Horrible is one way of describing what happened to the Flathead Reservation. This Reservation was supposedly established on July 16, 1855, with the signing of the Hell Gate Treaty between the Salishan Tribes of that location who were subjugated by the military and police totem (the Chippewa's) of the Algonquin Tribe, and the United States. According to white historians, the Salishans ceded 22 million acres and were left with a Reservation which covered nearly 1.3 million acres. However, that is not what historical records indicate. Flathead Reservation is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Actually it is a part of the Blackfeet Reservation which is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation.
The Fraudulent 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Continental Divide Diversion
White historians made a blunder by placing the Continental Divide at the wrong location on 19th century maps and maps of the time we live in. It is the Rocky Mountain Trench which is the real Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains. They may claim the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the Rocky Mountains from the Cassiar Mountains and Columbia Mountains but obviously the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the east side of the Rocky Mountains from the west side of the Rocky Mountains. The narrow valley which is the Rocky Mountain Trench (Continental Divide), extends from Watson Lake, Yukon to a location 2.7 miles south of St. Ignatius which is located on the bogus Flathead Reservation. Climate conditions west of the Rocky Mountain Trench (west of the bogus Flathead Reservation) are different than climate conditions to the east. Winters are warmer west of the Rocky Mountain Trench than to the east. Though the Bitterroot Valley must be included as being a part of the Rocky Mountain Trench, climate conditions there are more similar to the climate conditions west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Since there is an obvious discrepancy which continues now, about the Continental Divide, it means the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty never happened.
The Chipewayan Mountains
Early on, the Rocky Mountains were often termed the Chippawan Mountains. They have also been known as the Stony Mountains. Stoney is in reference to the Assiniboine Indians who are really Chippewa. I suspect Lewis and Clark reached a treaty agreement with Chippewa leaders on July 4, 1805 at what is now Great Falls, Montana, in which Canada, England, and the United States agreed to leave the Rocky Mountains to the Chippewa's. Chipewayan Reservation commences where the N Slope Haul Road Bridge crosses the Yukon River in Alaska. It follows the same road which is an old Ojibwa road used to follow the caribou up to the Arctic Ocean, to the Arctic Ocean. The land area to the east is Gwich'in or Han Chippewa land. It follows the Yukon River to Dawson, Yukon then to the source of the Yukon River which is the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia. On Atlin Lakes eastern most side, it follows the valley east to the larger valley where the Cassiar Mountains are located on the east. It includes all Treaty 8 land in British Columbia. It also includes the southern Rocky Mountain Trench to the southern part of the Bitterroot Valley then to the Idaho border. It also includes the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Rivers which flow east down out of the Rocky Mountains for some distance. It includes all of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, south central and Northern Manitoba, and most of northern Ontario.
In 1805, a vicious war was being fought primarily in Canada but also in Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and Minnesota between the Chippewa's and two Asian peoples the whites brought to extreme northern Alaska and extreme northern Canada in the early 18th century. It was a war fought over the Northwest Passage. In British Columbia and Washington, an Asian people (probably Chinese and Filipino) invaded North America about 600 to 1,500 years ago. They formed an alliance with the whites and fought the Chippewa's in British Columbia and Washington. In northern Alaska and northern Canada, the Asians who were brought over by the whites in the early 18th century, are the Aleuts and Eskimos. By the 1860s, the whites no longer needed their support and stabbed them in the back. They were absorbed by the Chippewa's and other Indian Tribes.
Evidently the whites inserted what you may want to think of as a gesture in the bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, in which they supposedly agreed to set aside a Reservation for the Flathead Indians (Chippewa Indians) living in the Bitterroot Valley, if found if that proposition was desirable. You are smart enough to smell a theft while in progress! That part of the treaty is not suppose to be there. The Chippewa's were still living throughout the Bitterroot Valley and other western and southwestern Montana locations, well into the early 1900s. They tended to confine themselves to the outskirts of white towns, and resorted to doing odd jobs to earn money, and making crafts on the side to further increase the amount of money they made. They were very poor and often went hungry. They were thin in those times.
They were prohibted from hunting as they had always done through their own laws, by the whites of Montana, who frequently arrested Chippewa's for hunting out of season (done usually during the coldest months). However, it didn't stop the Chippewa's from breaking white laws. Actually they followed treaty agreements which gave them rights to hunt and fish. The State of Montana broke laws. Chippewa hunters had no choice but to hunt and fish. Either they hunted or they would often go hungry. The Chippewa population in southwestern and western Montana, was highest around Anaconda and Butte. Their population on the Flathead Reservation was large. The bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty set aside the entire land area of the treaty, or the supposed land cession land. The area described as the Flathead Reservation was a diversion or fraudulent. Included as being a part of the bogus July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty land area, are Flathead Reservation, Coeur d'Alene Reservation, Colville-Spokane Reservation, and Kalispel Reservation. And the entire land area of the June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty. Chief Moses made certain we could dispute that land area.
Chief Moses is an especially fascinating historical figure. The two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties were signed by a chief named Moses. The first has him listed as being Kootenay and the other a Flathead. In Washington State lived another chief who was known as chief Moses. He was probably the same Moses who signed the two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties. According to white historians chief Moses of the Washington State region, refused to sign the Washington State Stevens Treaties. An obvious cover-up is in place. Isaac Stevens was in Montana near where the father of Joseph Paul, Elzear Paul, would eventually live (Elzear Paul was born in 1857), in 1853, or nearly a couple of years before the Stevens Treaties commenced.
We know Isaac Stevens was already negotiating with Chippewa leaders in Montana about Chippewa land in the Pacific Northwest in 1853. Whatever happened in Montana (a little north of what would become Lewistown) in 1853, probably dealt with a land cession and the establishment of a Reservation. In 1855, Isaac Stevens commenced to negotiate with the Indians of Oregon and Washington States. We will include California as well because the Stevens Treaties have links to California land. What followed in 1855, was not accepted by the Chippewa's and a three year war followed in Oregon and Washington which ended in 1858.
Joseph Paul made certain we would not forget about the events which occurred during the Stevens Treaties. According to the son of Joseph Paul, Howard Paul, the non treaty Chippewa's of Montana commenced to organize in either 1920 or 1921, on their grandparents ranch near Lewistown, Montana. It was probably the ranch of Joseph Paul. They supposedly wanted to settle a land claim issue. They never signed the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty which was one of the Stevens Treaties. If they did not sign the October 17, 1855 Stevens Treaty, the Chippewa's obviously did not sign any of the Stevens Treaties.
However, if the chief Moses who signed the two Montana Stevens Treaties is the same chief Moses of Washington State, it indicates the whites are using deception to cover-up something. That could be a huge Reservation which straddles a huge area of land in Idaho, Montana, and Washington and possibly even Oregon and California. Chief Kamiakin of the Oregon and Washington region, actually organized the Oregon Coast Tribes to fight in the 1855-1858 war. By the end of the war some sort of agreement may have been agreed upon by the Anishinabe Nation and the United States, which confirmed the original Chippewa demand in 1853, that a huge area of land be set aside in the Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington region.
Of course, that land is the entire land area of the two Montana Stevens Treaties, and the three Camp Stevens Treaties of June 9-11, 1855, which involves a great deal of land in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, and also the June 25, 1855 treaty, which Joel Palmer signed. Palmer and Stevens signed all the Stevens Treaties. They should be called the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Palmer also signed the August 11, 1855 Treaty which ceded southwestern Oregon land which borders California. On November 9, 1855 Palmer supposedly helped to set aside the Oregon Coast Reservation which is now known as the Siletz-Grand Ronde Reservation.
A war was going on in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California in 1855. The November 16, 1855 treaty which established the Klamath Reservation of northwestern California, is obviously related to the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Today, the Klamath Reservation is known as the Hoopa-Yurok Reservation. The Yurok are Algonquin. And going back to 1853, two treaties were signed on September 10 and 19 of that year, which supposedly ceded land in extreme northern California and southern Oregon. All these treaties are obviously linked to Isaac Stevens visit to Montana in 1853. Either Joseph Paul was claiming the Chippewa's refused to cede the land, or he claimed the land as a Chippewa Reservation.
Chief Moses (from Washington) was either born in Washington as nearly all historians claim, or he was born back east. I have read a book in which the author wrote that chief Moses was Cherokee who moved to Wisconsin while very young. He lived in Wisconsin for a long time before migrating to Montana then to Washington where he became a powerful leader. He was obviously Chippewa, as was chief Garry who was played by the whites. Chief Garry was supposedly Spokane but he was sent to Manitoba while very young. Manitoba is Chippewa country. Click here to read a bit of the book about chief Moses living in Wisconsin while very young.
The Paul Clan
Being a Paul makes this task an especially favorite one. It is very difficult to learn about the exact origins of the Montana Paul clan. Their entry into what is now Montana is very, very, difficult to learn about. Using the internet i found out about Ignace Lamoose. White historians claim Ignace Lamoose was an Iroquois which is another white lie. Remove the La from Lamoose and you have Moose, which is an Algonquin word which means Moose of course. The Chippewa leader Ignace the Moose led a group of 24 Chippewa's to the Bitterroot Valley. That probably occurred soon after Antoine Plante journeyed to Washington State around the 1811-1812 time period. Some claim Ignace the Moose led the small group of Chippewa's to the Bitterroot Valley around 1816. They possibly came from Quebec as history indicates but some Kootenay know they originally lived in Michigan. The Chippewa's were already living in far western Montana at the time. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy!
Now about chief Big Face or chief Paul. Lloyd Paul did a careful research of the Paul Clan of Montana east of the Rocky Mountains. His father, Elzear Paul and uncle Joseph Paul, were native to what is now the Fergus County, Montana region. Both were allotted Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation land east of the Lewistown, Montana region. According to historical documents, the Crow were set aside a large Reservation in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region on January 31, 1874. We know from Howard Paul, Joseph Paul, and Joseph Dussome that the Chippewa's have lived in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region, long before the whites settled in Montana. Lloyd Paul provided information on many Paul's including Mary Agnes Paul (no dob and dod however) and most important probably, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul. He was born in Quebec on April 16, 1750. The first chief Big Face of the Flathead Tribe may have been born around 1750. Chief Big Face passed away in the early 1840s. However, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul evidently passed away on February 22, 1824. Click here to read the Paul genealogy work from Lloyd Paul.
Chief Big Face (surname Paul)
In the early 1840s, ogima (chief) Paul (his Anishinabe name was Big Face) met with white Christian missionaries and allowed himself to be used or played, by the whites. He was already in his early 90s at the time. He was probably born around 1750, in either Quebec or possibly Manitoba. He may have converted to Christianity early in his life (in the 18th century). Once he knew the white invaders were visiting more frequently his domain, he made the regrettable decision to request for trouble. Chief Paul may have migrated into western Montana in the late 18th century. His descendants may have been chief Victor and chief Charlo.
Ignace the Lamoose real name was Aeneas (Ignace) Paul. He brought along his family including his son Aeneas Paul who was born before they arrived to the Bitterroot Valley, in 1816. Chief Big Face or chief Paul, was possibly living in the Bitterroot Valley when Ignace the Moose arrived, or he is Ignace Paul. The elder Aeneas Paul married a woman from the Flathead Tribe. His son also married into the same tribe. It is claimed the elder or Old Ignace was smitten with Christianity which could indicate he was a mixed blood. He supposedly journeyed to St. Louis in 1835 to request that missionaries be sent to the Bitterroot Valley. After a period of waiting for their arrival, he became impatient and commenced another trek to St. Louis but was killed in 1837. The poor man was played by the whites. His son (Young Ignace) then took over for his departed father and journeyed to St. Louis in 1839 to again request for missionaries. This time the mistake worked out. It may have been Young Ignace who greeted Father DeSmet in July of 1840 and not the 90 year old chief Big Face.
Aeneas Paul was also known as Old Ignace, while his son was also known as Young Ignace. Young Ignace was very much like Antoine Plante's son who went by the same name, and often acted as a guide to guide whites around. Antoine Plante was probably related to the Montana Paul's. Unfortunately, the first of the Paul clan of Montana were played into establishing the first white settlement in what is now Montana. Today, it is known as Stevensville. That is a no, no! It is revolting! White Christian Missionaries were after money when they ventured to Indian settlements to try and convert Indians to their religion. They were paid by the church that hired them. Unfortunately, they were only thinking of themselves.
Chief Aeneas Paul
Though Aeneas may look like another unrelated word, it is a mispronunciation of Ignace. Chief Aeneas Paul was the son of Aeneas Paul or Old Ignace. He was born in Manitoba or Quebec, or before Old Ignace arrived to the Bitterroot Valley. He is very important to the Montana as well as California, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming States Paul clan. His sister Agnes Paul (read Agnes Ignace very carefully until you understand the conspiracy) was born in 1820. Click here to learn about him. Don't let their insult bother you! She married Jacques Finley. Jacques Finley's father was born in Fort Finlay, Canada in 1768. He married a Chippewa woman with the surname of Cree. Both Agnes (Aeneas) Paul and Miaquam (may be a female Chippewa name) Finley married. Click here to read about the first Paul's of Montana!
They lived from western Montana to central Washington. Chief Paul Young Ignace was quite fond of the region from western Montana to central Washington. The Paul clan of the Pacific Northwest can trace their roots back to Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, and possibly Michigan. The Kootenai who know they originally lived in Michigan, will accept this important information. We know Aeneas Paul or Young Ignace had one son.
Chief Aeneas Paul or Koostatah I
He also went by the name Big Face II or Big Knife II. He represented the Chippewa's during the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty negotiations. Chief Paul told the whites his people were often at war against many tribes. He actually claimed the last tribe they made peace with were the Blackfeet which is quite strange. The Blackfeet are Algonquin like the Chippewa's. In fact, they are both the same people. We keep learning that the Blackfeet were constantly at war against other Algonquins. You can't believe that if you know about the Seven Fires Prophecy. Their name is a reference to the Black Heels - Black Hills, which are located in southwestern and western Montana.
Chief Paul was the leader of the Dayton Creek Kootenai. Their main settlement now is Elmo. They no longer know who they are. They are a mixture of Algonquin and non Algonquin Indians. Chief Paul negotiated on behalf of his people with United States representatives sent to negotiate the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. It was reported that Chief Paul signed the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, but his accepted name Aeneas Paul does not appear on the treaty. Strong evidence that chief Paul refused to sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. However, a Flathead chief with the name Paul, did sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. We don't know if it was chief Aeneas Paul however. Another Kootenai chief named chief Michelle did sign the treaty and then supposedly returned to Canada. Afterwards chief Paul became his successor.
Even now the Flathead Reservation has one of the highest percentages of the Paul surname of any location in the Pacific Northwest. I included only five Flathead Reservation communities. Their total population is 10,091. And St. Ignatius along with Ronan, have the highest percentage with 1.0 per 100. I could not find any white page listings for Fort Belknap Agency and Lodgepole, which are Fort Belknap Reservation communities. I could only include Harlem and Hays. Next is the Great Falls region, then the region just north of the Flathead Reservation, or the Kalispell region. The Babb, Montana region has the highest percentage of the Paul Surname in Montana. In North Dakota, the Rugby and Bismarck-Mandan region has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. In South Dakota, it is Pierre.
In Idaho, the Nez Perce Reservation and the immediate surrounding region, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. The Nez Perce Reservation is far worse off than the Flathead Reservation. Only one town of the Nez Perce Reservation (Lapwai) is predominantly Indian. Next is the region near the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. In Washington State, the region between the Colville-Spokan Reservation and north of the Yakima Reservation, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Next is the Yakima Reservation region. In Wyoming, the region between Cody and Powell have the highest percentage of the Paul Surname. In California, the region from Eureka to Crescent City, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Of course, i'm keeping these areas in California near Reservations. All have above normal % for the Paul surname in the United States which number 72,248.
In Alberta, the Paul Clan has long lived there. Today, the Alexander and Paul First Nations have leaders (councilors) with the Paul surname. The Paul First Nation is supposedly Lakota but Canada set aside a large Reserve named the Montana Reserve which was located around Piegon Lake. Canada refused to honor treaty agreements and stole the Reserve. It forced many of the Chippewa's living at the Montana Reserve which now includes the Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson First Nations, to move north where the Paul First Nation is now. It was originally named the Alexis First Nation or went by another name. Chief Paul assumed power over the Reserve east of Edmonton in 1887. It's name was then changed to the Paul First Nation. These Alberta Paul's may have originally lived in Montana before the 1877 exodus. However, it's very likely many Paul's from Manitoba settled in Alberta long before 1877.
Babb, Blackfeet Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 30
Siletz Reservation, Oregon: 1.1 per 100
Nez Perce Reservation, Idaho: 1.0 per 100
Rugby, North Dakota: 1.0 per 200
Flathead Reservation (Arlee; St. Ignatius; Ronan; Pablo; and Polson), Montana: 1.1 per 300
Parker, Yakima Reservation, Washington: 1.0 per 300
Hays, Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Harlem, Borders Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Cody, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Powell, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Bismarck-Mandan, North Dakota: 1.5 per 1,000
Rathdrum (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.5 per 1,000
Hoopa-Yurok Reservation Region, California: 1.2 per 1,000
Yakima Reservation Region, Washington: 1.1 per 1,000
Washington State (between Colville-Spokan and north of Yakima Reservations): 1.1 per 1,000
Dickinson, North Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Pierre, South Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Moscow (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.1 per 1,000
La Grande (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 1.1 per 1,000
Warm Springs Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Klamath Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Yreka-Lewiston-Red Bluff Region, California: 1.0 per 1,000
Rawlins, Wyoming: 1.0 per 1,000
Spirit Lake (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.0 per 1,000
Great Falls, Montana: 0.9 per 1,000
Kalispell, Montana Region: 0.8 per 1,000
Pendleton (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 0.8 per 1,000
In 1882, chief Paul had to deal with an event which reeks of a cover-up. The Northern Pacific Railroad petitioned for a 200 foot by 53 mile right of way to build a railroad across the Flathead Reservation. Chief Arlee asked for $1 million and that led to chief Paul becoming upset. The Assistant Attorney General, Joseph McCammon, made a statement we can't ignore. McCammon supposedly told Flathead leaders they would be paid $16,000 and $7,625 would be paid to individual Indians whose land would be in the path of the railroad. McCammon also promised to negotiate with the United States government to enlarge the Reservation, from the northern boundary of the Reservation, to the Canadian border. We now know the Flathead Reservation is much larger. It actually extends to the Canadian border and borders Glacier National Park on the east, and into Idaho on the west. In 1882, the United States was causing all kinds of problems with their Greed. One was stealing much of the Flathead Reservation. They didn't enlarge the Reservation they reduced the size of the Reservation in 1882.
According to Frank Linderman, the immediate area north of the Flathead Reservation supposedly established with the signing of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, had a population of Canadian Kootenai in the 1880s. Linderman first visited the Flathead Valley in 1885 and knew the area was very dangerous. The Chippewa's were still prone to killing whites at the time. What Linderman wrote about chief Paul is convincing evidence that chief Paul and his people were yet living in the Flathead Valley on up to the Canadian border in the late 1880s. They were also probably still living in the Eureka, Montana region and the Libby, Montana region, as well as the Bonners Ferry region of Idaho. They were yet living in the Bitterroot Valley up to 1891. And they were yet defending their land against the white invader.
What this evidence proves is the entire land area of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty is a Reservation. Not only that, but northern Idaho and northeastern Washington were included in the text of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, or was also set aside as part of the same Reservation as the Flathead Reservation. The Coeur d'Alene, Colville-Spokane, Columbia, Kalispel, and Flathead Reservations are the same Reservation. The cities of Coeur d'Alene, Missoula, and Spokane are within this Reservation. The United States was very aware of the scablands of central Washington and i suspect they set aside the scablands of central Washington, to be a part of this Reservation as well.
To the north of the Flathead Reservation was a land with almost no whites. To the west was a series of tiny white settlements which extended along a road into Idaho south of Lake Pend Oreille. It followed the same road to Spokane, Washington. North of the Spokane River to the Colville-Spokan Reservation region, were almost no white settlements in the late 19th century. The road leading from Spokane to Pasco, had a number of white settlements but north of the road between the Columbia River on the west and the Columbia River on the east, which leads up to Canada, were almost no white settlements. The region between the Yakima Reservation and the Colville-Spokan Reservation, had almost no white settlements at the time (late 1880s). Washington was obviously a dangerous location in the 1880s.
South of the Reservation where the Bitterroot Valley is, was a mixture of Indians and whites in the 1880s. The area had to have been dangerous even in the 1880s. Chief Charlo refused to leave the area. The United States constantly attempted to force the Chippewa's to leave the Bitterroot Valley region. White settlers were often hostile and frequently told their leaders they wanted the Chippewa's relocated. More about chief Charlo is further down on this page. East of the Flathead Reservation, the region north of the Sun River to the Musselshell River and to the Yellowstone River, had almost no white settlements in the late 1880s.
Around what is now the Lewistown, Montana region were a few settlements at the time (late 1880s) but they were supposedly primarily Indian and mixed blood settlements. However, Louis Riel moved to Montana in the late 1870s and obviously helped to establish a white settlement in the Lewistown region. The Chippewa's of southern Manitoba led by Cuthbert Grant, stopped a white invasion into southern Manitoba during the War of 1812. They were subjugated by the Chippewa's. Chief Sitting Bull supposedly told General Terry at Fort Walsh, Saskatchewan that For 64 Years You Have Kept Us And Treated Us Bad. That was on October 17, 1877. You figure it out!
It was really the whites who were under Chippewa rule at the time (1877) who told General Terry that. It was those whites who moved down to the Lewistown, Montana region and established the white city of Lewistown. Riel helped them. Later, Riel helped to establish white colonies in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Riel was white. When the whites who were originally under Chippewa rule, established the white settlements in the Lewistown, Montana region, chief Little Shell III eventually warned them to leave the Chippewa Reservation. Chief Little Shell III was living in Montana and Saskatchewan at the time.
Flathead Reservation leaders wouldn't have become upset about setting aside a little land so a railroad could be built. Soon after the theft of the northern portion of the Reservation, chief Paul had to restrain his soldiers from killing even more whites to prevent a war. After 1882, the north part of the Reservation was flooded with whites and a near war occurred sometime in the 1880s. Around 100 white settlers armed themselves with repeating rifles and revolvers. Chief Paul knew his soldiers could not defeat even white settlers. They did not have equal weapons. Chief Arlee was known to bargain with the whites. In the early 1870s, the United States coerced chief Arlee out of the Bitterroot Valley portion of the Flathead Reservation. Arlee was not well liked by many Flathead leaders. Chief Paul passed away in 1901 which is the same year chief Little Shell III passed away. Chief Paul was probably related to Joseph Paul who helped to form the Abandoned Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, in 1920 or 1921. Today, they are known as the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana.
Rocky Boy & Joseph Dixon
Chief Rocky Boy became the principle Chippewa leader of Montana and the rest of the Pacific Northwest, by 1902. The death of ogima Little Shell III, led to ogima Rocky Boy becoming the leader of the Chippewa's of the Pacific Northwest. Chief Little Bear reluctantly began to follow ogima Rocky Boy. He had no choice. The whites commenced to negotiating with ogima Rocky Boy in 1902 about the knife in the back. Chief Rocky Boy likely played a major role in the rip off year of 1904 (the year the 10 cent an acre Treaty was ratified), by agreeing to sign away that dear to the Chippewa people and accepting the knife in the back. In early 1902, ogima Rocky Boy commenced negotiations with white leaders who eventually included Montana Congressman Joseph Dixon. Dixon, Montana (it is located on the Flathead Reservation) is named for Congressman Dixon. It was through Dixon, that the United States delivered the knife in the back. Dixon may have tried to help the Chippewa's but the government of the United States became deaf. Ogima Little Bear became so upset about the knife in the back in 1904, he contacted Canadian leaders to request to have the Chippewa's in Montana directly under his leadership, the opportunity to relocate to Canada. Canadian leaders agreed to help.
Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
That knife in the back was really delivered by the Newlands Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902. They may claim the issue was about irrigation projects and other subjects but the goal of the United States was to Steal More Indian Land. Ogima Rocky Boy and other Chippewa leaders, quickly learned about the intentions of the United States. They were defenceless and the United States took every advantage of it. Ogima Rocky Boy contacted a lawyer in 1902 and sought help from affluent whites to attempt to save the huge Chippewa Reservation in the Pacific Northwest. They tried to have a bill passed in congress to save the Reservation (white historians claim it was about land allotments) but the United States supposedly rejected it. It would take a few years before the illegal land acts commenced.
The Creation of the Chippewa Flathead Reservation
In early 1902, chief Rocky Boy commenced negotiations about the eventual land acts which would eventually open up surplus land at the Flathead Reservation. White leaders were attracted to the available farm land between Polson and the region south of St. Ignatius where the Mission Mountains extend west to Ravalli. It extends nearly 30 miles from north to east, and about 13 miles from west to east. It covers around 300 or more sq. mi. or nearly 200,000 acres. That region eventually became the surplus land the whites would force the Flathead Reservation to cede. However, not all land in the southern Flathead Valley or Mission Valley, was ceded. Some was left to the Flathead Reservation, especially along the eastern slopes of the Mission Mountains. Flathead River, from Flathead Lake to Jocko River, then from Ravalli to the east where the Mission Mountains are, back up to Flathead Lake, was the ceded land, or the land of the Flathead Reservation Land Act which is directly related to President Taft's May 22, 1909 Proclamation, or the refusal of the United States to honor treaty agreements, which is related to the April 23, 1904 Act of Congress, which is obviously related to the ratification of the 10 cent an acre treaty in 1904.
On May 14, 1902, chief Rocky Boy reached an agreement with United States representatives about the new Chippewa Reservation within the Flathead Reservation. It includes all land west and north of the Flathead River from Flathead Lake to where the mouth of the Jocko River is. It includes all land south of Ravalli and all land south of the mountains from Ravalli east to the Mission Mountains. It also includes all land south of the Flathead River, from where the mouth of the Jocko River is, west to the western border of the Chippewa Flathead Reservation. Though the press reported that the United States did not agree to set aside the Reservation chief Rocky Boy requested for early in 1902, it was a misprint.
Senator Dixon's Amendment
In 1908, Senator Dixon won an amendment to an Indian Department appropriations bill for $30,000 to find a home for the Chippewa's on the Flathead Reservation. They claim on an existing Reservation but we know it's the Flathead Reservation. The land act took effect at Flathead Reservation in that same year (1908). The new Chippewa Flathead Reservation was nearly all mountainous. Ogima Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the new Chippewa Flathead Reservation's minerals and timber, as well as to allow for individual land allotments but not to have any area of the new Chippewa Flathead Reservation opened to white settlement. The $30,000 was to help those Chippewa's with necessary supplies. Most of their land allotments were eventually sold to non Indians because the Chippewa's faced discrimation and really didn't have enough money to become successful farmers.
The Mission Mountains on the east of the Flathead Reservation is left to the Chippewa Flathead Reservation. Land allotments also followed. In fact, the land allotments may have played an even more crucial role in the events of 1908-1909, or after the May 22, 1909 Proclamation. However, land allotted away from the surplus land remains Flathead Reservation land. The United States illegally allowed Indian citizens of Flathead Reservation the right to sell their land allotments. That really agitated Reservation leaders. Although the land within the new Chippewa Flathead Reservation has much farm land, it is nowhere as abundant as the land within the surplus land or ceded land area. Most is located around the Arlee region and the region between Hot Springs and Lonepine. It is very important for Flathead Reservation leaders to purchase more land between Pablo and the Mission Mountains, and between St. Ignatius and the mountains between Ravalli and the Mission Mountains.
The Creation of the Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation
Chief Rocky Boy could not save the entire Coeur d'Alene Reservation. However, that does not mean the Coeur d'Alene Reservation is lost. The June 21, 1906 Act of Congress singled out the nonmineral and unreserved agriculture land within the boundaries of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation but not the mountainous areas of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Chief Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the Coeur d'Alene Reservations minerals and timber and to allow individual land allotments which could be sold. The area of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation which had an extensive area of farm land was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The western half of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The eastern half from the southern border east of Highway 95, northeast to Saint Maries, Idaho and further northeast to the northeastern point of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, west to the southern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, following the same lake south to just north of the Benewah County border, then southwest to Plummer, then follows the mountains south back to the southern border east of Highway 95, is the Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation. It includes the area where De Smet and Tensed are located.
The Creation of the Chippewa Spokane Reservation
Spokane Reservation proved to be an extremely volatile location in 1902. The United States was already trying to forcefully take land from the Spokane Reservation in 1902 but the Chippeway's responded by raising soldiers to prevent the illegal actions of the United States. Ogima Rocky Boy was obviously involved in the negotiations at Spokane Reservation. What made the Spokane Reservation different was probably the lack of farm land unless the Spokane Reservation was actually larger in 1902 which it was. Spokane and Colville Reservations are the same Reservation. However, the United States went after the minerals and timber and yet Chippeway soldiers protested. President Taft used the May 29, 1908 Act of Congress in his Proclamation of May 22, 1909. Since Spokane Reservation is connected to Colville Reservation, we know the Colville Reservation is involved, or a part of the Chippewa Spokane Reservation. Very little of the Colville Reservation is farm land. It is a land which is rugged and mountainous. If the region had an abundance of farm land it would have been different.
The Reservation is Illegally Eradicated
On May 22, 1909, President Taft took full advantage of a defenceless people and illegally eradicated the huge Chippewa Reservation the United States promised the Chippewa's by signing the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. President Taft's actions singled out the Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, and Flathead Reservations, or the entire land area of the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. Ogima Rocky Boy and the other Chippewa leaders, were exasperated about the actions of the whites and completely dejected. They were defenceless. They were living throughout the entire land area of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty up to 1909. They were not landless as white historians lie to you about. Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, Kalispel, and Flathead Reservations are what remains of the original Reservation set aside with the signing of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty.
In 1908, ogima Rocky Boy and Dixon increased their contacts for they knew the Land Acts were about to take hold. They knew the United States was going to steal much of the the Flathead Reservation and allot land to individual Indians and soon. They feared Chippewa repraisals! It was probably in early 1908, when an agency farmer on the Flathead Reservation made contact with Senator Dixon (by 1908 Dixon had been voted in to be a Senator of Montana) about the Chippewa's. Both Rocky Boy and Dixon knew something had to be done to stop the terrified Chippewa's from releasing their great rage. In 1908, Senator Dixon made an effort to stop what everyone knew would occur but he was ignored. They began to prepare for an exodus! Indian Inspector Franch C. Churchill arrived in September of 1908. Serious problems were already occurring in the Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming region. In 1906, the Ute Exodus had occurred. It was really a large number of Chippewa's who most likely fled from land east of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation. They were caught in southeastern Montana, a few miles southeast of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, in October of 1906, and relocated to the Cheyenne Agency Reservation of South Dakota.
The Creation of the Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation
As mentioned, on May 22, 1909 President Taft illegally eradicated the huge Chippewa Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy carried on negotiations with Senator Dixon and Frank Churhill and affluent whites, before President Taft illegally eradicated the vast Reservation. Churhill helped to have a 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in Valley County, Montana. I suspect that the United States actually added the entire Bear Paw Mountain Range to the Fort Belknap Reservation and it is the real 2,160 sq. mi. Valley County Chippewa Reservation. Too much opposition from white settlers in Valley County forced the United States to look for a new location to be a new Chippewa Reservation. More information about the Chippewa Valley County, Montana Reservation is below. Then in response to the available farm land located in the east side of the Blackfeet Reservation, the United States negotiated with ogima Rocky Boy about setting aside a new Chippewa Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation. Mind you, the Blackfeet Reservation is off limits but the citizens of the Blackfeet Reservation were allotted land and much of that land was sold to whites. No surplus land on the Blackfeet Reservation was opened up to white settlement. The land allotments were obviously a factor in the 1910-1911 Chippewa Exodus off the Blackfeet Reservation.
With the arrangements in place at the Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy knew early in 1909 that a new Chippewa Reservation was set aside within the Blackfeet Reservation. It is located between the forks of the St. Mary River and the forks of the Milk River. It extends up to the Canada border and to the southern border of the Blackfeet Reservation. Land east of the boundary has many a farm. Most may be owned by non Indians, or individual Blackfeet citizens lease the land to non Indians to earn an income. Land to the west has few farms and is rugged terrain. From the forks of the Milk River, the land extends to 5 miles north of Browning and includes the land between the river north of Browning and the river south of Browning, and land east of Browning, to Kipp Lake. It includes land southeast of Kipp Lake to Mission Lake. It also includes land southeast of Mission Lake to Alkali Lake. From Alkali Lake, it includes land all the way to Swift Reservoir. All land north and west, is the Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909.
After the 1908 Swan Valley Massacre, ogima Rocky Boy negotiated with American leaders about having those Chippewa's living on the Flathead Reservation who considered him their leader, and in southwestern Montana, to be relocated to their new Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation. The Chippewa's of southwestern Montana where ogima Rocky Boy was born, are the Piegan Blackfoot who are also known as I-nuk'sik. The hostile Chippewa's from the Flathead Reservation, were early on transported to near Fort Harrison, Montana which is very near Helena. In November 1909, many Chippewa's from southwestern Montana, the Flathead Reservation, and northern Idaho (the Coeur d'Alene and Nez Perce Reservations) had congregated in Helena to be transported to their new Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation. Many obviously moved up to the Blood and Piegan Reserve which is connected to the Blackfeet Reservation. Their goal was to preserve their Nationality. However, the United States refused to honor their agreement.
The Creation of the Fort Belknap-Rocky Boy (Chippewa Valley County), Montana Reservation
As mentioned, too much opposition by white settlers in Valley County, Montana forced the United States to find another location to set aside the 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation. Maps from the 1880s show the area where the Rocky Boy Reservation is, as being the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation. We know a Chippewa Reservation was already decades old when the United States supposedly set aside the Rocky Boy Reservation on September 7, 1916. A map of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is down further below.
About 15 miles east of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was Fort Belknap Reservation. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation covered 700,000 acres or over 1,000 sq. mi. Fort Belknap Reservation covered nearly 1,000 sq. mi. after it was created in 1888. However, the two Reservations were not connected. Some 20 years later when the land acts commenced, ogima Rocky Boy not only had to deal with the land allotment issue at the Blackfeet Reservation but the Fort Peck Reservation as well. And ogima Rocky Boy had support from Frank Linderman and Indian Office Inspector Frank Churchill. Churchill is responsible for requesting that all of Valley County, Montana be withdrawn from white settlement and that a new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation be set aside which the government of the United States agreed to do.
With extreme opposition by white settlers in Valley County, Montana to a new Chippewa Reservation, the United States found land west of Valley County, Montana to set aside the new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation for the Chippewa's of Fort Peck Reservation, and western and southwestern Montana, and also northern Idaho. They needed to ease the tension Chippewa leaders at Fort Peck Reservation, were feeling about the land act at Fort Peck Reservation. Thus, the reason for all of Valley County, Montana being withdrawn from white settlement. If you read about the events which led to all of Valley County, Montana being withdrawn from white settlement and that a new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation being set side for the Chippewa's from western Montana, you have no choice but to first include the Chippewa's of Fort Peck Reservation. You are not stupid.
Between the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation, from the Missouri River to the Milk River, was the land the United States found to be suitable for the new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation. It connected the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation with the Fort Belknap Reservation, with the new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation. The new Chippewa Reservation covers over 4,000 sq. mi. All of the Bear Paw Mountain Range and Little Rocky Mountains are within the Reservation. There are quite a few farms, especially in the far north and southwestern portion of this Reservation. Most of the land is rugged and mountainous however. This happened in 1909. And ogima Rocky Boy and his brother chief Pennato, were responsible for the creation of the new large Chippewa Reservation. When the Chippewa's relocated to the Blackfeet Reservation in November of 1909, the Chippewa's from Fort Peck Reservation moved to the new Chippewa Reservation set aside surrounding the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Peck Reservation. All would not remain uneventful.
Chief Pennato and the 1910-1911 Exodus
In 1910-1912, or shortly after the 100s (it may have been more) of Chippewa's settled the Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy's brother became agitated about the actions of the United States. At issue was Chippewa children attending white boarding schools. Chippewa parents knew that the whites were brainwashing their children. They complained to their leaders and surprisingly ogima Pennato (Rocky Boy's brother) rose to the occasion. He was determined to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. So determined he ordered the commencement of an exodus off the Reservation. It went for some time before it was halted. Ogima Pennato was arrested and confined to near Fort Harrison. He, nor anyone else, could stop the United States from brainwashing Chippewa children. Ogima Pennato knew he was going to die according to a companion. On a trip to the Blackfeet Reservation he passed away mysteriously. His brother, ogima Rocky Boy, remained at the Blackfeet Reservation.
The Reservation is Illegally Reduced
Early in 1916, ogima Rocky Boy passed away. His brother, ogima Pennato, had died a few years earlier. Shortly after ogima Rocky Boy passed away, the United States became crooked and illegally reduced the size of the new Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909, which surrounded the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Peck Reservation. White historians are playing you by being outright liars. They claim Rocky Boy Reservation was set aside on September 7, 1916. However, we know a Chippewa Reservation was already where Rocky Boy Reservation is now, in the 1880s. The new 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909, which surrounded the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation, was illegally eradicated, and the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was reduced in size from 700,000 acres to 120,000 acres (actually to a little over 50,000 acres). They changed the name from Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation to Rocky Boy Reservation. They left Fort Belknap Reservation alone. They had no choice.
After learning the large Chippewa Reservation had been illegally reduced from over 4,000 sq. mi. to a little over 1,000 sq. mi., Chippewa leaders reacted to prophecy (the Seven Fires Prophecy) an organized an exodus. A large number fled south to the region between Augusta, Montana and east of Lewistown, Montana. Many settled with the Chippewa's living at Hill 57 near Great Falls, Montana. Many were caught and transported to the Navajo Reservation. And many were set aside the Papago Reservation in Ariziona in 1916.
The Creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
After the large Chippewa Reservation was reduced from over 4,000 sq. mi. to a little over 1,000 sq. mi., many Chippewa's fled directly south into what is now Fergus County, Montana, where many Chippewa's were living. The United States set aside a Reservation in what is now Fergus County, Montana for the Crow on August 16, 1873. They supposedly eradicated the Reservation on March 25, 1875. It was in this location where the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana was formed.
We know about the creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana through Howard Paul who may have been the son of Joseph Paul. According to Howard Paul, a number of Chippewa's held a meeting on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewiston, Montana in 1920, when he was 7 years old. According to Lloyd Paul who did an extensive genealogy report on the Montana Paul's, Howard Paul was born in 1914 at Forest Grove, Montana which is between Grass Range and Lewistown and directly south of the Fort Belknap Reservation. Howard Paul was referring to a meeting held on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewistown, in 1921 and not 1920.
Joseph Paul was obviously a leader among the Chippewa's in the Fergus County, Montana region before 1920. He and several members of his family including his father Elzear Paul, were allotted land in Fergus County. He eventually sold his land allotments and moved to Great Falls, as did his father Elzear Paul. While in Great Falls, Joseph Paul became the Representative for the Chippewa's of the Great Falls region. On June 9, 1939, the representatives of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, met at the home of Joseph Paul in Great Falls. Something transpired which led to some sort of friction. Joseph Dussome represented the Reservation Chippewa's, while Raymond Gray formed an organization in Great Falls he named the Montana Landless Indians. Gray's organization was the most threatening to Joseph Paul. Joseph Paul wanted to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. Dussome focused on Reservations.
Joseph Paul held extremely important historical information. It is through Joseph Paul that we know the Chippewa's of Montana refused to accept the corrupted October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. By refusing to accept the corrupted October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, i mean Joseph Paul knew the United States set aside the entire land area mentioned in the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, to be a Chippewa Reservation. The eventual eradication of the Chippewa Reservation the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty set aside for the Chippewa's, was not ratified by the Chippewa's. Around Hill 57, the Chippewa's owned land they considered their Rancheria or Reservation. In 1950 (the same year Joseph Paul died), the United States auctioned off the Hill 57 Chippewa Rancheria to the highest bidder. The money raised was to purchase land adjacent to Rocky Boy Reservation for the Hill 57 Chippewa's. Dussome hired a lawyer in 1950 and in 1951 they filed a lawsuit about the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. In 1973, the United States rejected the lawsuit. They claimed the Chippewa's did not live in Montana before the 1880s which is a lie.
Ogima Little Bear could do nothing to stop what eventually occurred. White historians are so corrupted about Chippewa history, they have resorted to classifying ogima Little Bear and the Chippewa's under his leadership, as being Cree or a distinct tribe. Ogima Little Bear's father was Chippewa and he told an interviewer his mother was a Chippewa from Wisconsin. You only need to read William W. Warrens 19th century book "History of the Ojibway People" to learn that the northern most Chippewa's were named the O-ma-ski-goes or Swampy People. The whites corrupted the important information by changing "Swampy People" to "Swampy Cree." As expected, the exodus off the Flathead Reservation did occur. Major violence was avoided as a result of the early preparations.
Swan Creek & Black River (the Saginaw) Chippewa's Of Montana
Montana has three groups of Chippewa's who are not recognized by the government of the United States. The Little Shell are the most widely known but there are two other groups. One is the Ah-on-te-way and the other who are from western (the Flathead Reservation) and southwestern Montana, are the Swan Creek & Black River Chippewa's of Montana. At first when i learned about the Swan Creek & Black River Chippewa's of Montana, i thought they were the Swan Creek & Black River Chippewa's who relocated to Kansas, from Michigan, in 1838-1839. However, after learning that a creek just south of the Bitterroot Valley has the name Black Creek and another creek about 30 miles south of Bozeman, has the name Swan Creek, i have changed my opinion. The Montana Swan Creek & Black Creek Chippewa's, are obviously the Native Americans mentioned in the 1855 Hellgate Treaty. It all makes sense when you put the puzzle together. Ogima Rocky Boy claimed he was born between Anaconda and Butte. It is what ogima Little Bear told the whites in Butte about 100 years ago that stands out. He claimed his father, ogima Big Bear, lived along the Snake River in Idaho and relocated up to southwestern Montana. That probably occurred during the 1862-1868 Snake River War.
It is the Flatheads and Kootenai who lived throughout the Bitterroot Valley and southwestern Montana, including the Big Hole Basin, Deer Lodge Valley (from south of Deer Lodge to Drummond), Gallatin Valley (the region around Bozeman - it had a large Chippewa population and was obviously desired by the whites), Ruby Valley (the region north and south of Twin Bridges), Madison Valley and Paradice Valley, while the other Tribes lived in and around the Jocko Reservation region. That means the Flathead Indians are indeed Anishinabe. Living with the Chippewa's in the Bitterroot Valley and other Montana valleys, were many Bannacks, Nez Perce, and Pend d'Oreilles. The Helena Valley possibly had a small Chippewa population but that valley was not as rich as some of the other larger valleys, in the mountains of southwestern Montana. The settlement of Deer Lodge was one of the first white settlements founded in Montana. However, the whites became very interested in the Butte and Helena regions because the Indian population was not numerous there and because of Greed.
In the very early 1860s, a horde of illegal white settlers invaded southwestern Montana which ignited a war between the Chippewa's and the white settlers. That war is known historically as the Snake River War, which was fought from the Snake River in Idaho, up to southwestern Montana, from the early 1860s to 1868. Those illegal white settlers were under the impression that almost all of western and southwestern Montana, had been ceded to the United States. They found out otherwise. Up to 1,000 white settlers were killed between 1862-1868, after they illegally invaded southwestern Montana. They first established settlements at Bannack and Virginia City. What enticed them to that area of Montana was gold, silver, and other precious metals the government of the United States had hired certain American companies to search for in that area of Montana, in order to start a massive migration of white settlers to that part of Montana. There were obviously Chippewa's living in that part of Montana, which is south of the Bitterroot Valley, extending from Wisdom, Dillon, to Bozeman, on up to Butte and Helena. However their population was not as numerous as in the Bitterroot Valley area, which offered them a much better opportunity to successfully run agriculture operations. However, the area around Bozeman may have had a significant Chippewa population because that area is somewhat similar to that of the Bitterroot Valley.
They were civilized. The whites may claim otherwise but they were civilized. After establishing their first settlements in southwestern Montana, the whites formed alliances with the Bannack Indians who had yet to be subjugated by the Chippewa's. Those independant Bannacks lived in extreme southwestern Montana, just south of the Bozeman-Wisdom line, and were very willing to ally with the whites. Years later, however, they developed great regrets for forming alliances with the whites. Most Bannacks were probably subjugated by the Chippewa's who forced them to pay a tribute to them. In return for the tribute payments, the Chippewa's offered to protect the Bannacks. As part of their treaty agreements, the Chippewa's allowed the Bannacks to continue to live on most of their native land. And, of course, many Bannack soldiers fought alongside their Chippewa subjugators, to fight the invading whites.
White historians claim that it was white law enforcement officers who killed the 100s of white settlers. They are wrong! Unable to control their appetite for greed, shortly after the civil war ended, scores of illegal white settlers invaded the beautiful Bitterroot Valley. This event occurred during the late 1860s and early 1870s, or just after the 1862-1868 Snake River War ended, and was the center of the white plans for invading western Montana. Throughout the beautiful Bitterroot Valley, was a great deal of excellant agriculture land, as was the land around the Bozeman region. Throughout the Bitterroot Valley was a huge area of land being cultivated long before the whites first appeared, by the Chippewa's who lived there. In 1872, chief Arlee and chief Adolphe signed a treaty agreeing to relocate to the Jocko Reservation. Evidently chief Arlee was Nez Perce. As for chief Adolphe, i have yet to learn of his tribal affiliation.
If you research ogima Charlo, you will learn that he was a friend of the whites who made it clear to the Chippewa's who were fighting the whites for control of the Bitterroot Valley and the rest of western Montana, that he would not join them to fight against the whites. Then other accounts tell of how ogima Charlo refused to leave the Bitterroot Valley. In fact, American soldiers were ordered in to forcefully remove ogima Charlo and the Chippewa's under his leadership, in 1891. What that indicates, should be clear to you! White historians are not being honest about the events of those times. So ogima Charlo was an ally of the whites? However, the whites treated him with absolutely no respect.
American soldiers were sent to Montana in the 1,000s in the mid 1870s, to open up Montana to white settlement. They singled out the Great Falls region because it was the capitol of the Anishinabe Nation. There are ruins of an ancient civilization here in Great Falls the whites are claiming are the ruins of the smelters. The ruins nearest the Indian trails tell the truth. As many as 50,000 to 100,000 Chippewa's lived in what is now Great Falls and north central Montana at the time. The large Anishinabe population was the result of the large number of Buffalo. Lewis and Clark claimed the largest buffalo herds they seen on their expedition, were in what is now the Great Falls, Montana region. American soldiers attacked the capitol of the Anishinabe Nation killing and wounding 1,000s. It forced Anishinabe leaders to commence an exodus towards the west. Before American soldiers could stop the westward exodus into Oregon and Washington, 10,000s of Chippewa's had reached the Oregon and Washington region. With the road (Mullan Road) blocked, Anishinabe leaders ordered the exodus to continue up to the north, into Canada. That exodus led 10,000s of Anishinabek to Canada. It was the Seven Fires Prophecy which caused the exodus white historians claim was the Nez Perce Exodus. At first i thought historians were correct but after carefully reading the Seven Fires Prophecy, i had a change of opinion.
During negotiations between ogima Charlo and the United States, ogima Charlo made it extremely clear to the United States, that he either would stay in the Bitterroot Valley, or migrate to the plains of eastern Montana, to probably be closer to the Chippewa's of that location, instead of relocating to the Jocko Reservation (Flathead Reservation) to the north. What that represents is an atmosphere was around ogima Charlo and his subjects, which was centered on a great hatred for the Indians living on the Jocko Reservation. That means the Indians living on the Jocko Reservation were extremely hostile towards the Chippewa's and joined the whites to fight the Chippewa's. Those Indians on the Jocko Reservation being of course, the Nez Perce and the Pend d'Oreille.
After the war ended, a peace was established but the Flathead Indians (Chippewa Indians) continued to live throughout the Bitterroot Valley and southwestern Montana. During that time period (1877-1891), the Flathead Indians were supposedly led by ogima Charlo. Ogima Charlo absolutely refused to cede any land to the United States. American leaders obviously seen ogima Charlo as being hostile. Throughout that entire time period, spoiled rotten white settlers constantly petitioned their government to remove the Flathead Indians (Chippewa Indians) living in the Bitterroot Valley and southwestern Montana. During the 1880s, much of the remaining Flathead population living in the Bitterroot Valley and southwestern Montana, did relocate to the Jocko Reservation. Then supposedly in 1891, ogima Charlo and the Flatheads under his leadership, were forced by the American military to relocate to the Jocko Reservation. There may have been yet another exodus of Chippewa's from the Flathead Reservation around the same time period (1891), probably up to the Blackfeet Reservation and Canada.
The whites forced the Chippewa's and the Nez Perce (the Jocko Reservation was obviously set aside for the Nez Perce as well) living on the Flathead Reservation, to lose their tribal identities. However, there are still many Chippewa's clinging on to their Anishinabe identity on the Flathead Reservation. It is very obvious that the Flathead Indians and Kootenai are Chippewa's. Then the other obvious tribes which includes the Nez Perce and Pend d'Oreille, make up the smaller portion of the Flathead Reservations Indian population.
You only need to read Peter Jones 19th century book "History of the Ojebway Indians" to learn that many generations before Jones time (the mid 19th century), the Chippewa's were fighting a war against the Salishan people beyond the Rocky Mountains, near where the present Flathead Reservation is. Another book written by an Anishinabe, is Andrew Blackbirds "History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan." He wrote about the Flathead people.
The October 18, 1908 Swan Valley Massacre
A group of supposed Pend d'Oreilles (they were really Chippewa's who either were continuing to live within the original Flathead Reservation, or who fled the Flathead Reservation), were caught off Reservation hunting in the Swan Valley which borders the Flathead Reservation on the east slopes of the Mission Mountains. The 8 Chippewa's had supposedly purchased hunting permits which they showed to the game warden and a few deputized citizens who accompanied him. They supposedly went off on their hunting trip in September of 1908. They were not the only Chippewa's hunting in the Swan Valley or Seely Valley, at the time. Many others were doing likewise. Chippewa ogimak were aware of the intentions of the whites and knew the Flathead Reservation would soon be destroyed. Ogima Charlo may have played a role in this tragedy. He claimed in an interview, that he rather relocate to the plains of Montana than to the Flathead Reservation. He was still alive in 1908. By October, the whites had realized something else had transpired. Charles Peyton (the Game Warden) and the deputized citizens, went looking for the Chippewa's who were now using the Swan Valley for hunting. They found one of their camps in the Swan Valley. He demanded the proof they had permits to hunt which they did. The State of Montana was breaking treaty law. The Indians had the right, by treaty, to fish and hunt. However, Peyton returned the next day in the mood for killing.
Peyton told the Chippewa's to leave the Swan Valley by the next day when he warned he would return again. The Chippewa's supposedly agreed to pack their belongings but before they could get everything ready, Peyton returned as he warned. He enterred their camp shooting his gun. He meant to kill which means historians are not being honest about this historical event. In the first moments, two of the Chippewa's were shot and eventually died. A third Chippewa man was killed after he tried to reach for his gun. The 13 year old son of one of the Chippewa men killed, got his gun and shot Peyton in the stomach. A deputy then shot and killed the 13 year old boy. One of the wifes of the Chippewa's killed, got her a gun and finished off Peyton. She killed him dead on. This event led to the following.
At the time (1908), the United States was having all kinds of problems with the Montana Chippewa Indians. They sent Indian Agent Frank Churchill to Montana to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, in 1908-1909. Churchill requested from the government of the United States, to withdraw all of Valley County, Montana from white settlement and to have a 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in the same said county, for the Chippewa's from western Montana (Flathead Reservation) and southwestern Montana. The government of the United States agreed. The Chippewa's from western and southwestern Montana, could not reach their new Reservation in Valley County because the railroad owners charged too much. What likely occurred was a forced relocation of the Chippewa's who fled to the Swan Valley, to Helena, soon after the Swan Valley Massacre. They were held as POWS at Fort Harrison until November of 1909.
In November of 1909, upwards to 200 Chippewa's were forced to relocate to the Blackfeet Reservation, where they were set aside a new Reservation between the forks of the St. Mary River and the forks of the Milk River. It extends up to the Canada border, to the southern border of the Blackfeet Reservation. East of the forks of the Milk River, the land is rich agriculture land. It has many farms. West of the forks of the Milk River, the land is more rugged. Few farms are located there. It is the real Blackfeet Reservation. Browning is within the new Chippewa Reservation set aside for the Chippewa's from the Flathead Reservation and southwestern Montana.
Today, the government of the Flathead Reservation recognizes the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. They are the only Montana Reservation i know of at the present time, that recognizes the Little Shell Chippewa's. In the 1970s and 1980s, Rocky Boy Reservation provided medical care and other needs for the Little Shell Chippewa Indians of Montana. Little Shell Chippewa's can receive medical attention and other benefits on the Flathead Reservation. They supposedly number only around 100 on the Flathead Reservation now. However, at epodunk.com the demographics of Lake County put the Chippewa population at 1% or near 300, of the county's population. Much of the Flathead Reservation is in Sanders County and some is in Missoula County. The total Chippewa population on the Flathead Reservation may be closer to 400 than 300.
Many of the Reservations Indians are obviously having tribal identity problems. The Cherokee make up 1% of the Reservations population as do the Cree and Sioux. The Navajo also make up 1% of the Reservations population. The Blackfeet and Mexican's each make up 2% of the Reservations population. We can accept the stats for the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree but not the Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux. The Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux are far more popular among the whites than the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree. A total of 8% of the Reservations population of 28,000, is identifying themselves as non Salish and Kootenai. That is nearly 3,000 of the Reservations Indian population of 7,000.
The 1909 Chippewa Population Under Rocky Boy's Leadership
In April of 1909, Thralls W. Wheat complied a census of the Chippewa's who were led by chief Rocky Boy. The total was 127. At the time, the United States was again forcing the Chippewa's to relocate and according to the Indian Agent at the Flathead Reservation, around 400 Chippewa's were led by ogima Rocky Boy. The 127 Chippewa's were located around Montana but were primarily located in a few important locations to them. The most important location was the Flathead Reservation. Of the 127 Chippewa's, 38 were either native to the Flathead Reservation or had children attending school there. One was from the Coeur d'Alene Reservation of northern Idaho but had family ties to the Flathead Reservation. The next important location was Cut Bank or the Blackfeet Reservation, with 20. However, they may have been early ones to relocate to the Blackfeet Reservation. The Crow Reservation was next with 19. Next was Garrison with 16. Since Montana has two settlements named Garrison, it is difficult to learn which Garrison was involved. Either the one near Great Falls (now Ulm), or the one to the west of Helena. Next was Anaconda with 14. Helena had 6 including Rocky Boy. Logan, which was probably the old Fort Logan, had 6. Of the 127 Chippewa's, either 74 or 58 were from far western Montana and southwestern Montana. Many more Chippewa's lived throughout Idaho and Montana but were under different Chippewa leaders. The Flathead Indian Agent's population estimate is closer. Instead of 38, around 150 Chippewa's were living at the Flathead Reservation who followed ogima Rocky Boy's instructions.
There are at least 24 settlements on this Reservation. Census records claim only 8 of them are predominantly Native American. However, i have included extra settlements. Census Designated Places are a bit puzzling for more than one reason. The main reason being the size of cdp's. In the case of the Flathead Reservation, many of the cdp's cover large areas of land. An example would be Pablo. Pablo is a cdp that covers 4.9 sq. mi. but the main part of Pablo covers less than 1.0 sq. mi. That means people from away from the main part of Pablo, are included in the population. Those people tend to live on farms. But in the case of Pablo, a large area which sits adjacent to the main part of Pablo, is covered by a forest. Most people living there are Indians. Nearly all people living on farms on the Flathead Reservation are white.
Arlee is another example. Arlee covers 6.5 sq. mi. but most of the people live in a small area which covers less than 1.0 sq. mi. The people who live away from the main part of Arlee which covers less than 1.0 sq. mi. live near or on farms which surround the main part of Arlee. It is difficult to learn if the population living in the main part of Arlee is predominantly white or predominantly Indian. A little north of the main part of Arlee (the main part of Arlee has around 105 housing units) is a smaller area which has around 45 housing units. Unlike the main part of Arlee, it has no business establishments. In the remaining area of the cdp of Arlee, are the other housing units which number around 100. Nearly all are not located on farms which could indicate the housing units are owned or rented by Indians. If the settlements are located away from farms, it may be an indication they are predominantly Indian. In either case, the main part of Arlee is possibly predominanly white, while North Arlee and the outer housing units may be a predominantly Indian area. Below i have included 4 areas of clusters of housing units near Arlee which i have named after roads. Most of the residents of Arlee make more than $15,000 a year. Around 34.1% of Arlee's residents live below the poverty line.
St. Ignatius is a city. It covers 0.5 sq. mi. Since the city of St. Ignatius is not a cdp, the demographics of the city are reliable. Indians make up 46.6% of the city's population according to city-data.com. Whites make up 41.9% of the city's population, while mixed bloods make up 7.3% of the population, and Mexicans make up 4.1% of St. Ignatius population. St. Ignatius is a predominantly Indian city which has many business establishments. About normal for the average white city with a population of 800 or higher. Most of the city's residents are doing well finacially. About 19.5% of the city's population lives below the poverty line. About two thirds of the work force makes more than $15,000 a year.
Other cdp's include Charlo and Dixon. Dixon covers 6.9 sq. mi. The cdp's demographics are somewhat off because the cdp has a lack of business establishments and it looks like a town. According to city-data.com, whites make up 82.5% of the cdp's population, while Indians make up 17.5% of Dixon's population. If Dixon had a lot of business establishments the cdp's demographics would be acceptable. Most of the housing units are mobile homes and near half of the people make less than $15,000 a year. At least 35.9% of the cdp's population lives below the poverty line.
Charlo also looks like a town but is a cdp which covers 2.0 sq. mi. A white city with a population of 400, would have quite a few business establishments but the cdp of Charlo does not. According to city-data.com, whites make up 61.8% of the cdp's population, while Indians make up 20.7% of the cdp's population, and mixed bloods make up 17.5% of the population of Charlo. Since Charlo has few business establishments you would think most of the cdp's population is not well off financially but that's not the case. More than two thirds of the cdp's population is making more than $15,000 a year. Around 21.2% of the population of Charlo lives below the poverty line. Something is very wrong at Charlo! Either that or many of the cdp's residents are owners of farms which surround the cdp.
Though having city status qualifies cities for more government financial support, you just can't help but feel left out because the cdp's mentioned look like cities or towns. Evaro does not look like a city or town. It covers 17.0 sq. mi. According to city-data.com, whites make up 35.0% of the cdp's population, while Indians make up 28.7% of Evaro's population, and Mexican's make up 29.3% of the cdp's population, which makes Evaro a predominantly Indian city. Yet only 6.8% of Evaro's population lives below the poverty line. We know something is seriously wrong! However, Missoula is only a few miles to the south.
Other settlements which are predominantly Indian include Elmo, Kicking Horse, Old Agency, and Turtle Lake. Kicking Horse is near Kicking Horse Job Corps. Kicking Horse is 51.7% Indian when including the mixed bloods and Mexicans with the Indians. Other settlements which may be predominantly Indian include Lonepine and Niarada. There are a few other areas on the Reservation which have areas of numerous housing units. One is Arlee Homesite which is a part of the cdp of Arlee and about a quarter mile north of Arlee; another is Clarice Paul Homesite; another is Coriacan Village which is a trailer park with a few housing units near it; another is Mission Dam Homesite; another is Pache Homesite; another is Salish Homesite, which may or may not be a part of the city of St. Ignatius; and another is West Ravalli which is another trailer park. Both Schley Homesite and Coriacan Village, are a part of the cdp of Evaro. I have no idea what their demographics are but included them simply because of their lack of business establishments. They resemble Elmo, Old Agency, Pablo, and Turtle Lake.
An indication a cdp may be predominantly Native American, is the total number of business establishments within the cdp. If the cdp has a population of 400 or 500 and is classified as being predominantly white, the cdp should look like the average white town of 400 to 500. If the cdp has a lack of business establishments, it represents some sort of corruption surrounds the cdp's population data. If the cdp has almost no business establishments, it represents the cdp is nearly 100% Native American.
The more business establishments in the cdp, represents a larger white population lives there but is yet smaller than the Native American population. The average white town of 400 to 500, should have up to 50 or more business establishments. Then we have cdp's which are true rural settlements which don't look like towns. On the Flathead Reservation, Evaro is one, as is Finley Point.
Native Americans are a minority on this Reservation. Pablo is the capitol of this Reservation. The whites own the best land which is agriculture land, while the Native Americans own the mountainous areas. Whites own 529,688 acres of the Reservations 1,243,000 acres. They at one time owned most of the Flathead Reservation but Reservation leaders have aggressively used money to buy back much of their Reservations land and they now own most of their Reservation. Unfortunately, little can be done to change the horrible predicament which the Chippewa's, Kootenai, Nez Perce, Salish, and the Spokane of the Flathead Reservation endure.
We need to save the Flathead Reservation! If we don't do anything to save the Flathead Reservation, it will end up as the Coeur d'Alene (the Couer d'Alene Reservation can be saved) and Nez Perce Reservations (the Nez Perce Reservation is history) of Idaho. To save the Flathead Reservation will require establishing new Indian settlements on the Flathead Reservation which Flathead Reservation leaders are doing. Salish settlers can be attracted to the Flathead Reservation from Washington and British Columbia.
The Salish population in Washington and British Columbia is large. The Kootenai are possibly Chippewa. Evidence indicates some Kootenai know they came from Michigan. Flathead Reservation leaders are going to have to deal with the Chippewa's being allowed to establish Chippewa settlements on the Flathead Reservation. The United States refuses to recognize that the Chippewa's have lived in Montana for over 1,000 years. The Nez Perce must also be allowed to establish settlements on the Flathead Reservation and also the Spokane people. We know from historical records that both the Nez Perce and Spokane, settled down to live on the Flathead Reservation.
Below are the demographics of this Reservation. Average household size is 2.5 persons per household. There is a total of 10,012 housing units, with owner occupied units numbering 7,066, while renter occupied units number 2,946. Below is a list of the cdp's and towns on the Flathead Reservation which are predominantly Native American. Some are classified as being predominantly white, but since both the white population and Indian population are nearly the same percentage wise, i have included those settlements. Anyway, those settlements are possibly predominantly Native American, because of the Hispanic population and the unfortunate act of many Native Americans, to identify their race as non Indian.
Flathead Reservation Demographics
Covers a large area of land.
Population is 193,209
Language is Anishinabe-Salishan-Wakashan
Flathead Reservation Communities
Flathead District Communities
Agency Road (near Arlee)
Clarice Paul Homesite
Coriacan Village Trailer Park
Kopp Road Trailer Park
McClure Road (near Arlee)
Mission Dam Homesite
Pow Wow Road (near Arlee)
Tapit Lane (near Arlee)
West Ravalli Trailer Park
Colville-Spokane District Communities
East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Ford: Spokane Reservation
South East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Westend: Spokane Reservation
Coeur d'Alene District Communities
The June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty Disputed Land Communities
The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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