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Flathead Indian Reservation (Chief Rocky Boy's Reservation)
You are from a time period in the future and have the tools to use to correct that which needs to be corrected. I recently placed an ad in the Char-Koosta Newspaper and I'm concerned they may not have placed my ad. I paid $30.00 to advertise for 10 weeks. It's in it's third week. I suspect they (the owners) are in fear of white terrorism which Indian leaders are only too aware of. A couple of years ago i negotiated with the tribal newsletter of Rocky Boy's Reservation, about placing an ad in their newsletter. Everything went well until they stopped responding. I did not pay anything in that instance. However, a couple of years ago i did pay money to Char-Koosta News to place an ad to advertise for 8 weeks. They agreed to place the ad but were extremely hostile. I contacted them and told them they could keep the money and stop advertising the ad. It is white terrorism against Indians that is of great concern to me. Char-Koosta News also places their newspaper including classified ads, online. If they are in fear of white terrorism i don't care. I have not forgotten how hostile they were. Blaming the innocent because of the actions of the guilty, is wrong. Let them including their extended families from the past, and the current time, and the future, be cursed. Below is the text of my ad:
Free Flathead Reservation
Historical & Language Audio Files
According to the 2010 census, Flathead Reservation has the largest Indian population of any Indian Reservation in Montana. However, since Crow Reservation and Northern Cheyenne Reservation are actually connected, that Reservation has the largest Indian population in Montana. However, both are classified as distinct Reservations. According to the 2010 census, the Indian population of Flathead Reservation is 9,328. Mixed bloods make up 2,286 of the population of 9,328. And Mexicans make up 1,021 of the Reservations population which represents Flathead Reservation having an Indian population closer to 10,000.
White historians are not being honest about Flathead Reservation. It was not created on July 16, 1855 with the signing of Hell Gate Treaty. The Bitterroot Valley Indian Reservation was. Flathead Reservation is actually a part of the Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation (aka Turtle Mountain Reservation) of Montana. Today, the areas with the largest Chippewa populations within the Turtle Mountain Reservation are Blackfeet Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation (the Reservation created in 1909 which includes Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation which is known now as Rocky Boys Reservation), and Rocky Boys Reservation (the Reservation created in 1909 which includes Fort Belknap Reservation).
The October 17, 1855 Treaty
On October 17 of 1855, a treaty was signed near the mouth of the Judith River which is north of Lewistown, east of Great Falls, and south of Rocky Boys Reservation. Leaders from the Blackfeet (they are Chippewa), Cree (they are the northern Chippewas), Flathead including the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreille, and Spokane, Kootenai (they are also Chippewa), and the Nez Perce who are the Amikwa Chippewas, signed the treaty which created the Blackfeet Reservation (aka Turtle Mountain Reservation) of Montana. It did not include the land area where Fort Peck Reservation is located. It extends from the mouth of the Milk River to the main divide or continental divide (the Rocky Mountain Trench) of the Rocky Mountains. Musselshell River is the eastern and part of the southern boundary, while Yellowstone River in northwest Wyoming, is the extreme southern boundary. White historians made a blunder by placing the main divide or continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, in the wrong place on maps from the 19th century and even now. The Rocky Mountain Trench is the real main divide or continental divide of the Rocky Mountains. Rocky Mountain Trench extends from Yukon, south through the middle of Flathead Reservation. Maps from the 19th century clearly show the Blackfeet Reservation extending to the main divide or continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, which means Flathead Reservation is in fact a part of the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation (aka Turtle Mountain Reservation) of Montana.
The 1872 Garfield Agreement
In 1871, President Grant signed an executive order that illegally eradicated the Chippewas Bitterroot Valley Reservation. The Amikwa Chippewa leader Arlee and chief Adolph, signed the agreement Representative Garfield proposed to them. In 1873, they led scores of Chippewas to Jocko Reservation (aka Flathead Reservation). What is now Flathead Reservation, was probably illegally created in 1871-1872. Chief Charlo refused to sign the agreement which means it is fraudulent. He remained in the Bitterroot Valley with several hundred Chippewas.
The Possible 1887-1890 War
Between 1887 and 1890, a minor war may have been fought in the Flathead Valley on up to near Eureka, Montana or Tobacco Plains. Newspaper accounts about what happened are not reliable. They only mention white prospectors entered the Flathead Valley and Indian Reservations in western Montana (Bitterroot Valley, Blackfeet, and Flathead Reservations) and disappeared or were killed by Indians. There is no accurate account of how many Indians and whites were killed and wounded. Below are newspaper accounts of what happened. The first is from the May 1, 1890 Anaconda Standard, which reported that a group of Chippewas were removed from the east side of Flathead River to the west side of the same river. They went to Half Moon which is almost adjacent to Columbia Falls, Montana, then obviously Flathead Reservation. The article is in the first column on your left, at the 9th paragraph. The second link is to the December 20, 1890 Helena Independent. It is located in the first and second columns. The third link is to the Center for Algonquin Culture website. It has proof the Flathead Indians and Dayton Creek Kootenai, are Chippewas. The Amikwa Chippewas are also known as the Nez Perce.
Chippewas Relocate To Half Moon
The 1891 Forced Relocation
As you know, an unknown event happened in western Montana, between 1887-1890. It involves the Chippewas Bitterroot Valley Reservation which was illegally eradicated in 1871-1872. According to the 1880 Montana census, the Indian population in Missoula County was well over 500. They did not include Reservation populations with County populations then. During the late 1880s, the United States constantly warned the Chippewas living in the Bitterroot Valley, to leave for Flathead Reservation. Chief Charlo refused. However, by 1891 he had agreed to relocate to Flathead Reservation and that was probably because of the violence happening in western Montana, between 1887-1890. On October 15, 1891, chief Charlo led his people to Flathead Reservation. He was not happy about the white lies.
The 1896 Great Falls Deportations
In June and July of 1896, the United States forced several thousand Chippewas who continued to live within the Turtle Mountain (aka Blackfeet Reservation) Reservation of Montana, to relocate to other Reservations. Chief Little Bear probably protested the forced deportations. Up to 1896, chief Little Bear did what the United States wanted. He knew he could be deported to Canada if he did not do what the United States wanted. He was wanted by Canada for crimes committed during the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. Chief Little Bear was the full blooded Chippewa adviser who strongly protested the deportations according to chief Buffalo Coat. Chiefs Little Bear and Lucky Man, were deported to Canada and went on trial for the crimes committed during the 1885 war. Both were acquitted. Both returned to Montana. Chief Little Bear became a sub-chief of chief Rocky Boy. Over 100 Chippewas were deported to Flathead Reservation in 1896.
Chief Rocky Boy
On March 8, 1902, the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran an article in which chief Rocky Boy announced that he sent an application to the government of the United States requesting for land (a Reservation). Within the matter of a couple of days, other Chippewa leaders learned what chief Rocky Boy had done. Rocky Boy did not honor the treaties which created the vast Chippewa Reservation of southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho. It led to civil strife among the Chippewas of southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho. Click this link to read the March 8, 1902 article. And, of course, we have historical proof the Chippewas were living just north of Flathead Reservation.
In the May 14, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain, an article claimed that ogima Rocky Boy's request for a Reservation was denied. However, the same article claimed ogima Rocky Boy intended to ask for the privilege of allowing his subjects who wish to do so to settle on surveyed or unsurveyed land. Ogima Rocky Boy was referring to Flathead Reservation. He really requested for a Reservation within Flathead Reservation. Click this link to read the May 14, 1902 article.
On June 5, 1902, the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran an article titled Chippewas Soon Ready To Leave. The article reported that a number of Chippewas had been out searching for available land in Idaho and northwestern Montana. The article reported that the Chippewas had received word from Washington D.C. that each Chippewa was entitled to receive 160 acres of land. It was Ogima Rocky Boy who sent out the Chippewa land spectators. One of them was in favor of settling in the vicinity of Tobacco Plains (Eureka, Montana) and the Saint Mary's River region near Babb, Montana. Another liked northern Idaho very much. They lied. It is the other way. Chippewas living in the Flathead Valley and between Tobacco Plains and St. Mary River, were forced to relocate to Flathead Reservation as well as Blackfeet Reservation. Click this link to read the June 5, 1902 article.
The January 8, 1904 Ratification
In October of 1903, Thomas Downs recommended that the Chippewas be allowed to settle at Flathead Reservation. In January of 1904, senator Gibson introduced a bill (S. 2705, Fifty-eigth Congress, first session) to set aside land within Flathead Reservation for the Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy. The bill was passed. It was not denied. The Flathead Reservation Land Act of 1904 was known of and the McCumber Agreement was passed by the United States in 1904. They needed ogima Rocky Boy's support to prevent violence. Most of the Chippewas who relocated to Flathead Reservation, came from north of Flathead Reservation, or from the Flathead Valley and Tobacco Plains. Chief Rocky Boy's Reservations within Flathead Reservation, became official on January 8, 1904. However, they are a part of Flathead Reservation and represent areas within Flathead Reservation, that were set aside to be Indian owned land. A list of these Reservations ogima Rocky Boy was instrumental in having set aside, is below.
In an August 5, 1904 Billings Gazette Newspaper article, it was reported that Ogima Rocky Boy was still in the process of trying to have new Chippewa Reservations set aside. Ogima Rocky Boy, along with interpreter W.A. Cameron, met with congressman Joseph M. Dixon in Missoula, Montana (near Mount Jumbo). Ogima Rocky Boy and interpreter W.A. Cameron, had come from Anaconda all the way to Missoula because they knew Dixon had the power to grant the Chippewas Reservations within Flathead Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy told Dixon the Chippewas would take a Reservation within Flathead Reservation and Blackfeet Reservation. It was actually Flathead Reservation. Click this link to read the August 5, 1904 article. You will understand how to read between the lines. The Chippewas were defenseless and had no choice but to agree to relocate to the Flathead Reservation.
Where Are Chief Rocky Boys Reservations Within Flathead Reservation?
It is a question the Indians of Flathead Reservation don't understand. They don't understand that ogima Rocky Boy negotiated on behalf of Flathead Reservation, to prepare them for the 1904 Flathead Reservation Land Act. Valley land within the Flathead Reservation was going to be opened to white settlement and ogima Rocky Boy knew the Chippewas could do nothing to stop it. Thus, the reason for why ogima Rocky Boy asked for the privilege of selecting surveyed and unsurveyed land.
Flathead Reservation kept the mountains but most of the valley agriculture land was opened to white settlement, except at valley locations where the land was not conducive to agriculture. All these following Reservations are connected to the mountains owned by Flathead Reservation, which represents them actually being a part of Flathead Reservation. They should be classified as Districts. I have provided these areas to educate the reader about what transpired over 100 years ago. Flathead Reservation was not eradicated. Ogima Rocky Boy made certain it would continue on.
Post Creek Reservation
It is the largest of the Reservations set aside for ogima Rocky Boy within Flathead Reservation. It's boundaries begin southeast of Ronan, then extend north towards Ronan then west to Pache Homesite. From Pache Homesite, it extends to Clarice Paul Homesite then west to Pewiosap. It then extends southwest to a point 1.9 miles northwest of Charlo. It then extends to a point about 0.6 miles east of Charlo. It then extends to a point 2.75 miles south of Charlo. It then extends east to Highway 93. It then extends southeast to a point directly east of Ashley Lake Road. It then extends north to a point east of Grace Lane Road. During those times (around 1900) this area of Flathead Reservation was a land with many lakes, marshes, and swamps. Far more than compared to this time. Even now, much of this area has many lakes. Using google earth you can clearly see the whites are draining this land area of it's waterways, by using canals. It really isn't necessary for the need to irrigate the crops grown there. Much of the Reservation land was sold to whites. It covers between 60 and 70 sq. mi. or 38,400 acres to 44,800 acres. Indian settlements include Clarice Paul Homesite, Eagle Pass, Kicking Horse, Pache Homesite, Pewiosap, and Woodcock Homesite.
It is located just south of Polson. It includes the Pablo National Wildlife Refuge and the cdp of Pablo which covers 4.9 sq. mi. which is adjacent to PNWR on the southeast. Much of the land area is covered by a forest. From the PNWR, it extends 5 miles east to the Mission Mountains. From the cdp of Pablo, it extends 4 miles east to the same Mission Mountains. The only Indian communities are Mud Lake and Pablo. This Reservation may cover up to 15.0 sq. mi. or up to 10,000 acres. However, much of the land is fee land or land owned by Indians and non Indians, excepting the PNWR.
It is located in the northwestern part of the Flathead Reservation. A favorite location for the Kootenai Chippewas led by chief Aeneas Paul, the Dayton Creek Kootenai Chippewas were also set aside Wild Horse Island (it is supposedly owned by the State of Montana which is not allowed by treaty law) and Cromwell Island. The United States later recanted or broke treaty promises. There are at least three Kootenai Chippewa communities. They are Dayton Creek Homesite, Elmo, and Niarada.
Turtle Lake Reservation
It is located in the northeastern part of Flathead Reservation. The only Indian community is Turtle Lake. It covers around 2,000 to 3,000 acres. Flathead Lake is a couple of miles to the north.
It is located 3 miles east of St. Ignatius. Mission Dam Homesite is the only Indian community. It covers a few hundred acres at the most. Mission Dam Reservoir is adjacent to it on the east.
Gray Wolf Reservation
It is located in the valley where Arlee is located. There is much Indian Trust Land and Tribally Owned Land Owned by Flathead Reservation in the valley. Indian communities include Arlee, Arlee Homesite, Gray Wolf, North Gray Wolf, and Pow Wow. It covers between 5,000 and 10,000 acres.
Old Agency Reservation
It includes the National Bison Range and the Indian communities of Old Agency, St. Ignatius, St. Ignatius Homesite, and South Old Agency. All communities surround the National Bison.
To counter the movement by the whites to end blood quantum at Flathead Reservation, an alternate government must be formed. A return to an all elders government must be priority. All government leaders must be full bloods or predominantly Indian. Their main objective is to save the Indian Race at Flathead Reservation and protect Homesites at Flathead Reservation. By protecting Homesites, I'm suggesting their demographics be carefully calculated to determine if discrepancies (if a disproportionate number look white) exist. Don't go door to door but spy on them. Since the United States is possibly stealing Indian Trust Land at Flathead Reservation, an agreement in the future to end the sale of Indian Trust Land to citizens of Flathead Reservation who are less than half Indian, must be accpted by the alternate government of Flathead Reservation. Do not allow citizens of Flathead Reservation to vote on it. Genocide is involved.
And the alternate government of Flathead Reservation must not accept money from the government of the United States. They must act as a concerned entity which will provide an alternate choice for the Indians of Flathead Reservation who are predominantly Indian and Traditionalists. Use force in the future to prevent any citizens of Flathead Reservation of less than half Indian blood, from attempting to purchase Indian Trust Land at Flathead Reservation. We know the United States wants to Exterminate the Indian Race. This Flathead Reservation alternate government must be created. The current Flathead Reservation government will not do anything. In fact, they will accept Genocide. We are dealing with Genocide and we are going to defend ourselves from the threat the United States is. Don't be fooled by the whites.
The Paul Clan
Being a Paul makes this task an especially favorite one. It is very difficult to learn about the exact origins of the Montana Paul clan. Their entry into what is now Montana is very, very, difficult to learn about. Using the internet i found out about Ignace Lamoose. White historians claim Ignace Lamoose was an Iroquois which is another white lie. Remove the La from Lamoose and you have Moose, which is an Algonquin word which means Moose of course. The Chippewa leader Ignace the Moose led a group of 24 Chippewas to the Bitterroot Valley. That probably occurred soon after Antoine Plante journeyed to Washington State around the 1811-1812 time period. Some claim Ignace the Moose led the small group of Chippewas to the Bitterroot Valley around 1816. They possibly came from Quebec as history indicates but some Kootenay know they originally lived in Michigan. The Chippewas were already living in far western Montana at the time. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy!
Now about chief Big Face or chief Paul. Lloyd Paul did a careful research of the Paul Clan of Montana east of the Rocky Mountains. His grandfather, Elzear Paul and uncle Joseph Paul, were native to what is now the Fergus County, Montana region. Both were allotted Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation land east of the Lewistown, Montana region. According to historical documents, the Crow were set aside a large Reservation in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region on August 16, 1873. We know from Howard Paul, Joseph Paul, and Joseph Dussome that the Chippewas have lived in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region, long before the whites settled in Montana. Lloyd Paul provided information on many Paul's including Mary Agnes Paul (no dob and dod however) and most important probably, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul. He was born in Quebec on April 16, 1750. The first chief Big Face of the Flathead Tribe may have been born around 1750. Chief Big Face passed away in the early 1840s. However, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul evidently passed away on February 22, 1824. Click here to read the Paul genealogy work from Lloyd Paul.
Chief Big Face (surname Paul)
In the early 1840s, ogima (chief) Paul (his Anishinabe name was Big Face) met with white Christian missionaries and allowed himself to be used or played, by the whites. He was already in his early 90s at the time. He was probably born around 1750, in either Quebec or possibly Manitoba. He may have converted to Christianity early in his life (in the 18th century). Once he knew the white invaders were visiting more frequently his domain, he made the regrettable decision to request for trouble. Chief Paul may have migrated into western Montana in the late 18th century. His descendants may have been chief Victor and chief Charlo.
Ignace the Lamoose real name was Aeneas (Ignace) Paul. He brought along his family including his son Aeneas Paul who was born before they arrived to the Bitterroot Valley, in 1816. Chief Big Face or chief Paul, was possibly living in the Bitterroot Valley when Ignace the Moose arrived, or he is Ignace Paul. The elder Aeneas Paul married a woman from the Flathead Tribe. His son also married into the same tribe. It is claimed the elder or Old Ignace was smitten with Christianity which could indicate he was a mixed blood. He supposedly journeyed to St. Louis in 1835 to request that missionaries be sent to the Bitterroot Valley. After a period of waiting for their arrival, he became impatient and commenced another trek to St. Louis but was killed in 1837. The poor man was played by the whites. His son (Young Ignace) then took over for his departed father and journeyed to St. Louis in 1839 to again request for missionaries. This time the mistake worked out. It may have been Young Ignace who greeted Father DeSmet in July of 1840 and not the 90 year old chief Big Face.
Aeneas Paul was also known as Old Ignace, while his son was also known as Young Ignace. Young Ignace was very much like Antoine Plante's son who went by the same name, and often acted as a guide to guide whites around. Antoine Plante was probably related to the Montana Paul's. Unfortunately, the first of the Paul clan of Montana were played into establishing the first white settlement in what is now Montana. Today, it is known as Stevensville. That is a no, no! It is revolting! White Christian Missionaries were after money when they ventured to Indian settlements to try and convert Indians to their religion. They were paid by the church that hired them. Unfortunately, they were only thinking of themselves.
Chief Aeneas Paul
Though Aeneas may look like another unrelated word, it is a mispronunciation of Ignace. Chief Aeneas Paul was the son of Aeneas Paul or Old Ignace. He was born in Manitoba or Quebec, or before Old Ignace arrived to the Bitterroot Valley. He is very important to the Montana as well as California, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming States Paul clan. His sister Agnes Paul (read Agnes Ignace very carefully until you understand the conspiracy) was born in 1820. Click here to learn about him. Don't let their insult bother you! She married Jacques Finley. Jacques Finley's father was born in Fort Finlay, Canada in 1768. He married a Chippewa woman with the surname of Cree. Both Agnes (Aeneas) Paul and Miaquam (may be a female Chippewa name) Finley married. Click here to read about the first Paul's of Montana!
They lived from western Montana to central Washington. Chief Paul Young Ignace was quite fond of the region from western Montana to central Washington. The Paul clan of the Pacific Northwest can trace their roots back to Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, and possibly Michigan. The Kootenai who know they originally lived in Michigan, will accept this important information. We know Aeneas Paul or Young Ignace had one son.
Chief Aeneas Paul or Koostatah I
He also went by the name Big Face II or Big Knife II. He represented the Chippewas during the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty negotiations. Chief Paul told the whites his people were often at war against many tribes. He actually claimed the last tribe they made peace with were the Blackfeet which is quite strange. The Blackfeet are Algonquin like the Chippewas. In fact, they are both the same people. We keep learning that the Blackfeet were constantly at war against other Algonquins. You can't believe that if you know about the Seven Fires Prophecy. Their name is a reference to the Black Heels - Black Hills, which are located in southwestern and western Montana.
Chief Paul was the leader of the Dayton Creek Kootenai. Their main settlement now is Elmo. They no longer know who they are. They are a mixture of Algonquin and non Algonquin Indians. Chief Paul negotiated on behalf of his people with United States representatives sent to negotiate the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. It was reported that Chief Paul signed the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, but his accepted name Aeneas Paul does not appear on the treaty. Strong evidence that chief Paul refused to sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. However, a Flathead chief with the name Paul, did sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. We don't know if it was chief Aeneas Paul however. Another Kootenai chief named chief Michelle, did sign the treaty and then supposedly returned to Canada. Afterwards chief Paul became his successor.
The October 18, 1908 Swan Valley Massacre
A group of supposed Pend d'Oreilles (they were really Chippewas who were minding their own business), were hunting in the Swan Valley. Through treaty agreements they were allowed to fish and hunt. The 8 Chippewas had supposedly purchased hunting permits which they showed to the game warden and a few deputized citizens who accompanied him. They supposedly went off on their hunting trip in September of 1908. They were not the only Chippewas hunting in the Swan Valley or Seely Valley, at the time. Many others were doing likewise. By October, the whites had realized something else had transpired among their leaders. Charles Peyton (the Game Warden) and the deputized citizens, went looking for the Chippewas who were using the Swan Valley for hunting. They found one of their camps in the Swan Valley. He demanded the proof they had permits to hunt which they did. The State of Montana was breaking treaty law. The Indians had the right, by treaty, to fish and hunt. However, Peyton returned the next day in the mood for killing.
Peyton told the Chippewas to leave the Swan Valley by the next day when he warned he would return again. The Chippewas supposedly agreed to pack their belongings but before they could get everything ready, Peyton returned as he warned. He entered their camp shooting his gun. He meant to kill which means historians are not being honest about this historical event. In the first moments, two of the Chippewas were shot and eventually died. A third Chippewa man was killed after he tried to reach for his gun. The 13 year old son of one of the Chippewa men killed, got his gun and shot Peyton in the stomach. A deputy then shot and killed the 13 year old boy. One of the wifes of the Chippewas killed, got her a gun and finished off Peyton. She killed him dead on.
This event (the Swan Valley Massacre), which was a shock to the Chippewas who were honoring treaty agreements, led to the following: At the time (1908), the United States was having all kinds of problems with the Montana Chippewa Indians. The United States was preparing to break treaty promises. They sent Indian Agent Frank Churchill to Montana to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, in 1908-1909. Churchill requested from the government of the United States, to withdraw all of Valley County, Montana from white settlement and to have a 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in the same said county, for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation who were very hostile. It was not for the Chippewas of western Montana. Though the Fort Peck Reservation Land Act was an issue, the real problem was at Fort Belknap Reservation. Fort Peck Reservation was forced to deal with the Fort Peck Reservation Land Act and was opened up to white settlement and is no longer an Indian Reservation but a land that is checkerboarded with Indian owned land and white owned land.
Unlike the Flathead Reservation, Fort Peck Reservation has no mountains. Fort Peck Reservation was actually eradicated. The government of the United States agreed to Churchills requests. The Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation, were relocated to the new 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation which borders the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation. Both the Blackfeet and Flathead Reservations, were also forced to deal with Land Acts which ceded surplus Reservation land to the whites. At the Flathead Reservation, the ceded surplus land is located mainly between Flathead Lake and Mission Creek. At the Blackfeet Reservation, the ceded surplus land is located from just north of Little Browning (it is about a mile from Cut Bank, Montana) 25 miles north to the Canada border. It extends about 20 miles west and then south to Cut Bank Creek.
Today, the government of the Flathead Reservation recognizes the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. Little Shell Chippewas can receive medical attention and other benefits at the Flathead Reservation. They supposedly number only around 100 at the Flathead Reservation now. However, at epodunk.com the demographics of Lake County put the Chippewa population at 1% or near 300, of the county's population. Much of the Flathead Reservation is in Sanders County and some is in Missoula County. The total Chippewa population at the Flathead Reservation may be closer to 400 than 300. That is the Chippewas who are continuing to cling to their Chippewa identity. Chippewas actually make up the majority of the Indian population of Flathead Reservation.
Many of the Reservations Indians are obviously having tribal identity problems. The Cherokee make up 1% of the Reservations population as do the Cree and Sioux. The Navajo also make up 1% of the Reservations population. The Blackfeet and Mexican's each make up 2% of the Reservations population. We can accept the stats for the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree but not the Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux. The Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux are far more popular among the whites than the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree. A total of 8% of the Reservations population of 28,000, is identifying themselves as non Salish and Kootenai. That is nearly 3,000 of the Reservations Indian population of over 9,000. Since the Blackfeet and Cree are Chippewa, they acctually make up 4% of the Reservations population of 28,359 or well over 1,200.
The Creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
A number of Chippewa families returned to their native Montana from the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan in early 1879, or a couple of years after the 1877 exodus, where they settled down to live in northern Montana with Chippewas who were already living there. The location was where the Judith Basin Indian Reservation was located which is Fergus County, Montana. It was among these Chippewas who lived in northern Montana, that new Chippewa leaders emerged in the early 20th century. They kept with them very important historical information. They are also related to the Paul Clan of Flathead Reservation.
We know about the creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana through Howard Paul who was the son of Joseph Paul. According to Howard Paul, a number of Chippewas held a meeting on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewiston, Montana in 1920 or 1921, when he was 7 years old. According to Lloyd Paul who did an extensive genealogy report on the Montana Paul's, Howard Paul was born in 1914 at Forest Grove, Montana which is between Grass Range and Lewistown. Howard Paul was referring to a meeting held on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewistown, in 1921 and not 1920. According to these Chippewa leaders from the 1920s, they claimed to be from chief Red Bear (Red Thunder) and from chief Rocky Boy's Chippewas and Pembina Chippewa also.
Joseph Paul was obviously a leader among the Chippewas in the Fergus County, Montana region well before 1920. His birth is very suspicious. Genealogy reports indicate he had two mothers. His father, Elzear Paul, married Rose LaPlante on January 21, 1878. Joseph Paul is listed as being one the four children of Elzear and Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante. Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante, died in 1881. Joseph Paul's birth date is supposedly either 1886, 1887, or 1888. His obituary stated that Joseph Paul was born on October 1, 1883. His age at the time of death in 1959 was 75. He could not have been born in 1883. His father, Elzear Paul, was without bride. He was born at Fort Maginnis, Montana. However, there were 2 Forts in Montana with the name Fort Maginnis. One was located near Lewistown, while the other a few miles south of Cut Bank. Fort Maginnis near Cut Bank, was closed in 1879. So 1879 was probably the year Joseph Paul was born. After Elzear Paul's first wife died, he married Rose Daniels in 1886. Joseph Paul is listed as one of Rose Daniels children. So there is some problem we can't set aside. If Rose LaPlante gave birth to Joseph Paul, it had to have been between 1878 and 1881.
He and several members of his family including his father Elzear Paul, were allotted land in Fergus County. He eventually sold his land allotments and moved to Great Falls, as did his father Elzear Paul. While in Great Falls, Joseph Paul became the Representative for the Chippewas of the Great Falls region. On June 9, 1939, the representatives of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, met at the home of Joseph Paul in Great Falls. Something transpired which led to some sort of friction. Joseph Dussome represented Reservation Chippewas, while Raymond Gray formed an organization in Great Falls he named the Montana Landless Indians. Gray's organization was the most threatening to Joseph Paul. Joseph Paul wanted to preserve the original Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation. Dussome focused on Reservations.
The Meeting and the Blackfeet Reservation
We know from the meeting held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 9, 1939, that the Chippewas claimed the entire area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, as their Reservation. That includes Flathead Reservation. The Rocky Mountain Trench is the actual main divide or continental divide of the Rocky Mountains. Rocky Mountain Trench extends south through Flathead Reservation. A total of 9 Respresentives were assigned to each area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The maps below will help you understand this important information. The Representatives were the following: area number 565 were represented by ? (Hays), Joe Azure (Harlem), Joseph Dussome (Box Elder), and Thomas Ouellette (Wolf Point); area number 574 were represented by Millie Salois (Dupuyer) and Joseph Paul (Great Falls); area number 399 were represented by Joseph Paul (Great Falls), Thomas Sangray (Augusta), and Elizabeth Swan (Lewistown); area number 398 was represented by William Boyer (Helena). Since part of Great Falls is within area number 574, it was represented by both Millie Salois and Joseph Paul.
After the June 9, 1939 meeting at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana, the eventual breakup of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation government followed. World War II likely influenced most of the Representatives to attempt to get compensation for the agreement to accept the eventual loss of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation after 1855. Dussome, Swan, and leaders from Rocky Boy's Reservation, confined their land claim to the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation. In April of 1974, the United States again refused to honor treaty and rejected the land claim lawsuit.
Demographics of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
Population is ?
Blackfeet-Flathead (Rocky Boy's Reservation) Communities - 2010 population for both is 18,480 (Blackfeet 9,152 including mixed bloods and Flathead 9,328 including mixed bloods) - does not include non Indians.
East Glacier Park Village
Two Medicine Lake
Clarice Paul Homesite
Coriacan Village Trailer Park
Elmo (aka Elmo Homesite)
Kopp Road Trailer Park
Mission Dam Homesite
Old Agency (aka Dixon Agency Homesite)
Pablo (aka Pablo Homesite)
Turtle Lake (aka Turtle Lake Homesite)
West Ravalli Trailer Park
Big Valley (Terminated) - 194
Big Lagoon - 20
Blue Lake (Terminated) - 41
Cache Creek (Terminated) - 36
Coyote Valley - 96
Dry Creek - 42
Elk Valley (Terminated) - 44
Grindstone - 146
Guidiville (Terminated) - 1
Hoopa (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 2,291 - Total: 2,851
Hopland (Terminated) - 33
Karuk Reservation - 249
Laytonville - 171
Manchester - 179
Mark West (Terminated) - ?
Middletown (Terminated) - 53
Pinoleville (Terminated) - 196
Potter Valley (Terminated) - 138
Quartz Valley Reservation (Terminated) - 50
Redwood Valley (Terminated) - 113
Robinson (Terminated) - 129
Rohnerville (Terminated) - 67
Round Valley Reservation - 235
Sherwood Valley - 139
Smith River (Terminated) - 42
Stewarts Point - 55
Sulphur Bank - 56
Table Bluff (Terminated) - 71
Trinidad - 59
Upper Lake (Terminated) - 47
Yurok (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 560 - Total: 2,851
Cloverdale (Terminated) - ?
Graton (Terminated) - ?
Lyyton (Terminated) - ?
Coeur d'Alene Communities
East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Ford: Spokane Reservation
South East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Westend: Spokane Reservation
Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw
June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty Disputed Land Communities
Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boy's Reservation)-Fort Belknap Reservation Communities - 2010 population for both is 6,930 (Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation 3,260 including mixed bloods and Fort Belknap 3,670 including mixed bloods and the cities of Harlem and Dodson, Montana.
Fort Belknap Agency
Clear Creek Road
Fort Peck Communities
Hill 57 (Terminated)
Population 10 to 20
Aseniwuche Winewak (Alberta)
Foothills Ojibway Society (Alberta)
Montana including Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson (Alberta)
Nakcowinewak or Nakawe Nation (Alberta)
Tsuu T'ina (Alberta)
Akisq'nuk (British Columbia)
Kelly Lake (British Columbia)
Lheidli T'enneh (British Columbia)
Lower Kootenay (British Columbia)
McLeod Lake (British Columbia)
Shuswap (British Columbia)
St. Mary's (British Columbia)
Tobacco Plains (British Columbia)