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Durango, Mexico Ojibway Reservation
Ojibway People controlled a vast area of northwest Mexico from near where Tamichopa, Sonora, Mexico is. Tamichopa is situated adjacent to Rio Bavispe or Bavispe River, before it enters mountains that extend east into Chihuahua, Mexico. From Tamichopa, Ojibway Soldiers controlled a vast mountainous region extending from north of Tamichopa, down to Jalisco State, Mexico and Nayarit State, Mexico. A large portion of west Durango was under Ojibway control back in 19th century and very early 20th century. Now about more information pertaining to an Ojibway Kikapu Reservation in Durango State, Mexico. We have three interesting years in which sitios or municipalities (one Reservation also), were set aside for Ojibway People in Durango, Mexico. Those years are 1852, 1866 and 1876. Chief Papicoano told some white interviewers that Ojibeway's were set aside sitios in both Durango and Coahuila which were of equal size. He meant of equal sitios. Chief Papicoano firmly told whites that 8 sitios were set aside for Kickapoo, Potawatomi and Seminole People. Whites, of course, will tell you that Kickapoo, Potawatomi and Seminole were set aside 8 sitios but that is a deception. Kickapoo, Potawatomi and Seminole People were each set aside 8 sitios in Durango and 8 sitios in Coahuila. That is 24 sitios in Durango and 24 sitios in Coahuila.
On February 29, 1876 Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs, Juan de Arias, informed the United States that a new Reservation had been set aside for the Kickapoo in Durango. However, as with the 1852 and 1866 agreements, whites have resorted to covering up Ojibway land in Durango. They always claim Ojibway's never settled down to live in Durango. They are liars! In mid 1870s, Mexican Ojibway's were still fighting whites in New Mexico and Texas. They lived in scattered settlements in Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango and Sonora. After 1873's Nacimiento Massacre, fighting diminished but did not stop entirely. American representatives were sent to Mexico to negotiate with Mexican Ojibway's to attempt to stop fighting.
They attempted to coerce the Mexican Ojibway's to return to Oklahoma but nearly all refused. They had support of most Mexican people. Only a couple of hundred actually returned to Oklahoma. The 1876 agreement was probably Americans agreeing to recognize land Mexican Ojibway's owned in Mexico. By 1880, fighting had stopped. Most of Mexican Ojibway's lived in the Durango region. It was from the Durango region, where Ojibway leaders led Mexican Ojibway's.
According to a book where i learned this information, the Ojibway Durango Reservation is located near Mapimi, Durango. So the Mapimi region is where the main village of Mexican Ojibway's was located. The 24 sitios Ojibway People own in Durango, surround the Mapimi region. Mapimi is located over 30 miles northwest of Torreon, Coahuila. It is also about 30 miles directly west of Coahuila, Mexico. That indicates that those Durango Ojibway 24 sitios commence east of Mapimi and extend to western Durango and to southwest of Durango. We don't know of the exact locations of these Ojibway Durango sitios so we have to confine are search to eastern, northern, western and southwestern locations. All 24 sitios are in compact form or one Reservation.
With the Ojibway Durango Reservation over 200 miles from its nearest contact with Texas, it eventually ended raids Ojibway Soldiers carried out in Texas. The great distance of travel was a great burden. After chief Victorio was killed in 1880, fighting in Arizona and New Mexico ended, excepting a few raids launched by chief Geronimo. Chief Victorio was from the Chihenne band of Chiricahua Apaches. Of course, they are Cheyenne Ojibway's. Ojibway's are native to Texases Panhandle region, eastern New Mexico, eastern Colorado, western Kansas and western Oklahoma. Click here to read William Clark's account of his Estimate of Eastern Indians he wrote about during Lewis and Clark's stay at Fort Mandan in 1804-1805. Scroll down to number 53.
By the late 1870s, the United States was focusing primarily on the Anishinabe people living in the Arizona and New Mexico region, especially New Mexico. The Durango sitios played an important role in ending the fighting in New Mexico and Mexico. Mapimi is 460 miles from the New Mexico border. Another Anishinabe Reservation was set aside in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. It may be very large or has numerous sitios also. Chief Victorio led a much larger war against the United States than chief Geronimo did. Chief Geronimo was the last to fight however. He, thus, gained far greater attention.
It is even more mountainous than the Anishinabe Nacimiento Reservation. The same mountains which are the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountain Range where the Anishinabe Nacimiento Reservation is, continue on west to a little west of where Agua Nueva, Durango is located. From there the Sierra Occidental Mountain Range commences. The Anishinabek obviously found haven in the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains as well.
There are a number of settlements throughout Durango which are home to Ojibway People. Citizens of those communities no longer know who they are. They have had their nationality stolen from them. Since the Ojibway Nacimiento Reservation was much closer to the United States, it has allowed Ojibway People from that location to adhere to their Indian identity. However, they have confined themselves to a Kickapoo, Seminole, and black Indian (Mascogo or Maskego) identity. Mascogo is likely derived from an Ojibway word for Swamp or Swamp People, which is Muskego and Muskegowuk. The Potawatomi part has been stolen from them.
A sitio is a municipality. The name sitio is related to the Filipino word barangay. Mexico has a long relationship with Filipino People. An example of a sitio is San Juan de Sabinas Municipality of Coahuila. It covers 235 sq. mi. or 735 sq. km. The sitio the Ojibway Nacimiento Reservation is located in, is named Musquiz Municipality. Muzquiz Municipality covers 3,138 sq. mi. or 8,129 sq. km. It also includes a black population. That is only 1 of 24 sitios Ojibway's and blacks have in Coahuila.
In 1866 (probably much earlier), President Juarez became a firm ally of Ojibway People of Mexico. Ojibway's formed a strong defensive protection for President Juarez who had fled Mexico City in 1863, for San Luis Potosi, then for northern Mexico. England, France and Spain had invaded Mexico in 1861 or about same time of 1861-1865's American Civil War. Juarez was fortunate to have an opportunity to become a political leader in Mexico. He was from Oaxaca which was nearly all Indian. He supported Mexico's War against an American invasion. He never became an ally of American's. He also wanted President Santa Anna out of office. That led to Juarez fleeing Mexico for New Orleans in 1853. He had to work at a cigar factory to make a living. While in New Orleans, Juarez conspired to force President Santa Anna out of office. American leaders were aware of Juarez. He was Governor of Oaxaca from 1847 to 1852. Juarez was obviously enraged about Mexico being forced to cede much of Mexico to the United States. He was among many Mexicans that wanted their ceded land returned. Santa Anna was forced out of office in 1855. That allowed Juarez to return to Mexico. The United States, England, France and other European powers, knew what was going on in Mexico and were conspiring to invade Mexico, after Santa Anna was forced out of office. These events led to 1861-1865's Civil War. White leaders were also very aware that up to 100,000 blacks were in Mexico allied with Ojibway's. On January 15, 1858, Mexico became a land of intensified civil unrest. Liberals elected Juarez President on January 15, 1858 and white leaders commenced to prepare for war or to invade Mexico. Tensions about Mexico losing much of their land during 1846-1848's Mexican-American War, was causing serious unrest in Mexico. After Juarez was elected President of Mexico in 1858, 1857-1860's Reforn War intensified and helped cause 1861-1865's American Civil War. President Juarez fled to Vera Cruz during this Reform War which was a Mexican Civil War. In April of 1859, American Representative Robert McLane met with President Juarez to negotiate about Mexico's Civil War. In December of 1859, a treaty known as McLane-Ocampo Treaty was signed yet American leaders rejected it. American leaders commenced to prepare for war. Whites tried to take Vera Cruz twice in 1860 yet were driven off. President Juarez then led his soldiers to Mexico City and captured it on January 1, 1861. The United States, England, France and Spain were now unanimously in favor of a war. Within that ceded portion of Mexico was a large Mexican, Indian and black population. Their leader was not President Juarez. It was an unidentified Ojibway leader. He commenced to war upon American's in early 1861. The 1861-1865 American Civil War had commenced. In response to this new war, England, France and Spain sent their soldiers to Mexico in December 1861 and took the Vera Cruz Custom House. This white confederation selected French Emporer Napoleon III to lead them. Their goal was to force President Juarez out of power. In 1862, greater numbers of white soldiers were sent to Mexico to fight this war for control of Mexico. Mexican Soldiers prevented whites from expanding west towards Mexico City. However, in 1863, the white invaders had forced their way to Mexico City and took it. It led to President Juarez fleeing north. This war in Mexico lasted long after 1861-1865's Civil War in the United States did. It lasted up to about 1920. Those large Ojibway and black Reservations in Mexico were not wanted by white leaders. It led to 1910-1920's Mexican Revolution.
President Juarez actually increased the number of sitios for Mexican Ojibway People in 1866, to strengthen his alliance with them. That obviously means more than 24 sitios were set aside in Durango, Coahuila and also Sonora. And Chihuahua can't be excluded. Chihuahua may have been an Ojibway stronghold. Durango has 39 total sitios or municipalities. That obviously means Ojibway's own most of Durango. We don't know exactly where the Ojibway Durango sitios are located. However, the northern, western, and southwestern part of Durango is the likely location. And all sitios are not of equal size. Some are larger while some are smaller. It was from Durango where Ojibway's set aside the sitios for migrant Algonquin's, othern Indian Nations and the black Indians.
Click here for a map of the Municipalities of Durango, Mexico.
Ojibway Sitios of Durango
013 Mapimi Municipality, Coahuila 2,751 sq. mi. or 7,126 sq. km. - Population 25,137
001 Canatlan Municipality 1,809 sq. mi. or 4,686 sq. km. - Population 31,401
003 Coneto de Comonfort Municipality 511 sq. mi. or 1,325 sq. km. - Population 4,530
005 Durango Municipality 3,876 sq. mi. or 10,041 sq. km. - Population 582,267
009 Guanaceví Municipality 2,025 sq. mi. 5,247 sq. km. - Population 10,149
010 Hidalgo Municipality 1,938 sq. mi. or 5,020 sq. km. - Population 4,265
011 Inde Municipality 915 sq. mi. or 2,371 sq. km. - Population 5,280
014 Mezquital Municipality 2,788 sq. mi. or 7,196 sq. km. - Population 33,396
017 Ocampo Municipality 1,238 sq. mi. or 3,207 sq. km. - Population 9,626
018 El Oro Municipality 3,876 sq. mi. 10,041 sq. km. - 11,320
020 Panuco de Coronado Municipality 409 sq. mi. or 1,060 sq. km. - Population 11,927
023 Pueblo Nuevo Municipality 2,385 sq. mi. or 6,178 sq. km. - Population 49,162
024 Rodeo Municipality 716 sq. mi. or 1,855 sq. km. - Population 12,788
025 San Bernardo Municipality 802 sq. mi. or 2,078 sq. km. - Population 3,433
026 San Dimas Municipality 2,169 sq. mi. or 5,620 sq. km. - Population 19,691
028 San Juan del Rio Municipality 493 sq. mi. or 1,279 sq. km. - Population 11,855
029 San Luis del Cordero Municipality 210 sq. mi. or 544 sq. km. - Population 2,181
030 San Pedro del Gallo Municipality 775 sq. mi. or 2,008 sq. km. - Population 1,709
032 Santiago Papasquiaro Municipality 2,794 sq. mi. or 7,238 sq. km. - Population 44,966
034 Tamazula Municipality 2,003 sq. mi. or 5,188 sq. km. - Population 26,368
035 Tepehuanes Municipality 2,471 sq. mi. or 6,401 sq. km. - Population 10,745
036 Tlahualilo Municipality 1,432 sq. mi. or 3,709 sq. km. - Population 22,244
037 Topia Municipality 624 sq. mi. or 1,618 sq. km. - Population 8,581
039 Nuevo Ideal Municipality 758 sq. mi. or 1,964 sq. km. - Population 26,092
Total Population is 969,113
Total area is 39,768 sq. mi. or 113,413 sq. km.