Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
The Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation
Though i'm not certain that this Manitoba-Saskatchewan Anishinabe Reservation was actually set aside, i suspect that a large Anishinabe Reservation is (it was illegally eradicated) located in southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. It is located from where Fishing Lake (the main area of this Reservation) is, which is 30 miles south of Yellow Quill, which is adjacent to Nut Lake or Pay-gan Za-ga-i-gan and a part of this Reservation, up to Kinistin and the many lakes to the east of Kinistin. Crooked Lakes Reserve, Qu'Appelle Reserve, File Hills Reserve, Gordon-Muskowekwan Reserve, and the Moose Mountain Reservation, may have been a part of this Chippewa Reservation. In Manitoba, the Reserve extends from Sandy Bay, which is adjacent to the southwestern shores of Lake Manitoba, up to Sapotaweyak. It then extends westward to the Saskatchewan border to Kinistin. From Kinistin, it extends southeast to Yellow Quill, then south to Fishing Lake. From Fishing Lake, it extends northeast to the Porcupine Hills. It then extends south to Cote, Keeseekoose, and The Key. From there, it extends southeast to Tootinaowaziibeeng. From Tootinaowaziibeeng, it extends to the north shores of Dauphin Lake. Then it extends southeast to Ebb & Flow. From Ebb & Flow, it then extends back to Sandy Bay. It covers a large area which is heavily forested and has countless large and small lakes.
Origins of the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation
I named this Reservation Fishing Lakes Reservation because of the proximity of the Chippewa community of Fishing Lake, as well as the number of large lakes Anishinabe leaders requested to be left to them and the land around them. I should have named this Chippewa Reservation the Chippewa St. Peter's Reservation. In the 1860s and 1870s, ogima (chief) Yellow Quill was devoted to having a large Reservation Reserved for the Algonquin people, in southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan. White leaders were far more impressed with the plains than the woodlands and at that time southwestern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan was woodland country, as well as a land with countless lakes.
Originally, ogima Yellow Quill and his fellow Algonquin leaders ogima Kinistin and ogima Nepinawa, were inclined to sign Treaty 1 which set aside three Reserves in southern Manitoba. They are Long Plain, Sandy Bay, and Swan Lake. There are two Swan Lakes in Manitoba. The problems that later arose (the whites were sending many mixed bloods to the Swan Lake located near North Dakota) led to ogima Yellow Quill sending scores of Algonquin settlers to the Swan Lake where Wuskwi Sipihk is located and Sandy Bay which is located along the western shores of Lake Manitoba. At Wuskwi Sipihk, which is the real Swan Lake settlement, the whites forced the Chippewa's to lose their Chippewa Nationality. Friction arose between the Ojibway people which led ogima Yellow Quill to follow the Seven Fires Prophecy and lead Algonquin people into southeastern Saskatchewan. To stop the exodus Canadian leaders negotiated with ogima Yellow Quill again in 1874. It took two years before ogima Yellow Quill signed an adhesion to Treaty 4 on August 24, 1876.
St. Peter's is an intriguing subject. Most Canadian Ojibway's think St. Peter's Reserve was located near where Selkirk, Manitoba is. A little background about St. Peter's Reserve will be helpful. Before 1870, chief Peguis (he may have been a mixed blood or non Algonquin Indian) granted land to both Indians and non Indians in the Red River Valley. His son chief Henry Prince (quite a suspicious name) continued his fathers practice of issuing land grants to Indians and non Indians. Even after Treaty 1 had been signed. Canada supposedly set aside St. Peter's Reserve in either 1873-1874 (about the same time the new St. Peter's Mission was built near Great Falls, Montana) without resolving the competing land claims by Indians and non Indians, to the St. Peter's Reserve. Chief Henry Prince continued to issue land grants to both Indians and non Indians at St. Peter's Reserve after the Reserve was set aside, which means there was no St. Peter's Reserve in Manitoba.
In Montana, St. Peter's Mission was first established near what is now Choteau, Montana in 1859. Another St. Peter's Mission was established in 1860 near where Fort Shaw, Montana is. Then on February 14 of 1862, a new St. Peter's Mission was established where Rainbow Falls is located in Great Falls, Montana. The capitol of the Algonquin Nation was located in the Great Falls of the Missouri River region during those times. By 1862, the whites were invading southwestern Montana (the Black Hills or Black Mountains) and war followed. Using the Mullan Road, the white invader sent supplies from the east to southwestern Montana. Travel along Mullan Road was especially dangerous. In late 1865, the United States launched an invasion into the Sun River Valley which commences in western Great Falls. By early 1866, around 800 white soldiers disguised as civilians, were allowed by the white Christian leaders at St. Peter's Mission, to stay at the mission. Ojibway soldiers quickly drove the white soldiers and white Christian Missionaries out of the region, back to the Helena region. In 1874, the whites established another St. Peter's Mission near where Ulm, Montana is located.
In early 1876, the United States sent up to 10,000 soldiers to Montana and Wyoming to battle the Ojibway's. They were soundly defeated. However, during the winter of 1876-1877 the United States launched a major winter military campaign which forced the Ojibway's to decide to follow prophecy and commence an exodus. At first 10,000s fled west into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington but they were eventually stopped. They then fled up to Alberta and Saskatchewan (the region between the Cypress Hills and Wood Mountains or Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan) where they merged with the native Ojibway's of that region. Most probably were from the Great Falls of the Missouri region. Thus, the name St. Peter's. It is the James Smith and Muskoday who are known as refugees from St. Peter's. They were forced to relocate from the Cypress Hills-Wood Mountains region to their present locations.
The many lakes throughout the large Reservation, offered them fowl, and of course, fish and wild rice. Ogima Yellow Quill was obviously instrumental in creating the Fishing Lakes Reservation, as was ogima Sitting Bull. Below is a google Earth photo of this Reservation which was illegally eradicated in 1907. The Fishing Lakes Reservation is located 195 miles north of Montana and 105 miles north of North Dakota. Many Chippewa's from the Fort Peck Reservation (during those times it was named the Blackfeet Reservation) fled up to this location in southeastern Saskatchewan. An interesting note about the Assiniboine will probably baffle you. The whites claim the Assiniboine are Lakota. However, according to the book "Indian and white in the Northwest, or, A history of Catholicity in Montana," which was written in 1894, claims "The Assiniboines are a branch of the Sioux or Dakota, whose language they also speak. They are the Sioux of the "Mountains," Assini in their tongue standing for mountains or rocks and Boines for Sioux." Ojibway people know exactly what that means!
After the whites eradicated the Cypress Hills Reservation, they needed to ease the tension so i suspect they coerced many of the Chippewa's to relocate to the Fishing Lakes Reservation. Not all Chippewa's, however, agreed to relocate as we know. They chose to fight instead. Those who agreed to relocate from the Cypress Hills and also Manitoba, settled down to live on the large Anishinabe Reservation in southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. During those times southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba, had large areas of forests. Southwestern Saskatchewan was prairie land as was extreme southern Saskatchewan, from Regina to Montana.
Anishinabe leaders knew the whites were not brave enough to honor the treaty agreements so they did send many of their settlers to the north and west. I don't know the exact date Canada commenced to break treaty promises. However, the years 1882 and 1884 are possibly the first years Canada commenced to refuse to honor treaty agreements. Below is a list of the broken promises the whites broke. They commenced in either 1882 or 1884, and possibly ended in 1907. The events of 1896 and 1898, were not well received by Anishinabe leaders. The whites commenced to colonize the large Reservation in 1896 when Indian agent W.M. Graham initiated the File Hills Colony.
In Manitoba, the Ojibway settlement known as Swan River which is 25 miles southwest of Wuskwi Sipihk or Swan Lake, became appealing to the white invader in 1897. In 1898 the proposed construction of the Canadian Northern Railroad was announced. Many white invaders migrated into the region soon after and the Swan River Reserve was illegally eradicated. Many of the Ojibway's relocated to the Cote, Keeseekoose, and The Key Ojibway settlements in eastern Saskatchewan. In the region where the Tootinaowaziibeeng Ojibway settlement is, the white invader commenced to illegally farm the area. Dauphin was incorporated in 1898. They also invaded the Gilbert Plains and Roblin areas. Roblin was incorporated in 1912. Gilbert Plains was incorporated in 1906.
Illegal eradication of the St. Peter's Reservation
In 1907, Canada established a Royal Commission to inquire into the supposed land disputes (the land supposedly granted to non Indians) corrupting St. Peter's Reservation. Chief Justice Hector Howell led the commission. Howell was told by the Canadian federal government to not negotiate the land grant disputes but to negotiate the surrender of the St. Peter's Reservation. The large St. Peter's Reservation was illegally stolen in 1907. Since fraud was untilized it means the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation or Chippewa St. Peter's Reservation, continues to be intact.
We know the leaders of all Reserves and Reservations are employees of Canada and the United States. Since they are paid by the Canadian and the United States governments, we know they will do what the whites want. To defend ourselves from their evil intentions, it is mandatory that we form an alternate government which does not receive money from the Canadian and United States governments. Within each village you must organize a new government which will manage the affairs of the people. Establish a council for a select (not elected) group of men and women of your choice. Then form a financial corporation in which the citizens of the villages can deposit their money. To each community listed below, incorporate them so they are permitted by CFLR law to function as a village (city and town) of the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation. You are not to request permission from Canada. You must do this on your own. Create a community financial center (the house of someone you know is trustworthy) within each community listed below.
All citizens of all communities listed below, will deposit a percentage of their money into each community financial center. And do not dare to first consult with Canada. They are sending a message to all non white nations that they could care less for Indian Nations in a time when that message is easily not ignored. The financial corporation will be kept private so there will be no need to have it done formally. Then you must select one of the communities listed below to be the capitol of the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation Financial Corporation. The financial corporation will be a simple joint savings unit which is identical to friends saving their money together privately (without the use of banks and all other financial establishments) to better their lives. If anyone who lives within any of the communities listed below does not want to deposit a percentage of their money into the savings unit, they must be carefully watched. They can't be trusted.
This financial corporation will be the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation government. The CFLRFC will function to provide the Chippewa Fishing Lakes Reservation with financing to establish new settlements, build and maintain new and old homes in old settlements, agriculture (greenhouse farming or hydroponic farming), health and education needs, fishing and hunting, and transportation needs and maintenance. Most financing must go to individuals to start agriculture, housing, and transportation enterprises. Electric bicycles and electric cars are mandatory. Purchase used bikes and cars then convert them into electric motor vehicles. You must encourage as many of your citizens to deposit as much of their money into the savings unit and to also apply for grants and loans so the CFLRFC will be stocked with money. Request for financial funding from non Indian sources, particularly individuals who are wealthy. Do it discreetly. And money earned from business ventures, must be deposited into the savings unit. In fact, nearly all money within each community savings unit will come from money generated by business ventures. If any problems develope with Reservation leaders including Reservation police, do not negotiate with them. You don't want to depend on Canada for financing. Through treaty agreements, Canada recognized Indian Nations as sovereign nations.
A list of the communities of the Fishing Lakes Reservation is also below. The Fishing Lakes Reservation is adjacent to the Chippewa Treaty 9 Reservation.
Muscowpetung: In 1882, either ogima Muscowpetung or another ogima, supposedly requested that his Reserve be extended by 4 miles to the west but Canada agreed only if 2 miles of the southern portion of the Reserve be removed. It is suspicious.
Ochapowace: In 1882, a strange event happened at Crooked Lake or Ochapowace, which led to land loss in 1884. Ogima Kakisheway was shocked to learn that they had lost land and were forced to amalgamate on the Chacachas Reserve, after returning from an extended hunt. They lost most of the Chacachas Reserve in 1884. Though this event may not be significant it is yet quite suspcious.
Peepeekisis: In 1896, Canada sent a new Indian agent to the Fishing Lakes Reservation. At the time the Peepeekisis Reserve was without a leader. W.M. Graham arrived in 1896 with evil intentions. Graham acted knowing the Chippewa's were practically defenseless and established the File Hills Colony in 1898. Chippewa leaders responded by sending their settlers to the north and west. The year 1898 may have been the year Canada commenced to eradicate the large Fishing Lakes Reservation. It is no coincidense that a major war was fought in 1898 and a new white colony was initiated in southeastern Saskatchewan that same year.
Chakastaypasin: In 1898, Canada stole land from the Chakastaypasin. They were forced to move to James Smith.
Cote: In 1904, land was stolen from the Algonquin's of the Cote region. At that time Cote was a part of Keeseekoose and the Key section of the Fishing Lakes Reservation.
Cote: In 1905, Canada again angered the Algonquin's by stealing more land from the Cote, Keeseekoose, and the Key Ojibway's.
Pasqua: In June of 1906, Canada again stole more land from the Fishing Lakes (Pasqua) Reservation. They claim only 16,077 acres was lost but it was obviously far more land.
Cote: In 1907, Canada again angered the Algonquin's by again stealing more land from the Cote, Keeseekoose, and the Key Ojibway's.
Standing Buffalo: In 1907, Canada again removed land from the Fishing Lakes (Standing Buffalo) Reservation. They claim the land was government owned hay land.
Kahkewistahaw: In January of 1907, Canada again removed land from the Fishing Lakes (Kahkewistahaw) Reservation. They claim only 33,281 acres but it was far more land than that.
Fishing Lake: In 1907, another forced removal of land from the Fishing Lakes Reservation, destroyed the once large Anishinabe Reservation located in southeastern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. Fishing Lake supposedly lost over half (60%) of their land in 1907. Nearly all the remaining land was stolen years before 1907.
Cote (The Key)
Keeseekoose (The Key)
Ebb and Flow
O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Si-Pi (Crane River)
The Key (The Key)