meeting held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 9, 1939, that the Chippewa's claimed the entire area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, as their Reservation. A total of 9 Respresentives were assigned to each area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The maps below will help you understand this important information. The Representatives were the following: area number 565 were represented by ? (Hays), Joe Azure (Harlem), Joseph Dussome (Box Elder), and Thomas Ouellette (Wolf Point); area number 574 were represented by Millie Salois (Dupuyer) and Joseph Paul (Great Falls); area number 399 were represented by Joseph Paul (Great Falls), Thomas Sangray (Augusta), and Elizabeth Swan (Lewistown); area number 398 was represented by William Boyer (Helena). Since part of Great Falls is within area number 574, it was represented by both Millie Salois and Joseph Paul.
After the June 9, 1939 meeting at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana, the eventual breakup of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation government followed. World War II likely influenced most of the Representatives to attempt to get compensation for the agreement to accept the eventual loss of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation after 1855. However, something prevented them from actually doing so. That may have been Joseph Paul.
At Hill 57, which is adjacent to Great Falls, Montana, the Chippewa's owned land they considered their Rancheria. On August 18, 1950, the United States auctioned off the Hill 57 Chippewa Rancheria to the highest bidder. It then led to the eradication of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in northwestern California, and the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Reservation in western Oregon. On August 18, 1958, or 8 years after the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Hill 57 Rancheria was Terminated, the United States passed the California Rancheria Act. It Terminated 41 Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. On August 13, 1954, the United States passed the Western Oregon Indian Termination Act. Joseph Dussome hired a lawyer in 1950 and in 1951 they filed a lawsuit about the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. In 1973, the United States rejected (refused to honor treaties) the lawsuit. They claimed the Chippewa's did not live in Montana before the 1880s which is a lie. If the United States had actually agreed with the Chippewa's, they then would have agreed that the original Blackfeet Reservation set aside on October 17, 1855, is in fact a Chippewa Reservation. The United States is resorting to infidelity. We are honoring treaty agreements. We are federally recognized but the government of the United States refuses to honor treaties. Below are pages about the Termination Acts and the population of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. Their population was more than 411. Though they gave no population for the Rancherias, they did give the number of voters on the Rancherias. The number of voters probably represents about half the population of each Rancheria. Hopland (Nokomis) has probably suffered the largest population decline. The populations are from between 1930 and 1935. You ever wonder how many of the so called Japanese Americans who were sent to interment camps during World War II were actually Indian? Probably quite a few! The reason for the low Reservation populations of Indians in California and Oregon, is because the United States forced many of the California and Oregon Indians to relocate to the Navajo Reservation and a few others. Many, however, were Japanese. Either you can accept this information or stay away.
Hill 57 Termination or the start of the Termination Era
Western Oregon Termination Act
California Rancheria Termination Act
California Rancherias Populations 1930
Demographics of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
Population is ?
Big Valley (Terminated) - 194
Big Lagoon - 20
Blue Lake (Terminated) - 41
Cache Creek (Terminated) - 36
Coyote Valley - 96
Dry Creek - 42
Elk Valley (Terminated) - 44
Grindstone - 146
Guidiville (Terminated) - 1
Hoopa (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 2,291 - Total: 2,851
Hopland (Terminated) - 33
Karuk Reservation - 249
Laytonville - 171
Manchester - 179
Mark West (Terminated) - ?
Middletown (Terminated) - 53
Pinoleville (Terminated) - 196
Potter Valley (Terminated) - 138
Quartz Valley Reservation (Terminated) - 50
Redwood Valley (Terminated) - 113
Robinson (Terminated) - 129
Rohnerville (Terminated) - 67
Round Valley Reservation - 235
Sherwood Valley - 139
Smith River (Terminated) - 42
Stewarts Point - 55
Sulphur Bank - 56
Table Bluff (Terminated) - 71
Trinidad - 59
Upper Lake (Terminated) - 47
Yurok (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 560 - Total: 2,851
Cloverdale (Terminated) - ?
Graton (Terminated) - ?
Lyyton (Terminated) - ?
Coeur d'Alene Communities
East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Ford: Spokane Reservation
South East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Westend: Spokane Reservation
Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw
June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty Disputed Land Communities
Fort Belknap Communities
Fort Belknap Agency
Fort Peck Communities
Agency Road (near Arlee)
Clarice Paul Homesite
Coriacan Village Trailer Park
Kopp Road Trailer Park
McClure Road (near Arlee)
Mission Dam Homesite
Pow Wow Road (near Arlee)
Tapit Lane (near Arlee)
West Ravalli Trailer Park
Hill 57 (Terminated)
Population 10 to 20
Rocky Boy Communities
Clear Creek Road
Aseniwuche Winewak (Alberta)
Foothills Ojibway Society (Alberta)
Montana including Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson (Alberta)
Nakcowinewak or Nakawe Nation (Alberta)
Tsuu T'ina (Alberta)
Akisq'nuk (British Columbia)
Kelly Lake (British Columbia)
Lheidli T'enneh (British Columbia)
Lower Kootenay (British Columbia)
McLeod Lake (British Columbia)
Shuswap (British Columbia)
St. Mary's (British Columbia)
Tobacco Plains (British Columbia)