Horrible is one way of describing what happened to the Flathead Reservation. This Reservation was supposedly established on July 16, 1855, with the signing of the Hell Gate Treaty between the Salishan Tribes of that location who were subjugated by the military and police totem (the Chippewa's) of the Algonquin Tribe, and the United States. According to white historians, the Salishans ceded 22 million acres and were left with a Reservation which covered nearly 1.3 million acres. However, that is not what historical records indicate. Flathead Reservation is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Actually it is a part of the Blackfeet Reservation which is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation.
The Fraudulent 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Continental Divide Diversion
White historians made a blunder by placing the Continental Divide at the wrong location on 19th century maps and maps of the time we live in. It is the Rocky Mountain Trench which is the real Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains. They may claim the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the Rocky Mountains from the Cassiar Mountains and Columbia Mountains but obviously the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the east side of the Rocky Mountains from the west side of the Rocky Mountains. The narrow valley which is the Rocky Mountain Trench (Continental Divide), extends from Watson Lake, Yukon to a location 2.7 miles south of St. Ignatius which is located on the bogus Flathead Reservation. Climate conditions west of the Rocky Mountain Trench (west of the bogus Flathead Reservation) are different than climate conditions to the east. Winters are warmer west of the Rocky Mountain Trench than to the east. Though the Bitterroot Valley must be included as being a part of the Rocky Mountain Trench, climate conditions there are more similar to the climate conditions west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Since there is an obvious discrepancy which continues now, about the Continental Divide, it means the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty never happened.
The Chipewayan Mountains
Early on, the Rocky Mountains were often termed the Chippawan Mountains. They have also been known as the Stony Mountains. Stoney is in reference to the Assiniboine Indians who are really Chippewa. I suspect Lewis and Clark reached a treaty agreement with Chippewa leaders on July 4, 1805 at what is now Great Falls, Montana, in which Canada, England, and the United States agreed to leave the Rocky Mountains to the Chippewa's. Chipewayan Reservation commences where the N Slope Haul Road Bridge crosses the Yukon River in Alaska. It follows the same road which is an old Ojibwa road used to follow the caribou up to the Arctic Ocean, to the Arctic Ocean. The land area to the east is Gwich'in or Han Chippewa land. It follows the Yukon River to Dawson, Yukon then to the source of the Yukon River which is the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia. On Atlin Lakes eastern most side, it follows the valley east to the larger valley where the Cassiar Mountains are located on the east. It includes all Treaty 8 land in British Columbia. It also includes the southern Rocky Mountain Trench to the southern part of the Bitterroot Valley then to the Idaho border. It also includes the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Rivers which flow east down out of the Rocky Mountains for some distance. It includes all of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, south central and Northern Manitoba, and most of northern Ontario.
In 1805, a vicious war was being fought primarily in Canada but also in Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and Minnesota between the Chippewa's and two Asian peoples the whites brought to extreme northern Alaska and extreme northern Canada in the early 18th century. It was a war fought over the Northwest Passage. In British Columbia and Washington, an Asian people (probably Chinese and Filipino) invaded North America about 600 to 1,500 years ago. They formed an alliance with the whites and fought the Chippewa's in British Columbia and Washington. In northern Alaska and northern Canada, the Asians who were brought over by the whites in the early 18th century, are the Aleuts and Eskimos. By the 1860s, the whites no longer needed their support and stabbed them in the back. They were absorbed by the Chippewa's and other Indian Tribes.
Evidently the whites inserted what you may want to think of as a gesture in the bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, in which they supposedly agreed to set aside a Reservation for the Flathead Indians (Chippewa Indians) living in the Bitterroot Valley, if found if that proposition was desirable. You are smart enough to smell a theft while in progress! That part of the treaty is not suppose to be there. The Chippewa's were still living throughout the Bitterroot Valley and other western and southwestern Montana locations, well into the early 1900s. They tended to confine themselves to the outskirts of white towns, and resorted to doing odd jobs to earn money, and making crafts on the side to further increase the amount of money they made. They were very poor and often went hungry. They were thin in those times.
They were prohibted from hunting as they had always done through their own laws, by the whites of Montana, who frequently arrested Chippewa's for hunting out of season (done usually during the coldest months). However, it didn't stop the Chippewa's from breaking white laws. Actually they followed treaty agreements which gave them rights to hunt and fish. The State of Montana broke laws. Chippewa hunters had no choice but to hunt and fish. Either they hunted or they would often go hungry. The Chippewa population in southwestern and western Montana, was highest around Anaconda and Butte. Their population on the Flathead Reservation was large. The bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty set aside the entire land area of the treaty, or the supposed land cession land. The area described as the Flathead Reservation was a diversion or fraudulent. Included as being a part of the bogus July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty land area, are Flathead Reservation, Coeur d'Alene Reservation, Colville-Spokane Reservation, and Kalispel Reservation. And the entire land area of the June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty. Chief Moses made certain we could dispute that land area.
Chief Moses is an especially fascinating historical figure. The two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties were signed by a chief named Moses. The first has him listed as being Kootenay and the other a Flathead. In Washington State lived another chief who was known as chief Moses. He was probably the same Moses who signed the two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties. According to white historians chief Moses of the Washington State region, refused to sign the Washington State Stevens Treaties. An obvious cover-up is in place. Isaac Stevens was in Montana near where the father of Joseph Paul, Elzear Paul, would eventually live (Elzear Paul was born in 1857), in 1853, or nearly a couple of years before the Stevens Treaties commenced.
We know Isaac Stevens was already negotiating with Chippewa leaders in Montana about Chippewa land in the Pacific Northwest in 1853. Whatever happened in Montana (a little north of what would become Lewistown) in 1853, probably dealt with a land cession and the establishment of a Reservation. In 1855, Isaac Stevens commenced to negotiate with the Indians of Oregon and Washington States. We will include California as well because the Stevens Treaties have links to California land. What followed in 1855, was not accepted by the Chippewa's and a three year war followed in Oregon and Washington which ended in 1858.
Joseph Paul made certain we would not forget about the events which occurred during the Stevens Treaties. According to the son of Joseph Paul, Howard Paul, the non treaty Chippewa's of Montana commenced to organize in either 1920 or 1921, on their grandparents ranch near Lewistown, Montana. It was probably the ranch of Joseph Paul. They supposedly wanted to settle a land claim issue. They never signed the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty which was one of the Stevens Treaties. If they did not sign the October 17, 1855 Stevens Treaty, the Chippewa's obviously did not sign any of the Stevens Treaties.
However, if the chief Moses who signed the two Montana Stevens Treaties is the same chief Moses of Washington State, it indicates the whites are using deception to cover-up something. That could be a huge Reservation which straddles a huge area of land in Idaho, Montana, and Washington and possibly even Oregon and California. Chief Kamiakin of the Oregon and Washington region, actually organized the Oregon Coast Tribes to fight in the 1855-1858 war. By the end of the war some sort of agreement may have been agreed upon by the Anishinabe Nation and the United States, which confirmed the original Chippewa demand in 1853, that a huge area of land be set aside in the Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington region.
Of course, that land is the entire land area of the two Montana Stevens Treaties, and the three Camp Stevens Treaties of June 9-11, 1855, which involves a great deal of land in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, and also the June 25, 1855 treaty, which Joel Palmer signed. Palmer and Stevens signed all the Stevens Treaties. They should be called the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Palmer also signed the August 11, 1855 Treaty which ceded southwestern Oregon land which borders California. On November 9, 1855 Palmer supposedly helped to set aside the Oregon Coast Reservation which is now known as the Siletz-Grand Ronde Reservation.
A war was going on in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California in 1855. The November 16, 1855 treaty which established the Klamath Reservation of northwestern California, is obviously related to the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Today, the Klamath Reservation is known as the Hoopa-Yurok Reservation. The Yurok are Algonquin. And going back to 1853, two treaties were signed on September 10 and 19 of that year, which supposedly ceded land in extreme northern California and southern Oregon. All these treaties are obviously linked to Isaac Stevens visit to Montana in 1853. Either Joseph Paul was claiming the Chippewa's refused to cede the land, or he claimed the land as a Chippewa Reservation.
Chief Moses (from Washington) was either born in Washington as nearly all historians claim, or he was born back east. I have read a book in which the author wrote that chief Moses was Cherokee who moved to Wisconsin while very young. He lived in Wisconsin for a long time before migrating to Montana then to Washington where he became a powerful leader. He was obviously Chippewa, as was chief Garry who was played by the whites. Chief Garry was supposedly Spokane but he was sent to Manitoba while very young. Manitoba is Chippewa country. Click here to read a bit of the book about chief Moses living in Wisconsin while very young.
The Paul Clan
Being a Paul makes this task an especially favorite one. It is very difficult to learn about the exact origins of the Montana Paul clan. Their entry into what is now Montana is very, very, difficult to learn about. Using the internet i found out about Ignace Lamoose. White historians claim Ignace Lamoose was an Iroquois which is another white lie. Remove the La from Lamoose and you have Moose, which is an Algonquin word which means Moose of course. The Chippewa leader Ignace the Moose led a group of 24 Chippewa's to the Bitterroot Valley. That probably occurred soon after Antoine Plante journeyed to Washington State around the 1811-1812 time period. Some claim Ignace the Moose led the small group of Chippewa's to the Bitterroot Valley around 1816. They possibly came from Quebec as history indicates but some Kootenay know they originally lived in Michigan. The Chippewa's were already living in far western Montana at the time. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy!
Now about chief Big Face or chief Paul. Lloyd Paul did a careful research of the Paul Clan of Montana east of the Rocky Mountains. His grandfather, Elzear Paul and uncle Joseph Paul, were native to what is now the Fergus County, Montana region. Both were allotted Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation land east of the Lewistown, Montana region. According to historical documents, the Crow were set aside a large Reservation in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region on January 31, 1874. We know from Howard Paul, Joseph Paul, and Joseph Dussome that the Chippewa's have lived in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region, long before the whites settled in Montana. Lloyd Paul provided information on many Paul's including Mary Agnes Paul (no dob and dod however) and most important probably, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul. He was born in Quebec on April 16, 1750. The first chief Big Face of the Flathead Tribe may have been born around 1750. Chief Big Face passed away in the early 1840s. However, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul evidently passed away on February 22, 1824. Click here to read the Paul genealogy work from Lloyd Paul.
Chief Big Face (surname Paul)
In the early 1840s, ogima (chief) Paul (his Anishinabe name was Big Face) met with white Christian missionaries and allowed himself to be used or played, by the whites. He was already in his early 90s at the time. He was probably born around 1750, in either Quebec or possibly Manitoba. He may have converted to Christianity early in his life (in the 18th century). Once he knew the white invaders were visiting more frequently his domain, he made the regrettable decision to request for trouble. Chief Paul may have migrated into western Montana in the late 18th century. His descendants may have been chief Victor and chief Charlo.
Ignace the Lamoose real name was Aeneas (Ignace) Paul. He brought along his family including his son Aeneas Paul who was born before they arrived to the Bitterroot Valley, in 1816. Chief Big Face or chief Paul, was possibly living in the Bitterroot Valley when Ignace the Moose arrived, or he is Ignace Paul. The elder Aeneas Paul married a woman from the Flathead Tribe. His son also married into the same tribe. It is claimed the elder or Old Ignace was smitten with Christianity which could indicate he was a mixed blood. He supposedly journeyed to St. Louis in 1835 to request that missionaries be sent to the Bitterroot Valley. After a period of waiting for their arrival, he became impatient and commenced another trek to St. Louis but was killed in 1837. The poor man was played by the whites. His son (Young Ignace) then took over for his departed father and journeyed to St. Louis in 1839 to again request for missionaries. This time the mistake worked out. It may have been Young Ignace who greeted Father DeSmet in July of 1840 and not the 90 year old chief Big Face.
Aeneas Paul was also known as Old Ignace, while his son was also known as Young Ignace. Young Ignace was very much like Antoine Plante's son who went by the same name, and often acted as a guide to guide whites around. Antoine Plante was probably related to the Montana Paul's. Unfortunately, the first of the Paul clan of Montana were played into establishing the first white settlement in what is now Montana. Today, it is known as Stevensville. That is a no, no! It is revolting! White Christian Missionaries were after money when they ventured to Indian settlements to try and convert Indians to their religion. They were paid by the church that hired them. Unfortunately, they were only thinking of themselves.
Chief Aeneas Paul
Though Aeneas may look like another unrelated word, it is a mispronunciation of Ignace. Chief Aeneas Paul was the son of Aeneas Paul or Old Ignace. He was born in Manitoba or Quebec, or before Old Ignace arrived to the Bitterroot Valley. He is very important to the Montana as well as California, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming States Paul clan. His sister Agnes Paul (read Agnes Ignace very carefully until you understand the conspiracy) was born in 1820. Click here to learn about him. Don't let their insult bother you! She married Jacques Finley. Jacques Finley's father was born in Fort Finlay, Canada in 1768. He married a Chippewa woman with the surname of Cree. Both Agnes (Aeneas) Paul and Miaquam (may be a female Chippewa name) Finley married. Click here to read about the first Paul's of Montana!
They lived from western Montana to central Washington. Chief Paul Young Ignace was quite fond of the region from western Montana to central Washington. The Paul clan of the Pacific Northwest can trace their roots back to Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, and possibly Michigan. The Kootenai who know they originally lived in Michigan, will accept this important information. We know Aeneas Paul or Young Ignace had one son.
Chief Aeneas Paul or Koostatah I
He also went by the name Big Face II or Big Knife II. He represented the Chippewa's during the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty negotiations. Chief Paul told the whites his people were often at war against many tribes. He actually claimed the last tribe they made peace with were the Blackfeet which is quite strange. The Blackfeet are Algonquin like the Chippewa's. In fact, they are both the same people. We keep learning that the Blackfeet were constantly at war against other Algonquins. You can't believe that if you know about the Seven Fires Prophecy. Their name is a reference to the Black Heels - Black Hills, which are located in southwestern and western Montana.
Chief Paul was the leader of the Dayton Creek Kootenai. Their main settlement now is Elmo. They no longer know who they are. They are a mixture of Algonquin and non Algonquin Indians. Chief Paul negotiated on behalf of his people with United States representatives sent to negotiate the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. It was reported that Chief Paul signed the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, but his accepted name Aeneas Paul does not appear on the treaty. Strong evidence that chief Paul refused to sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. However, a Flathead chief with the name Paul, did sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. We don't know if it was chief Aeneas Paul however. Another Kootenai chief named chief Michelle did sign the treaty and then supposedly returned to Canada. Afterwards chief Paul became his successor.
Even now the Flathead Reservation has one of the highest percentages of the Paul surname of any location in the Pacific Northwest. I included only five Flathead Reservation communities. Their total population is 10,091. And St. Ignatius along with Ronan, have the highest percentage with 1.0 per 100. I could not find any white page listings for Fort Belknap Agency and Lodgepole, which are Fort Belknap Reservation communities. I could only include Harlem and Hays. Next is the Great Falls region, then the region just north of the Flathead Reservation, or the Kalispell region. The Babb, Montana region has the highest percentage of the Paul Surname in Montana. In North Dakota, the Rugby and Bismarck-Mandan region has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. In South Dakota, it is Pierre.
In Idaho, the Nez Perce Reservation and the immediate surrounding region, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. The Nez Perce Reservation is far worse off than the Flathead Reservation. Only one town of the Nez Perce Reservation (Lapwai) is predominantly Indian. Next is the region near the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. In Washington State, the region between the Colville-Spokan Reservation and north of the Yakima Reservation, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Next is the Yakima Reservation region. In Wyoming, the region between Cody and Powell have the highest percentage of the Paul Surname. In California, the region from Eureka to Crescent City, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Of course, i'm keeping these areas in California near Reservations. All have above normal % for the Paul surname in the United States which number 72,248.
In Alberta, the Paul Clan has long lived there. Today, the Alexander and Paul First Nations have leaders (councilors) with the Paul surname. The Paul First Nation is supposedly Lakota but Canada set aside a large Reserve named the Montana Reserve which was located around Piegon Lake. Canada refused to honor treaty agreements and stole the Reserve. It forced many of the Chippewa's living at the Montana Reserve which now includes the Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson First Nations, to move north where the Paul First Nation is now. It was originally named the Alexis First Nation or went by another name. Chief Paul assumed power over the Reserve east of Edmonton in 1887. It's name was then changed to the Paul First Nation. These Alberta Paul's may have originally lived in Montana before the 1877 exodus. However, it's very likely many Paul's from Manitoba settled in Alberta long before 1877.
Babb, Blackfeet Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 30
Siletz Reservation, Oregon: 1.1 per 100
Nez Perce Reservation, Idaho: 1.0 per 100
Rugby, North Dakota: 1.0 per 200
Flathead Reservation (Arlee; St. Ignatius; Ronan; Pablo; and Polson), Montana: 1.1 per 300
Parker, Yakima Reservation, Washington: 1.0 per 300
Hays, Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Harlem, Borders Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Cody, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Powell, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Bismarck-Mandan, North Dakota: 1.5 per 1,000
Rathdrum (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.5 per 1,000
Hoopa-Yurok Reservation Region, California: 1.2 per 1,000
Yakima Reservation Region, Washington: 1.1 per 1,000
Washington State (between Colville-Spokan and north of Yakima Reservations): 1.1 per 1,000
Dickinson, North Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Pierre, South Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Moscow (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.1 per 1,000
La Grande (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 1.1 per 1,000
Warm Springs Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Klamath Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Yreka-Lewiston-Red Bluff Region, California: 1.0 per 1,000
Rawlins, Wyoming: 1.0 per 1,000
Spirit Lake (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.0 per 1,000
Great Falls, Montana: 0.9 per 1,000
Kalispell, Montana Region: 0.8 per 1,000
Pendleton (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 0.8 per 1,000
In 1882, chief Paul had to deal with an event which reeks of a cover-up. The Northern Pacific Railroad petitioned for a 200 foot by 53 mile right of way to build a railroad across the Flathead Reservation. Chief Arlee asked for $1 million and that led to chief Paul becoming upset. The Assistant Attorney General, Joseph McCammon, made a statement we can't ignore. McCammon supposedly told Flathead leaders they would be paid $16,000 and $7,625 would be paid to individual Indians whose land would be in the path of the railroad. McCammon also promised to negotiate with the United States government to enlarge the Reservation, from the northern boundary of the Reservation, to the Canadian border.
According to Frank Linderman, the immediate area north of the Flathead Reservation supposedly established with the signing of the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, had a population of Canadian Kootenai in the 1880s. Linderman first visited the Flathead Valley in 1885 and knew the area was very dangerous. The Chippewa's were still prone to killing whites at the time. What Linderman wrote about chief Paul is convincing evidence that chief Paul and his people were yet living in the Flathead Valley on up to the Canadian border in the late 1880s. They were also probably still living in the Eureka, Montana region and the Libby, Montana region, as well as the Bonners Ferry region of Idaho. They were yet living in the Bitterroot Valley up to 1891. And they were yet defending their land against the white invader.
The October 18, 1908 Swan Valley Massacre
A group of supposed Pend d'Oreilles (they were really Chippewa's who either were continuing to live within the original Flathead Reservation, or who fled the Flathead Reservation), were caught off Reservation hunting in the Swan Valley which borders the Flathead Reservation on the east slopes of the Mission Mountains. The 8 Chippewa's had supposedly purchased hunting permits which they showed to the game warden and a few deputized citizens who accompanied him. They supposedly went off on their hunting trip in September of 1908. They were not the only Chippewa's hunting in the Swan Valley or Seely Valley, at the time. Many others were doing likewise. Chippewa ogimak were aware of the intentions of the whites and knew the Flathead Reservation would soon be destroyed. Ogima Charlo may have played a role in this tragedy. He claimed in an interview, that he rather relocate to the plains of Montana than to the Flathead Reservation. He was still alive in 1908. By October, the whites had realized something else had transpired. Charles Peyton (the Game Warden) and the deputized citizens, went looking for the Chippewa's who were now using the Swan Valley for hunting. They found one of their camps in the Swan Valley. He demanded the proof they had permits to hunt which they did. The State of Montana was breaking treaty law. The Indians had the right, by treaty, to fish and hunt. However, Peyton returned the next day in the mood for killing.
Peyton told the Chippewa's to leave the Swan Valley by the next day when he warned he would return again. The Chippewa's supposedly agreed to pack their belongings but before they could get everything ready, Peyton returned as he warned. He enterred their camp shooting his gun. He meant to kill which means historians are not being honest about this historical event. In the first moments, two of the Chippewa's were shot and eventually died. A third Chippewa man was killed after he tried to reach for his gun. The 13 year old son of one of the Chippewa men killed, got his gun and shot Peyton in the stomach. A deputy then shot and killed the 13 year old boy. One of the wifes of the Chippewa's killed, got her a gun and finished off Peyton. She killed him dead on. This event led to the following.
At the time (1908), the United States was having all kinds of problems with the Montana Chippewa Indians. They sent Indian Agent Frank Churchill to Montana to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, in 1908-1909. Churchill requested from the government of the United States, to withdraw all of Valley County, Montana from white settlement and to have a 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in the same said county, for the Chippewa's from western Montana (Flathead Reservation) and southwestern Montana. The government of the United States agreed. The Chippewa's from western and southwestern Montana, could not reach their new Reservation in Valley County because the railroad owners charged too much. What likely occurred was a forced relocation of the Chippewa's who fled to the Swan Valley, to Helena, soon after the Swan Valley Massacre. They were held as POWS at Fort Harrison until November of 1909.
In November of 1909, upwards to 200 Chippewa's were forced to relocate to the Blackfeet Reservation, where they were set aside a new Reservation between the forks of the St. Mary River and the forks of the Milk River. It extends up to the Canada border, to the southern border of the Blackfeet Reservation. East of the forks of the Milk River, the land is rich agriculture land. It has many farms. West of the forks of the Milk River, the land is more rugged. Few farms are located there. It is the real Blackfeet Reservation. Browning is within the new Chippewa Reservation set aside for the Chippewa's from the Flathead Reservation and southwestern Montana.
Today, the government of the Flathead Reservation recognizes the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. They are the only Montana Reservation i know of at the present time, that recognizes the Little Shell Chippewa's. In the 1970s and 1980s, Rocky Boy Reservation provided medical care and other needs for the Little Shell Chippewa Indians of Montana. Little Shell Chippewa's can receive medical attention and other benefits on the Flathead Reservation. They supposedly number only around 100 on the Flathead Reservation now. However, at epodunk.com the demographics of Lake County put the Chippewa population at 1% or near 300, of the county's population. Much of the Flathead Reservation is in Sanders County and some is in Missoula County. The total Chippewa population on the Flathead Reservation may be closer to 400 than 300.
Many of the Reservations Indians are obviously having tribal identity problems. The Cherokee make up 1% of the Reservations population as do the Cree and Sioux. The Navajo also make up 1% of the Reservations population. The Blackfeet and Mexican's each make up 2% of the Reservations population. We can accept the stats for the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree but not the Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux. The Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux are far more popular among the whites than the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree. A total of 8% of the Reservations population of 28,000, is identifying themselves as non Salish and Kootenai. That is nearly 3,000 of the Reservations Indian population of 7,000.
The 1909 Chippewa Population Under Rocky Boy's Leadership
In April of 1909, Thralls W. Wheat complied a census of the Chippewa's who were led by chief Rocky Boy. The total was 127. At the time, the United States was again forcing the Chippewa's to relocate and according to the Indian Agent at the Flathead Reservation, around 400 Chippewa's were led by ogima Rocky Boy. The 127 Chippewa's were located around Montana but were primarily located in a few important locations to them. The most important location was the Flathead Reservation. Of the 127 Chippewa's, 38 were either native to the Flathead Reservation or had children attending school there. One was from the Coeur d'Alene Reservation of northern Idaho but had family ties to the Flathead Reservation. The next important location was Cut Bank or the Blackfeet Reservation, with 20. However, they may have been early ones to relocate to the Blackfeet Reservation. The Crow Reservation was next with 19. Next was Garrison with 16. Since Montana has two settlements named Garrison, it is difficult to learn which Garrison was involved. Either the one near Great Falls (now Ulm), or the one to the west of Helena. Next was Anaconda with 14. Helena had 6 including Rocky Boy. Logan, which was probably the old Fort Logan, had 6. Of the 127 Chippewa's, either 74 or 58 were from far western Montana and southwestern Montana. Many more Chippewa's lived throughout Idaho and Montana but were under different Chippewa leaders. The Flathead Indian Agent's population estimate is closer. Instead of 38, around 150 Chippewa's were living at the Flathead Reservation who followed ogima Rocky Boy's instructions.
The Bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Rocky Mountain Trench
In the 19th century, the United States made a blunder by placing the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains in the wrong place on maps. It continues to this day. It is the Rocky Mountain Trench which is the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountain Trench extends south from near the Yukon border to Montana then into the Flathead Valley where Flathead Lake is and south into the southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley) which is within the boundaries of the bogus Flathead Reservation. Why is the Flathead Reservation bogus? Because of the Rocky Mountain Trench! As mentioned, the United States made a blunder by placing the main divide (Continental Divide) of the Rocky Mountains in the wrong place on maps. It is not 20 to 30 miles east of the bogus Flathead Reaervation. It is in the middle of the bogus Flathead Reservation. It means the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty never happened and the Flathead Reservation is really a part of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation.
In fact, the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation follows the Rocky Mountain Trench to the Saulteau Chippewa Treaty 8 Reservation in British Columbia, which follows the Yukon River into Yukon then into Alaska. It extends west to the Pipeline highway then turns north and extends up to the Arctic Ocean. It inludes much of the southern part of the western part of Alberta. It also includes all of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, all of northern Saskatchewan, most of Manitoba, and most of northern Ontario, and much of Quebec.
Chief Rocky Boy became the principle Chippewa leader of Montana and the rest of the Pacific Northwest, by 1902. The death of ogima Little Shell III, led to ogima Rocky Boy becoming the leader of the Chippewa's of the Pacific Northwest. Chief Little Bear reluctantly began to follow ogima Rocky Boy. He had no choice. The whites commenced to negotiating with ogima Rocky Boy in 1902 about the knife in the back. Chief Rocky Boy possibly played a major role in the rip off year of 1904 (the year the 10 cent an acre Treaty was ratified), by agreeing to sign away that dear to the Chippewa people and accepting the knife in the back. Or he refused to sign the treaty. There is evidence he refused to cooperate. In early 1902, ogima Rocky Boy commenced negotiations with white leaders who eventually included Montana Congressman Joseph Dixon. Dixon, Montana (it is located on the bogus Flathead Reservation) is named for Congressman Dixon. It was through Dixon, that the United States delivered the knife in the back. Dixon may have tried to help the Chippewa's but the government of the United States became deaf. Ogima Little Bear became so upset about the knife in the back in 1904, he contacted Canadian leaders to request to have the Chippewa's in Montana directly under his leadership, the opportunity to relocate to Canada. Canadian leaders agreed to help.
Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
That knife in the back was really delivered by the Newlands Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902. They may claim the issue was about irrigation projects and other subjects but the goal of the United States was to Steal More Indian Land. Ogima Rocky Boy and other Chippewa leaders, quickly learned about the intentions of the United States. They were defenceless and the United States took every advantage of it. Ogima Rocky Boy contacted a lawyer in 1902 and sought help from affluent whites to attempt to save the huge Chippewa Reservation in the Pacific Northwest. They tried to have a bill passed in congress to save the Reservation (white historians claim it was about land allotments) but the United States supposedly rejected it. It would take a few years before the illegal land acts commenced. To learn that the Coeur d'Alene, Flathead, Kalispell, Kootenai, Pend O'reilles, Okanagan including the Chelan, Columbia or Sinkiuse, Entiat, Lake, Methow, Nespelem, San Poil, Spokan, Wenatchee, Wiyot, Yurok, and the Yuki including the Wappo, are Algonquin Chippewa click here. Ukiah, California is named after the Yuki. And Nacomis Rancheria is named after Nokomis which is the Chippewa word for Grandmother. To learn that the Athabascan's or Dene people including the Apache, Navajo, and Chipewyan are Algonquin Chippewa click here. The Edinburgh Encyclopedia is from 1832 and far more reliable than later books about Indian languages.
The Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
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The Creation of the Chippewa Flathead Reservation
In early 1902, chief Rocky Boy commenced negotiations about the eventual land acts which would eventually open up surplus land throughout the vast Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. White leaders were attracted to the available farm land between Polson and the region south of St. Ignatius where the Mission Mountains extend west to Ravalli. It extends nearly 30 miles from north to east, and about 13 miles from west to east. It covers around 300 or more sq. mi. or nearly 200,000 acres. That region eventually became some of the surplus land the whites would force the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation to cede. However, not all land in the southern Flathead Valley or Mission Valley, was ceded. Some was left to the Reservation, especially along the eastern slopes of the Mission Mountains. Land north of Mission Creek to the slopes of the Mission Mountains, between Flathead River, from Flathead Lake to Jocko River, was the ceded land, or the land of the bogus Flathead Reservation Land Act which is directly related to President Taft's May 22, 1909 Proclamation, or the refusal of the United States to honor treaty agreements, which is related to the April 23, 1904 Act of Congress, which is obviously related to the ratification of the 10 cent an acre Treaty in 1904.
On May 14, 1902, chief Rocky Boy reached an agreement with United States representatives about the new Chippewa Reservation within the bogus Flathead Reservation. It includes all land west and north of the Flathead River, from Flathead Lake to where the mouth of the Jocko River is. It includes all land south of Mission Creek which commences in the Mission Mountains then flows west to the area where it merges with Post Creek then flows to the Flathead River, and land between Jocko River, to the eastern and southern part of the bogus Flathead Reservation. It also includes all land south of the Flathead River, from where the mouth of the Jocko River is, west to the western border of the bogus Flathead Reservation. The entire area is nearly all mountainous. Though the press reported that the United States did not agree to set aside the Reservation chief Rocky Boy requested for early in 1902, it was a misprint.
Senator Dixon's Amendment
In 1908, Senator Dixon won an amendment to an Indian Department appropriations bill for $30,000 to find a home for the Chippewa's on the bogus Flathead Reservation. They claim on an existing Reservation but we know it's the bogus Flathead Reservation. The land act took effect at the bogus Flathead Reservation in that same year (1908). The new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation was nearly all mountainous. Ogima Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation's minerals and timber, as well as to allow for individual land allotments but not to have any area of the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation opened to white settlement. The $30,000 was to help those Chippewa's with necessary supplies. Most of their land allotments were eventually sold to non Indians because the Chippewa's faced discrimation and really didn't have enough money to become successful farmers.
The Mission Mountains on the east of the Flathead Reservation is left to the bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation. Land allotments also followed. In fact, the land allotments may have played an even more crucial role in the events of 1908-1909, or after the May 22, 1909 Proclamation. However, land allotted away from the surplus land remains bogus Flathead Reservation land. The United States illegally allowed Indian citizens of the bogus Flathead Reservation the right to sell their land allotments. That really agitated Reservation leaders. Although the land within the new bogus Chippewa Flathead Reservation has much farm land, it is nowhere as abundant as the land within the surplus land or ceded land area. Most is located around the Arlee region and the region between Hot Springs and Lonepine. It is very important for Reservation leaders to purchase more land between Pablo and the Mission Mountains. As mentioned, the Mission Mountains remain a part of the bogus Flathead Reservation.
The Creation of the Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation
Chief Rocky Boy could not save the entire bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation. However, that does not mean the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation is lost. The June 21, 1906 Act of Congress singled out the nonmineral and unreserved agriculture land within the boundaries of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation but not the mountainous areas of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Chief Rocky Boy agreed to allow the United States to exploit the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservations minerals and timber and to allow individual land allotments which could be sold. The area of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation which had an extensive area of farm land, was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The western half of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation was classified as surplus land and opened to white settlement. The eastern half from the southern border east of Highway 95, northeast to Saint Maries, Idaho and further northeast to the northeastern point of the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation, west to the southern part of Lake Coeur d'Alene, following the same lake south to just north of the Benewah County border, then southwest to Plummer, then follows the mountains south back to the southern border east of Highway 95, is the bogus Chippewa Coeur d'Alene Reservation. It includes the area where De Smet and Tensed are located.
The Creation of the Chippewa Colville-Spokane Reservation
The bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation proved to be an extremely volatile location in 1902. The United States was already trying to forcefully take land from the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation in 1902 but the Chippeway's responded by raising soldiers to prevent the illegal actions of the United States. Ogima Rocky Boy was obviously involved in the negotiations at the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation. The bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation are the same Reservation. However, the United States went after the minerals and timber and yet Chippeway soldiers protested. Very little of the bogus Colville-Spokane Reservation is farm land. It is a land which is rugged and mountainous. If the region had an abundance of farm land it would have been different.
Proclamation of May 22, 1909 (The Reservation is Illegally Eradicated)
On May 22, 1909, President Taft took full advantage of a defenceless people and illegally eradicated the huge Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation the United States promised the Chippewa's by signing the 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. President Taft's actions singled out the Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, and Flathead areas first, or the northwestern part of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy and the other Chippewa leaders, were exasperated about the actions of the whites and completely dejected. They were defenceless. They were living throughout the entire land area of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation in 1909. They were not landless as white historians lie to you about. The bogus Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, Colville-Spokane, Kalispel, Kootenai, and Flathead Reservations are what remains of the northwestern part of original Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation.
In 1908, ogima Rocky Boy and Dixon increased their contacts for they knew the Land Acts were about to take hold. They knew the United States was going to steal much of the the Reservation and allot land to individual Indians and soon. They feared Chippewa repraisals! It was probably in early 1908, when an agency farmer on the bogus Flathead Reservation made contact with Senator Dixon (by 1908 Dixon had been voted in to be a Senator of Montana) about the Chippewa's. Both Rocky Boy and Dixon knew something had to be done to stop the terrified Chippewa's from releasing their great rage. In 1908, Senator Dixon made an effort to stop what everyone knew would occur but he was ignored. They began to prepare for an exodus! Indian Inspector Franch C. Churchill arrived in September of 1908. Serious problems were already occurring in the Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming region. In 1906, the Ute Exodus had occurred. It was really a large number of Chippewa's who most likely fled from land east of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation. They were caught in southeastern Montana, a few miles southeast of the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, in October of 1906, and relocated to the Cheyenne Agency Reservation of South Dakota.
The Creation of the Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation
As mentioned, on May 22, 1909, President Taft illegally eradicated the huge Chippewa Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy carried on negotiations with Senator Dixon and Frank Churhill and affluent whites, before President Taft illegally eradicated the vast Reservation. Churhill helped to have a 2,160 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in Valley County, Montana. Then in response to the available farm land located in the east side of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, the United States negotiated with ogima Rocky Boy about setting aside a new Chippewa Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. The citizens of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation were allotted land and much of that land was sold to whites. The land allotments were obviously a factor in the 1910-1911 Chippewa Exodus off the 4th Blackfeet Reservation.
With the arrangements in place at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy knew early in 1909 that a new Chippewa Reservation was set aside within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. It is located between the forks of the St. Mary River and the forks of the Milk River. It extends up to the Canada border and to the southern border of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Land east of the boundary has many a farm. Most may be owned by non Indians, or individual Blackfeet citizens lease the land to non Indians to earn an income. Land to the west has few farms and is rugged terrain. From the forks of the Milk River, the land extends to 5 miles north of Browning and includes the land between the river north of Browning and the river south of Browning, and land east of Browning, to Kipp Lake. It includes land southeast of Kipp Lake to Mission Lake. It also includes land southeast of Mission Lake to Alkali Lake. From Alkali Lake, it includes land all the way to Swift Reservoir. All land north and west, is the Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909.
After the 1908 Swan Valley Massacre, ogima Rocky Boy negotiated with American leaders about having those Chippewa's living on the bogus Flathead Reservation who considered him their leader, and in southwestern Montana, to be relocated to their new Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. The Chippewa's of southwestern Montana where ogima Rocky Boy was born, are the Piegan Blackfoot who are also known as I-nuk'sik. The hostile Chippewa's from the bogus Flathead Reservation, were early on transported to near Fort Harrison, Montana which is very near Helena. In November 1909, many Chippewa's from southwestern Montana, the bogus Flathead Reservation, and northern Idaho (the bogus Coeur d'Alene Reservation) had congregated in Helena to be transported to their new Reservation within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Many obviously moved up to the Blood and Piegan Reserve which is connected to the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. Their goal was to preserve their Nationality.
Chief Pennato and the 1910-1911 Exodus
In 1910-1912, or shortly after the 100s (it may have been more) of Chippewa's settled the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy's brother became agitated about the actions of the United States. At issue was Chippewa children attending white boarding schools. Chippewa parents knew that the whites were brainwashing their children. They complained to their leaders and surprisingly ogima Pennato (Rocky Boy's brother) rose to the occasion. He was determined to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. So determined he ordered the commencement of an exodus off the Reservation. It went for some time before it was halted. Ogima Pennato was arrested and confined to near Fort Harrison. He, nor anyone else, could stop the United States from brainwashing Chippewa children. Ogima Pennato knew he was going to die according to a companion. On a trip to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, he passed away mysteriously. His brother, ogima Rocky Boy, remained at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation.
Ogima Little Shell III Honored Treaty Agreements
In 1895, ogima Red Thunder and many other Chippewa leaders, took refuge in a fort and demanded that they wanted to hear from Washington D.C. They had obviously sent a message to the government of the United States about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation which the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation is a part of. In early May of 1895, ogima Little Shell III made his last attempt to persuade the government of the United States to honor treaty agreements. A Chippewa leader named Laspelle Langan had been arrested and that bothered the other Chippewa leaders. White newspapers circulated the event as the Turtle Mountain Indian War but it was not a war. As mentioned, the Chippewa's took refuge in a fort to wait for news from Washington D.C. about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. When they realized a number of white police officers had surrounded their fort, they knew the government of the United States would not honor treaty agreements. After the leader of the white police officers warned the Chippewa's in the fort that they would attack if they refused to surrender, they quickly decided to surrender.
Once they noticed the white police officers preparing shallow rifle pits, it was undeniable proof that it was news from Washington D.C. Among those who were arrested was ogima Red Thunder. He attacked a white police officer with his knife. He was 87 years old at the time. Those Chippewa leaders who were arrested numbered 7. They were transported to Rolla, North Dakota. Ogima Little Shell III, led around 150 Chippewa's to the fort to attempt to reinforce the fort. They arrived too late and ogima Little Shell III was arrested. He was also transported to Rolla, North Dakota. The 150 Chippewa's who were with ogima Little Shell III, were allowed to go back to their homes. This event happened in northeastern Montana. White historians will tell you it happened in Rolette County, North Dakota.
With the real leaders of the Anishinabe Nation in jail, the United States commenced to eradicate the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. As with ogima Joseph (chief Joseph), and ogima Sitting Bull, the United States forced ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and the other Anishinabe leaders, to live in Rolette County, North Dakota. They did not want them in Montana which still had a very large Chippewa population. Ogima Joseph was first sent to Oklahoma with many Chippewa's. In the mid 1880s, they were sent to the bogus Colville Reservation in Washington State. Ogima Sitting Bull was sent to the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation of South Dakota. In 1895, there was still 10,000s of Chippewa's living in Montana. The United States did not want a large Chippewa population living in Montana. It was probably around this time the United States commenced to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, or Rocky Boy became the principle Chippewa leader of the west.
And the eradication of the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation was not a peaceful one. The United States was caught off guard in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Up to 20,000 or more Chippewa's had fled to Isle Royale in Lake Superior. The 1889 Nelson Act provoked many to flee. Then the Curtis and Nelson Acts of 1898 was the ignition that led to the 1898 War. It was a short brutal war with 10,000s of casualties. It also led to the United States returning land to the Chippewa's of those locations.
First of the Deportations (forced relocations)
In 1896, the United States refused to conduct themselves in a honorable manner. Most of the Little Shell Chippewa's who were forced to relocate, lived in the Great Falls, Montana region. However, many fled into what is now the Bob Marshall Wilderness region and the adjoing Swan Valley. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was an issue white settlers refused to ignore. A map of the Fort Assinibone Indian Reservation is below. Havre, Montana was located within the boundaries of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation which is also known as the Fort Assiniboine Military Reservation. Today, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is known as Rocky Boy Reservation. However, in 1896 it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. White settlers would not tolerate the Chippewa's living so close to Havre and they complained constantly. By 1896, the United States reached an agreement with Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation. They accepted new land in the western part of the Southern Ute Reservation of southwestern Colorado and in Alberta. Those who moved to Alberta settled primarily at the Montana Reserve which is just south of Edmonton. Those who moved to Colorado, settled at what is now the Ute Mountain Reservation in 1897 and at the Chemehuevi Reservation located around what is now Joshua Tree National Park in southern California. Ute Mountain Reservation was created in 1897. And it was not a peaceful one. Many Chippewa's strongly protested. That's why most of the Chippewa's who were relocated, lived around Great Falls.
Trains brought the Chippewa's who probably numbered at least a couple of hundred to over a 1,000, to the Ute Mountain Reservation and Chemehuevi Reservation. In 1918, the Southern Ute Reservation and Ute Mountain Reservation, consolidated. In 1916, Rocky Boy Reservation was dramatically reduced in size. It was not created in 1916. We know from late 19th century maps, that the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was located where Rocky Boy Reservation is now and it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. From over 1,000 sq. mi. it was reduced to a little under 100 sq. mi. Many of the Chippewa's who lived at the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation were relocated to the Papago Indian Reservation of Arizona in 1916 and the Navajo Indian Reservation around the same time. On the Navajo land additions map, look for the year number 1918. Early on, ogima Rocky Boy played a very important role in having the new Reservations set aside with the help of affluent whites. Joseph Dussome and other Chippewa leaders, also played important roles in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, in having new Chippewa Reservations set aside.
Other historical events which have links to Montana, are the Ute Exodus of 1906 to the Pine Ridge Reservation and the 1907 Lemhi forced relocation to the Fort Hall Reservation of southeastern Idaho. In 1906, the Ute supposedly fled their Utah Reservation for the Pine Ridge Reservation. We know Montana is involved because the Ute's were halted in southeastern Montana. They were being forced to leave their Montana lands for land allotments in South Dakota. Historians claim the Lemhi Shoshone were forced to leave their Reservation near Salmon, Idaho, for new land at the Fort Hall Reservation. The Lemhi Reservation was eradicated in 1889. It was over 500 Chippewa's who were forced to leave their homes in southwestern Montana, for new land at Fort Hall Reservation and a Reservation at the Navajo Reservation. Look for the year numbers 1905 and 1907 on the Navajo land additions map. That is where the Fort Shaw Chippewa's, Lemhi Chippewa's, and Ute Chippewa's settled at. We can trace the origins of the Fort Assinibone Chippewa's or Rocky Boy Chippewa's, relocation to Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Washintgton, to 1896, or about a year after ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and Other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, were arrested in 1895.
The Creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
A number of Chippewa families returned to their native Montana from the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewam in early 1879, or a couple of years after the 1877 exodus, where they settled down to live in northern Montana. It was among these Chippewa's who lived in northern Montana, that new Chippewa leaders emerged in the early 20th century. They kept with them very important historical information.
We know about the creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana through Howard Paul who was the son of Joseph Paul. According to Howard Paul, a number of Chippewa's held a meeting on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewiston, Montana in 1920 or 1921, when he was 7 years old. According to Lloyd Paul who did an extensive genealogy report on the Montana Paul's, Howard Paul was born in 1914 at Forest Grove, Montana which is between Grass Range and Lewistown and directly south of the bogus Fort Belknap Reservation. Howard Paul was referring to a meeting held on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewistown, in 1921 and not 1920. According to these Chippewa leaders from the 1920s, they claimed to be from chief Red Bear (Red Thunder) and from chief Rocky Boy and Pembina Chippewa also.
Joseph Paul was obviously a leader among the Chippewa's in the Fergus County, Montana region well before 1920. His birth is very suspicious. Genealogy reports indicate he had two mothers. His father, Elzear Paul, married Rose LaPlante on January 21, 1878. Joseph Paul is listed as being one the four children of Elzear and Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante. Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante, died in 1881. Joseph Paul's birth date is supposedly either 1886, 1887, or 1888. His obituary stated that Joseph Paul was born on October 1, 1883. His age at the time of death in 1959 was 75. He could not have been born in 1883. His father, Elzear Paul, was without bride. He was born at Fort Maginnis, Montana. However, there were 2 Forts in Montana with the name Fort Maginnis. One was located near Lewistown, while the other a few miles south of Cut Bank. Fort Maginnis near Cut Bank, was closed in 1879. So 1879 was probably the year Joseph Paul was born. After Elzear Paul's first wife died, he married Rose Daniels in 1886. Joseph Paul is listed as one of Rose Daniels children. So there is some problem we can't set aside. If Rose LaPlante gave birth to Joseph Paul, it had to have been between 1878 and 1881.
He and several members of his family including his father Elzear Paul, were allotted land in Fergus County. He eventually sold his land allotments and moved to Great Falls, as did his father Elzear Paul. While in Great Falls, Joseph Paul became the Representative for the Chippewa's of the Great Falls region. On June 9, 1939, the representatives of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, met at the home of Joseph Paul in Great Falls. Something transpired which led to some sort of friction. Joseph Dussome represented Reservation Chippewa's, while Raymond Gray formed an organization in Great Falls he named the Montana Landless Indians. Gray's organization was the most threatening to Joseph Paul. Joseph Paul wanted to preserve the Chippewa Nationality. Dussome focused on Reservations.
The Meeting and the Blackfeet Reservation
We know from the meeting held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 9, 1939, that the Chippewa's claimed the entire area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, as their Reservation. A total of 9 Respresentives were assigned to each area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The maps below will help you understand this important information. The Representatives were the following: area number 565 were represented by ? (Hays), Joe Azure (Harlem), Joseph Dussome (Box Elder), and Thomas Ouellette (Wolf Point); area number 574 were represented by Millie Salois (Dupuyer) and Joseph Paul (Great Falls); area number 399 were represented by Joseph Paul (Great Falls), Thomas Sangray (Augusta), and Elizabeth Swan (Lewistown); area number 398 was represented by William Boyer (Helena). Since part of Great Falls is within area number 574, it was represented by both Millie Salois and Joseph Paul.
After the June 9, 1939 meeting at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana, the eventual breakup of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation government followed. World War II likely influenced most of the Representatives to attempt to get compensation for the agreement to accept the eventual loss of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation after 1855. However, something prevented them from actually doing so. That may have been Joseph Paul.
At Hill 57, which is adjacent to Great Falls, Montana, the Chippewa's owned land they considered their Rancheria. On August 18, 1950, the United States auctioned off the Hill 57 Chippewa Rancheria to the highest bidder. It then led to the eradication of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in northwestern California, and the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Reservation in western Oregon. On August 18, 1958, or 8 years after the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Hill 57 Rancheria was Terminated, the United States passed the California Rancheria Act. It Terminated 41 Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. On August 13, 1954, the United States passed the Western Oregon Indian Termination Act. Joseph Dussome hired a lawyer in 1950 and in 1951 they filed a lawsuit about the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. In 1973, the United States rejected (refused to honor treaties) the lawsuit. They claimed the Chippewa's did not live in Montana before the 1880s which is a lie. If the United States had actually agreed with the Chippewa's, they then would have agreed that the original Blackfeet Reservation set aside on October 17, 1855, is in fact a Chippewa Reservation. The United States is resorting to infidelity. We are honoring treaty agreements. We are federally recognized but the government of the United States refuses to honor treaties. Below are pages about the Termination Acts and the population of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. Their population was more than 411. Though they gave no population for the Rancherias, they did give the number of voters on the Rancherias. The number of voters probably represents about half the population of each Rancheria. Hopland (Nokomis) has probably suffered the largest population decline. The populations are from between 1930 and 1935. You ever wonder how many of the so called Japanese Americans who were sent to interment camps during World War II were actually Indian? Probably quite a few! The reason for the low Reservation populations of Indians in California and Oregon, is because the United States forced many of the California and Oregon Indians to relocate to the Navajo Reservation and a few others. Many, however, were Japanese. Either you can accept this information or stay away.
Hill 57 Termination or the start of the Termination Era
Western Oregon Termination Act
California Rancheria Termination Act
California Rancherias Populations 1930
Demographics of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
Population is ?
Big Valley (Terminated) - 194
Big Lagoon - 20
Blue Lake (Terminated) - 41
Cache Creek (Terminated) - 36
Coyote Valley - 96
Dry Creek - 42
Elk Valley (Terminated) - 44
Grindstone - 146
Guidiville (Terminated) - 1
Hoopa (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 2,291 - Total: 2,851
Hopland (Terminated) - 33
Karuk Reservation - 249
Laytonville - 171
Manchester - 179
Mark West (Terminated) - ?
Middletown (Terminated) - 53
Pinoleville (Terminated) - 196
Potter Valley (Terminated) - 138
Quartz Valley Reservation (Terminated) - 50
Redwood Valley (Terminated) - 113
Robinson (Terminated) - 129
Rohnerville (Terminated) - 67
Round Valley Reservation - 235
Sherwood Valley - 139
Smith River (Terminated) - 42
Stewarts Point - 55
Sulphur Bank - 56
Table Bluff (Terminated) - 71
Trinidad - 59
Upper Lake (Terminated) - 47
Yurok (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 560 - Total: 2,851
Cloverdale (Terminated) - ?
Graton (Terminated) - ?
Lyyton (Terminated) - ?
Coeur d'Alene Communities
East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Ford: Spokane Reservation
South East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Westend: Spokane Reservation
Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw
June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty Disputed Land Communities
Fort Belknap Communities
Fort Belknap Agency
Fort Peck Communities
Agency Road (near Arlee)
Clarice Paul Homesite
Coriacan Village Trailer Park
Kopp Road Trailer Park
McClure Road (near Arlee)
Mission Dam Homesite
Pow Wow Road (near Arlee)
Tapit Lane (near Arlee)
West Ravalli Trailer Park
Hill 57 (Terminated)
Population 10 to 20
Rocky Boy Communities
Clear Creek Road
Aseniwuche Winewak (Alberta)
Foothills Ojibway Society (Alberta)
Montana including Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson (Alberta)
Nakcowinewak or Nakawe Nation (Alberta)
Tsuu T'ina (Alberta)
Akisq'nuk (British Columbia)
Kelly Lake (British Columbia)
Lheidli T'enneh (British Columbia)
Lower Kootenay (British Columbia)
McLeod Lake (British Columbia)
Shuswap (British Columbia)
St. Mary's (British Columbia)
Tobacco Plains (British Columbia)