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Flathead Reservation (The Real Rocky Boy's Reservation)
Horrible is one way of describing what happened to the Flathead Reservation. This Reservation was supposedly established on July 16, 1855, with the signing of the Hell Gate Treaty between the Salishan Tribes of that location who were subjugated by the military and police totem (the Chippewas) of the Algonquin Tribe, and the United States. According to white historians, the Salishans ceded 22 million acres and were left with a Reservation which covered nearly 1.3 million acres. However, that is not what historical records indicate. Flathead Reservation is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Actually it is a part of the Blackfeet Reservation which is a part of the Turtle Mountain Reservation.
And another puzzling fact about the Flathead Reservation, deals with the abundant farm land within the Reservation. It is the one location in western Montana with more farm land than any other, which leaves you thinking. The subject of available farm land was the number one issue among the whites of those times. They always selected land which was very productive agriculturally and had to be abundant. Leaders of Flathead Reservation are actually buying back Reservation land. They should only purchase land between Pablo and the Mission Mountains east of Pablo. Mission Valley was not set aside to be an Indian Reservation. That is very obvious. Jocko Valley (the small valley where Arlee is located) is probably the real Flathead Reservation. The rest of the Reservation, excluding Mission Valley, is in fact Reservation land. It was probably added on after chief Charlo was forced out of the Bitterroot Valley in 1891.
When the first whites showed up (father DeSmet and other white Christian Missionaries) in western Montana, one of their first objectives was to find the locations with the most farm land. They quickly found out where it was was. Mission Valley (southern Flathead Valley) and Flathead Valley. They reported that back to their crooked leaders. After President Taft's Proclamation of May 22, 1909, this Chippewa Reservation may have been fragmented into several much smaller Reservations. They may include the following areas: Arlee; St. Ignatius; Kicking Horse; Ronan; Pablo; Turtle Lake; Dayton-Elmo-Niarada; Camas; Perma; and Old Agency. More about President Taft's Proclamation is further down below.
And the same happened in the Great Falls, Montana region when St. Peters Mission was built in 1862 or 1863. At first, the white Christian Missionaries wanted to build St. Peters Mission near the Marias River but Chippewa leaders knew exactly what the whites were there for. Farm land. They told the white Christian Missionaries not to build the mission near the Marias River. They knew why they were there and more whites would follow them.
Homesite Program Conspiracy and who is Indian
Those Indians living at Flathead Reservation, have to wake up to the Flathead Reservation Program which commenced decades ago known as the Homesite Program. Homesites are located on 100% Tribal Trust Lands. However, you can purchase the land if you are only a quarter Indian which represents Genocide. And the Reservation is making the Homesite Program extremely attractive. Examples include: rates vary from 1.25 acres at $25 a year; 1.25 acres to 2.5 acres at $125 a year; 2.5 acres and above are $250 a year. Payments must be paid 5 years in advance. Diasabled people and people aged 59 and above, have their rates waived. Any person who is part Indian (at least a quarter) who is aware of the Homesite Program, can buy his or her way to be Flathead. It is very easy to confuse leaders of Flathead Reservation. That is probably because they carefully research his or hers application and don't go any further because funding is involved. The Reservation does not have the necessary funds to carry out an extensive research into his or hers Homesite application. A person who is a quarter Indian from another Reservation, can easily do this.
This Flathead Reservation Homesite Program was initiated by the United States with intentions on stealing Indian land and Exterminating the Indian Race. Those Indians living at Flathead Reservation who are full bloods or predominantly Indian, must respond to this Conspiracy by ignoring Reservation laws. They must take matters into their own hands to save this Reservation or they will be Exterminated. It will take quite a long time but it will eventually happen. Today, too many people living at Flathead Reservation, are demanding that the Reservation do away with blood quantum. We must respond to their obvious intentions on Genocide, by demanding that only citizens of Flathead Reservation who are more than half Indian, be counted as citizens of Flathead Reservation. We also must demand that Indians who are full bloods or predominantly Indian from other Reservations, be allowed full citizenship as citizens of Flathead Reservation without any obstacles. That means they can move to Flathead Reservation and receive all benefits citizens of Flathead Reservation do. It also means sometime in the future removing those citizens of Flathead Reservation who are less than half Indian, from Flathead Reservation citizenship. Disenrollment. We must commence a disenrollment program in the future to save the Indian Race.
Too many full bloods and predominantly Indian Indians, favor Genocide. They don't care if they are Exterminated. They believe in white lies. Most people who are part Indian but predominantly non Indian, don't care for Indians. They will side with the whites. An inititive must be created which governs each Homesite within Flathead Reservation to protect the future of the Indian Race there. Reservations were created for Indians and that law must be followed. Indians are not to blame, nor are mixed bloods. It is the whites who are to blame for the movement to do away with blood quantum.
Leaders of White Earth Reservation recently allowed Genocide to be voted on. It was passed by the citizens of White Earth Reservation. Most who voted were probably predominantly white. So blood quantum is no longer a factor at White Earth Reservation. Their leaders are extremely happy the Indian Race will be Exterminated at White Earth Reservation. They have made a terrible mistake. Not by allowing such a vote to happen but to glorify Genocide. In the 1930s, over 8,000 Indians lived at White Earth Reservation. Most were forced to leave their beautiful Reservation. In 2000, only around 3,500 lived there. Many are predominantly white.
To counter the movement by the whites to end blood quantum at Flathead Reservation, an alternate government must be formed. A return to an all elders government must be priority. All government leaders must be full bloods or predominantly Indian. Their main objective is to save the Indian Race at Flathead Reservation and protect Homesites at Flathead Reservation. By protecting Homesites, I'm suggesting their demographics be carefully calculated to determine if discrepancies (if a disproportionate number look white) exist. Don't go door to door but spy on them. Since the United States is possibly stealing Indian Trust Land at Flathead Reservation, an agreement in the future to end the sale of Indian Trust Land to citizens of Flathead Reservation who are less than half Indian, must be accpted by the alternate government of Flathead Reservation. Do not allow citizens of Flathead Reservation to vote on it. Genocide is involved.
And the alternate government of Flathead Reservation must not accept money from the government of the United States. They must act as a concerned entity which will provide an alternate choice for the Indians of Flathead Reservation who are predominantly Indian and Traditionalists. Use force in the future to prevent any citizens of Flathead Reservation of less than half Indian blood, from attempting to purchase Indian Trust Land at Flathead Reservation. We know the United States wants to Exterminate the Indian Race. This Flathead Reservation alternate government must be created. The current Flathead Reservation government will not do anything. In fact, they will accept Genocide. We are dealing with Genocide and we are going to defend ourselves from the threat the United States is. Don't be fooled by the whites.
When was the Flathead Reservation established?
According to the United States, on July 16, 1855. More about that is below. Flathead Valley and southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley), has more abundant farm land in western Montana than any other location in western Montana. That alone tells educated Indians something is wrong. If in fact a Flathead Reservation was created on July 16, 1855, it did not include southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley). Why? Too much farm land. We know Bitterroot Valley is involved and the first Flathead Indian Reservation Agency was located near the confluence of the Flathead River and Jocko River, where Old Agency is located. Originally, Flathead Reservation was known as Jocko Reservation. It was named after the Jocko Valley where Arlee is located. If Flathead Reservation was actually created in 1855, it included land west of Flathead River, to the confluence of Flathead River and Mission Creek or Post Creek (i don't know which waterway merges with Flathead River but it looks like Post Creek using google earth), and followed Mission Creek to the eastern end of the Reservation. For all we know, Jocko Reservation may have been created in 1873. Chief Arlee (he was Chippewa or Amikwa Chippewa who are known as the Nez Perce) led 100s of Chippewas from the Bitterroot Valley, to the Jocko Valley in October of 1873. By 1873, the Jocko (Flathead) Reservation Agency had been relocated to near Arlee.
Chief Charlo refused to sign the 1872 or 1873 treaty. Its proof the Chippewas did not agree to the 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. He was the rightful leader. He continued to live in the Bitterroot Valley until he was forced to leave the Bitterroot Valley for Jocko Reservation, in late 1891. He led over 100 Chippewas to Jocko Reservation in October of 1891. A few years before chief Charlo and his subjects were relocated to Jocko Reservation, another large group of Chippewas (the Lower Kalispel) were relocated to the Reservation. That happened in 1887 or the year the Sweetgrass Hills Treaty was negotiated. Then in 1894, another large group of Chippewas (Spokane Indians) were relocated to Jocko Reservation.
Then in 1902, chief Rocky Boy sent his request for Reservation to President Roosevelt. The United States was not going to leave the southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley) Indian. I suspect a large Chippewa Reservation was created in 1902 and passed by the government of the United States in 1904. It probably included the western half of Flathead Reservation but not the southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley). In 1909, the United States refused to honor treaty and eradicated the Reservation. Individual Indians were allotted land including in the southern Flathead Valley, where years earlier other Indians were allotted land. More about that is below.
National Bison Range or a Reservation
In the March 8, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper, it was reported that chief Rocky Boy made application for a Reservation within Flathead Reservation, by sending a letter to President Roosevelt. A few days later (March 11, 1902) it was reported in the same paper that chief Pa-Pa-Wee opposed chief Rocky Boy which led to friction within the Chippewa villages in southwest Montana. Then in the May 14, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain, it was reported that chief Rocky Boys request for a Reservation was denied. It was also reported in the same newspaper article, that chief Rocky Boy then supposedly asked for the privilege of allowing members of his band who wish to do so to settle on surveyed or unsurveyed land. Then in the June 5, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper, it was reported that the Chipppewa's Were Ready To Leave. The article read that the Chippewa's received word from Washington that each of their number are entitled to 160 acres of land somewhere in this vast country. We know ogima Rocky Boy wanted to settle at Flathead Reservation. However, the article claimed ogima Rocky Boy sent Chippewa land surveyors to northern Idaho and the region between Tobacco Plains (near Eureka, Montana) and St. Mary's River near Babb, Montana. One liked the region between Tobacco Plains and Babb. It is too similar to the events of November 1909. We know they settled at Flathead Reservation in 1902-1904.
It is no coincidence President Roosevelt established the National Bison Range on May 23, 1908. Setting aside a mountainous area to be a buffalo refuge is awkward. Lewis and Clark claimed that they seen no buffalo in the mountain valleys and mountains of Montana which means buffalo are prairie animals. The National Bison Range covers 18,800 acres. Old Agency is located on the west side, while Moise is located on the northwestern side. St. Ignatius is located on the east side. Using google earth you can clearly see the lack of trees in the mountains. There is a reason for it. Seedlings are eaten by the buffalo. They won't allow the buffalo population to grow as a result of the damage they cause by over grazing. Anyway, the National Bison Range is probably the new Chippewa Reservation ogima Rocky Boy requested for from President Roosevelt. There was trouble happening at Flathead Reservation in 1908 as a result of the Flathead Reservation Land Allotment Act. Could be the Reservation is actually much larger. It may include the western and southern mountains of Flathead Reservation and the Mission Mountains. Mission Creek may be the boundary which separates it from southern Flathead Valley (Mission Valley). Or from Big Arm, Elmo, and Niarada and the mountains to the west, to the southern mountains including the National Bision Range, following Mission Creek to the Mission Mountains. Or it could be the Reservation written further down on this page.
The Bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Continental Divide Diversion
White historians made a blunder by placing the Continental Divide in the wrong location on 19th century maps and maps of the time we live in. It is the Rocky Mountain Trench which is the real Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains. They may claim the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the Rocky Mountains from the Cassiar Mountains and Columbia Mountains but obviously the Rocky Mountain Trench separates the east side of the Rocky Mountains from the west side of the Rocky Mountains. The narrow valley which is the Rocky Mountain Trench (Continental Divide), extends from Watson Lake, Yukon to a location 2.7 miles south of St. Ignatius which is located on the bogus Flathead Reservation which is really the Blackfeet Reservation. We have to adhere to the Blackfoot Territory defined in the September 17, 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty. Our territory is described as follows:
Boundaries of the Blackfoot: Commencing at the mouth of Muscle-shell river; thence up the Missouri river to its source; thence along the main range of the Rocky mountains, in a southerly direction, to the head waters of the northern source of the Yellowstone river; thence down the Yellowstone river to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard creek; thence across to the head waters of the Muscle-shell river; and thence down the Muscle-shell river to the place of beginning.
It is the Muscle-shell River which is the eastern boundary. The location is at 47°25'21.43"N 107°54'53.38"W (the mouth of Muscle-shell River) and at 48°59'58.95"N 107°54'53.38"W (the Canada border). It is 17 miles east of Fort Belknap Reservation. And the main range of the Rocky Mountains begins on the east side of the Continental Divide which is the Rocky Mountain Trench. That is located at 48°59'58.43"N 115°03'20.49"W. Then the boundary follows a southerly direction to the head waters of the Missouri River which is located at 44°32'31"N 111°27'53"W which is on the Idaho-Montana border. Henry's Lake is 5 miles to the north in Idaho. Upper Red Rock Lake in Montana, is 11.9 miles to the west. It then follows a southeastwardly line to the head waters of the northern source of the Yellowstone River which is at 43°59'18"N 109°55'45"W. Wind River Reservation is 37 miles to the southeast. The boundary then follows the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek which is also known as Shields River. It is located at 45°43'25"N 110°27'27"W. It then follows Twenty-five Yard creek (aka Shields River) to the head waters of the Muscle-shell River. Then it follows the Muscle-shell River to the place of beginning.
The reason i changed the locations is the Continental Divide. The boundary following the Missouri River to it's source is correct. However, the main range of the Rocky Mountains is wrong. It does not go straight north. It goes northwest to the southern most point of Bitterroot Valley which is the southern most point of the Rocky Mountain Trench (aka Continental Divide). It then follows a northerly direction to where Hellgate, Montana is located. It then continues to follow a northerly direction to the southern Flathead Valley (aka Mission Valley) then back to the western boundary which is located at 48°59'58.43"N 115°03'20.49"W. The Kootenai Tobacco Plains Reserve borders it. Eureka, Montana is 8 miles to the south.
You only need to use google earth to learn the truth. They made a blunder by placing the Continental Divide in the wrong place on maps in the 19th century and even now. The July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty was actually negotiations for the eventual October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty (aka Lame Bull Treaty and Judith River Treaty) which confirmed the territory of the Blackfeet. In the October 17, 1855 Judith River Treaty, the western most territory of the Blackfeet commences at Hellgate Pass (aka Medicine Rock Pass), which is 5 miles east of Missoula, Montana and 1 mile from the confluence of the Blackfoot River and Clark Fork River. It is really the confluence of the Blackfoot River and Clark Fork River. If you use google earth, you will notice that the Blackfoot River is the real Clark Fork River. Before reaching Clark Fork River from the west, Blackfoot River makes a slight turn to the northeast, while Clark Fork River begins it's journey to it's source.
However, it can be argued that it's the other way around. It is the Clark Fork River which turns to the northeast where the confluence of the Blackfoot River and Clark Fork River is. The Blackfoot River then begins it's journey to it's source. Mount Jumbo is 2.6 miles west of the confluence of the Blackfoot River and Clark Fork River. The Clark Fork River is not as wide as the Blackfoot River. You now understand what this corrupted historical information is about. We know ogima Rocky Boy was very aware of Mount Jumbo. Click here to read an article about the Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy, camped at the base of Mount Jumbo in 1905. Joseph Dixon was becoming an obstable or possibly an ally. It was really a Chippewa village at the base of Mount Jumbo. Mount Jumbo is within the Chippewa Reservation set aside for the Chippewas in 1902.
In those times (1850s) the leaders of the United States were not familiar with the Continental Divide. Only later on did they realize the Rocky Mountain Trench is the true Continental Divide. In other words, the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty never happened. It also means the territory of the Coeur d'Alene is a part of the Blackfeet Reservation because no treaty was concluded with them. Click here to read the November 8, 1873 Executive Order. It also means the territory including the Reservations of the Methow, Okanagan, Spokane and other tribes is a part of the Blackfeet Reservation. Click here to read the December 0, 1871 Memorandum Treaty. No treaty was ever made with them because all of them including the Coeur d'Alene, Nez Perce, and Flathead signed the October 17, 1855 Judith River Treaty which confirmed the territory of the Blackfeet and officially made it a Reservation.
Evidently the whites inserted what you may want to think of as a gesture in the bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, in which they supposedly agreed to set aside a Reservation for the Flathead Indians (Chippewa Indians) living in the Bitterroot Valley, if found if that proposition was desirable. You are smart enough to smell a theft while in progress! That part of the treaty is not suppose to be there. The Chippewas were still living throughout the Bitterroot Valley and other western and southwestern Montana locations, well into the early 1900s. They tended to confine themselves to the outskirts of white towns, and resorted to doing odd jobs to earn money, and making crafts on the side to further increase the amount of money they made. They were very poor and often went hungry. They were thin in those times.
They were prohibted from hunting as they had always done through their own laws, by the whites of Montana, who frequently arrested Chippewas for hunting out of season (done usually during the coldest months). However, it didn't stop the Chippewas from breaking white laws. Actually they followed treaty agreements which gave them rights to hunt and fish. The State of Montana broke laws. Chippewa hunters had no choice but to hunt and fish. Either they hunted or they would often go hungry. The Chippewa population in southwestern Montana, was highest around Anaconda and Butte. Their population on the Flathead Reservation was large. The bogus 1855 Hell Gate Treaty set aside the entire land area of the treaty, or the supposed land cession land.
Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
It was the Newlands Reclamation Act of June 17, 1902 that brought ogima Rocky Boy to the attention of American leaders. They may claim the issue was about irrigation projects and other subjects but the goal of the United States was to Steal More Indian Land. Ogima Rocky Boy and other Chippewa leaders, quickly learned about the intentions of the United States. They were defenseless and the United States took every advantage of it. To learn that the Coeur d'Alene, Flathead, Kalispell, Kootenai, Pend O'reilles, Okanagan including the Chelan, Columbia or Sinkiuse, Entiat, Lake, Methow, Nespelem, San Poil, Spokan, Wenatchee, Wiyot, Yurok, and the Yuki including the Wappo, are Algonquin Chippewa click here. Ukiah, California is named after the Yuki. And Nacomis Rancheria is named after Nokomis which is the Chippewa word for Grandmother. To learn that the Athabascan's or Dene people including the Apache, Navajo, and Chipewyan are Algonquin Chippewa click here. The Edinburgh Encyclopedia is from 1832 and far more reliable than later books about Indian languages.
Chief Rocky Boy and the Blackfeet-Flathead Reservation
After ogima Little Shell III passed away in 1901, the Montana Chippewas needed to elect a new Gitchi Ogima. That happened at a Chippewa village on July 10, 1902, just south of Butte, Montana. Ogima Rocky Boy was already sending out letters to affluent whites and white leaders, that he wanted new Chippewa Reservations set aside. He commenced that in March of 1902. Rocky Boy refused to honor treaty, or accepted the lies the government of the United States was propagating in the Montana region that the Montana Chippewas were not recognized by the United States. Ogima Pa-Pa-Wee became enraged after learning Rocky Boy had requested for Reservations. He told the Chippewas who followed him, they would continue to live throughout the vast Reservation the United States promised the Chippewas by treaty. Click here to read about the March 11, 1902 article about the civil strife. Rocky Boy was more concerned about the welfare of the Chippewas and knew they had to adapt to the changes going on during those times. Click here to read the July 11, 1902 article.
In an article from the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper from March 8, 1902, it was reported that ogima Rocky Boy has made application to the United States government requesting for Reservation. The same article stated that the total number under Rocky Boys leadership was 400 and some lived near Great Falls, Butte, and Havre. It was encouraging news to the United States who were impressed with Rocky Boy. This event from March 1902, led to Rocky Boy becoming the Gitchi Ogima of the Montana Chippewas. However, ogima Pa-Pa-Wee was the real Chippewa Gitchi Ogima. Click here to read the March 8, 1902 article.
Rocky Boy accepts the Fraudulent 10 cent an acre Treaty or the McCumber Agreement
After ogima Rocky Boy sent the letter, which was written for him by Anaconda attorney J.W. James, to the President requesting for a Reservation, it was reported in the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper on May 14, 1902, that the request was refused by the Department of Indian Affairs which is a lie. When the petition was brought to the commissioner, he instructed the Indian Agent at Flathead Reservation to visit Anaconda to determine if the Chippewas were American born. Another white excuse. American leaders were very interested in ogima Rocky Boy. They knew Rocky Boy was very willing to negotiate land deals and the McCumber Agreement would be voted on shortly. They also knew Land Acts would happen within a few years. They knew they needed Rocky Boy's support. Click here to read the May 14, 1902 article. Ogima Rocky Boy also contacted Senator Gibson requesting for his support which Gibson agreed to. The Indian Agent at Flathead Reservation Thomas Downs, recommended that room be made on the Flathead Reservation for the Chippewas from southwestern Montana under ogima Rocky Boy's leadership. A bill was prepared for the ratification of the agreement to set aside the vast new Chippewa Reservation. Sentor Gibson was put in charge.
We can date the official creation of the Chippewa Flathead Reservation which is really a part of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, to March of 1902. American leaders did not ignore Rocky Boy. They worked with him. At that time (1902), 1,000s of Chippewas were living throughout the original Blackfeet Reservation including Flathead Reservation. Chippewas knew their vast Reservation was intact. In an article from the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper from June 4, 1902, it was reported that Chippewa land surveyors had been sent out to look for Reservation land. That was only 3 weeks after Rocky Boy's petition for Reservation was refused. So we know Rocky Boy's request for Reservations was actually approved. One of the Chippewa land surveyors told ogima Rocky Boy he favored the land between Eureka, Montana and Babb, Montana which is the location of the northwestern part of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Another location they considered was northern Idaho. Click here to read the June 5, 1902 article.
After choosing their new Reservation, the Chippewas from southwestern Montana, commenced to begin the process of moving to the region between Eureka, Montana and Babb, Montana. Click here to read the September 17, 1903 article from the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper. The editor or reporter, was obviously very angry. He knew the truth. Rocky Boy led scores of Chippewas to their new Reservation. Rocky Boy then settled down to spend the winter at Hill 57 near Great Falls, Montana. Later, he would return to his place of birth which is located between Anaconda and Butte.
The January 8, 1904 Ratification
Then in 1904 (the year the fraudulent 10 cent an acre Treaty or McCumber Agreement was passed), ogima Rocky Boy was given very postive news. On January 8, 1904, Senator Gibson's bill known as S. 2705 (S. 2705, Fifty-eighth Congress, first session) was ratified. They claim otherwise but they lied. Ogima Rocky Boy knew congressman Joseph Dixon had been given the power to give Rocky Boy new Chippewa Reservations. Thus, the reason the visit between ogima Rocky Boy and Dixon happened at the Chippewa village at the base of Mount Jumbo in 1904. Mount Jumbo is on the north side of Hellgate Ganyon or Hellgate Pass. It is the same Hellgate Pass written in the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. By using Hellgate Pass as a location for negotiations, it confirmed the negotiations were in fact about the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. Read the Friday August 5, 1904 Billings Gazette news article. Ogima Rocky Boy's locations for new Chippewa Reservations was very important to him. One may have been located between Anaconda, Butte, Basin, Boulder, Whitehall, the Big Hole River, Wise River, and back to Anaconda. He also chose the Flathead Reservation which is a part of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. In the same news article, it was reported that Rocky Boy was also interested in the Blackfeet Reservation but he had already sent Chippewa settlers there in 1903. Click here to read the August 5, 1904 article from the Billings Gazette. What happened in 1904, was the ratification of the 1902 treaty which established these new Chippewa Reservations. I'm not certain about the Reservation in the Anaconda region.
The Blackfeet-Flathead Reservation Boundary
As mentioned, ogima Rocky Boy refused to honor treaty and agreed to land cessions in exchange for new Chippewa Reservations. These new Chippewa Reservations are the Blackfeet-Flathead Reservation and possibly the Reservation ogima Rocky Boy requested for in the Anaconda region. They were set aside in 1902 and ratified on January 8, 1904. We have to carefully define the boundaries of the Blackfeet-Flathead Reservation. In fact, we have to first deal with the 1896 Blackfeet Lease to the United States of the western part of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. The Blackfeet claim they agreed to lease the land to the United States (it was really the Chippewas) for 99 years. Since we know the western part of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation extends to the Continental Divide (aka the Rocky Mountain Trench) of the Rocky Mountains, it proves the land the Chippewas chose in 1902 between Tobacco Plains (Eureka, Montana) and Babb, Montana, is Chippewa Reservation land.
We know the Chippewas under ogima Rocky Boy's leadership, were living in the Garrison, Montana region before 1908. We also know the Chippewas were living along the Dearborn River. We also know the Chippewas were living adjacent to and west of the Sun River and Teton River. We also know the Chippewas were living in Swan Valley and the Eureka, Montana region. So we first will deal with Mount Jumbo which is located at 46°52'39.22" N 113°57'20.70"W and 4 miles west of Hellgate, Montana. Missoula, Montana is adjacent to Mount Jumbo on the west. We then follow the Blackfoot River or Clark Fork River northeast, to it's source at 47°2'6"N 112°21'34"W. Garrison, Montana is 33 miles southeast of the Blackfoot River or Clark Fork River.
From the source of the Blackfoot River or Clark Fork River, the boundary extends east to Wolf Creek, Montana. The boundary then follows a line northeast to the mouth of the Dearborn River. Then the boundary follows the Dearborn River to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Then the boundary follows the foothills of the Rocky Mountains up to Swift Reservoir. Then the boundary follows the southern boundary of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation northeast to where the mouth of Cut Bank Creek enters the Marias River. Then the boundary follows the eastern boundary of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation to the Canada border. Then the boundary follows the 4th Blackfeet Reservation-Canada border, to Tobacco Plains which is where Eureka, Montana is located.
Then the boundary follows the main range of the Rocky Mountains to the east shores of Whitefish Lake. Then the boundary follows a line southeast to the location between Columbia Falls and Hungry Horse. Then the boundary follows along the west side of the mountains to the Flathead Reservation. Then the boundary follows the northern boundary of Flathead Reservation to the northwestern part of Flathead Reservation. Then the boundary follows the western border of Flathead Reservation to the southwestern border of Flathead Reservation. Then the boundary follows the southern border of Flathead Reservation to Mount Jumbo which is 4 miles west of Hellgate, Montana. The Reservation is almost entirely mountainous. The United States did not wait long to refuse to honor the agreements they reached with ogima Rocky Boy in 1902 and 1904. He probably knew what to expect. This is the new Chippewa Reservation created for the Chippewas of western Montana in 1902 and ratified on January 8, 1904. It is a part of the 10 cent an acre Treaty or McCumber Agreement. To learn about the illegal eradication of this Reservation, read about the Proclamation of May 22, 1909 and Swan Valley Massacre below. Below is a google earth map of this large Reservation set aside in 1902 and ratified on January 8, 1904, we will refer to as Rocky Boy's Reservation. It is the real Rocky Boy Reservation.
Chief Moses is an especially fascinating historical figure. The two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties were signed by a chief named Moses. The first has him listed as being Kootenay and the other a Flathead. In Washington State lived another chief who was known as chief Moses. He was probably the same Moses who signed the two 1855 Montana Stevens Treaties. According to white historians, chief Moses of the Washington State region, refused to sign the Washington State Stevens Treaties. An obvious cover-up is in place. Isaac Stevens was in Montana near where the father of Joseph Paul, Elzear Paul, would eventually live (Elzear Paul was born in 1857), in 1853, or nearly a couple of years before the Stevens Treaties commenced.
We know Isaac Stevens was already negotiating with Chippewa leaders in Montana about Chippewa land in the Pacific Northwest in 1853. Whatever happened in Montana (a little north of what would become Lewistown) in 1853, probably dealt with a land cession and the establishment of a Reservation. In 1855, Isaac Stevens commenced to negotiate with the Indians of Oregon and Washington States. We will include California as well because the Stevens Treaties have links to California land. What followed in 1855, was not accepted by the Chippewas and a three year war followed in Oregon and Washington which ended in 1858.
Joseph Paul made certain we would not forget about the events which occurred during the Stevens Treaties. According to the son of Joseph Paul, Howard Paul, the Chippewas of Montana commenced to organize in either 1920 or 1921, on their families ranch near Lewistown, Montana. It was probably the ranch of Joseph Paul. They supposedly wanted to settle a land claim issue. That's according to a book about those events. It was about the original Blackfeet Reservation. During that time (the 1920s) many Montana Chippewas were honoring treaty and living throughout most of the original Blackfeet Reservation.
However, if the chief Moses who signed the two Montana Stevens Treaties is the same chief Moses of Washington State, it indicates the whites are using deception to cover-up something. That is the huge Reservation which straddles a huge area of land in Idaho, Montana, and Washington and even Oregon and California. Chief Kamiakin of the Oregon and Washington region, actually organized the Oregon Coast Tribes to fight in the 1855-1858 war. By the end of the war some sort of agreement may have been agreed upon by the Anishinabe Nation and the United States, which confirmed the original Chippewa demand in 1853, that a huge area of land be set aside in the California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington region.
Of course, that land is the entire land area of the two Montana Stevens Treaties, and the three Camp Stevens Treaties of June 9-11, 1855, which involves a great deal of land in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, and also the June 25, 1855 treaty, which Joel Palmer signed. Palmer and Stevens signed all the Stevens Treaties. They should be called the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Palmer also signed the August 11, 1855 Treaty which ceded southwestern Oregon land which borders California. On November 9, 1855 Palmer supposedly helped to set aside the Oregon Coast Reservation which is now known as the Siletz-Grand Ronde Reservation.
A war was going on in southwestern Oregon and northwestern California in 1855. The November 16, 1855 treaty which established the Klamath Reservation of northwestern California, is obviously related to the Palmer-Stevens Treaties. Today, the Klamath Reservation is known as the Hoopa-Yurok Reservation. The Yurok are Algonquin and so are the Hoopa. And going back to 1853, two treaties were signed on September 10 and 19 of that year, which supposedly ceded land in extreme northern California and southern Oregon. All these treaties are obviously linked to Isaac Stevens visit to Montana in 1853. Joseph Paul was claiming the Chippewas refused to cede the Reservation, or he claimed the land as a Chippewa Reservation.
Chief Moses (from Washington) was either born in Washington as nearly all historians claim, or he was born back east. I have read a book in which the author wrote that chief Moses was Cherokee who moved to Wisconsin while very young. He lived in Wisconsin for a long time before migrating to Montana then to Washington where he became a powerful leader. He was obviously Chippewa, as was chief Garry who was played by the whites. Chief Garry was supposedly Spokane but he was sent to Manitoba while very young. Manitoba is Chippewa country. Click here to read a bit of the book about chief Moses living in Wisconsin while very young.
The Paul Clan
Being a Paul makes this task an especially favorite one. It is very difficult to learn about the exact origins of the Montana Paul clan. Their entry into what is now Montana is very, very, difficult to learn about. Using the internet i found out about Ignace Lamoose. White historians claim Ignace Lamoose was an Iroquois which is another white lie. Remove the La from Lamoose and you have Moose, which is an Algonquin word which means Moose of course. The Chippewa leader Ignace the Moose led a group of 24 Chippewas to the Bitterroot Valley. That probably occurred soon after Antoine Plante journeyed to Washington State around the 1811-1812 time period. Some claim Ignace the Moose led the small group of Chippewas to the Bitterroot Valley around 1816. They possibly came from Quebec as history indicates but some Kootenay know they originally lived in Michigan. The Chippewas were already living in far western Montana at the time. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy!
Now about chief Big Face or chief Paul. Lloyd Paul did a careful research of the Paul Clan of Montana east of the Rocky Mountains. His grandfather, Elzear Paul and uncle Joseph Paul, were native to what is now the Fergus County, Montana region. Both were allotted Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation land east of the Lewistown, Montana region. According to historical documents, the Crow were set aside a large Reservation in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region on August 16, 1873. We know from Howard Paul, Joseph Paul, and Joseph Dussome that the Chippewas have lived in what is now the Fergus County, Montana region, long before the whites settled in Montana. Lloyd Paul provided information on many Paul's including Mary Agnes Paul (no dob and dod however) and most important probably, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul. He was born in Quebec on April 16, 1750. The first chief Big Face of the Flathead Tribe may have been born around 1750. Chief Big Face passed away in the early 1840s. However, Paul Pierre Ignace Paul evidently passed away on February 22, 1824. Click here to read the Paul genealogy work from Lloyd Paul.
Chief Big Face (surname Paul)
In the early 1840s, ogima (chief) Paul (his Anishinabe name was Big Face) met with white Christian missionaries and allowed himself to be used or played, by the whites. He was already in his early 90s at the time. He was probably born around 1750, in either Quebec or possibly Manitoba. He may have converted to Christianity early in his life (in the 18th century). Once he knew the white invaders were visiting more frequently his domain, he made the regrettable decision to request for trouble. Chief Paul may have migrated into western Montana in the late 18th century. His descendants may have been chief Victor and chief Charlo.
Ignace the Lamoose real name was Aeneas (Ignace) Paul. He brought along his family including his son Aeneas Paul who was born before they arrived to the Bitterroot Valley, in 1816. Chief Big Face or chief Paul, was possibly living in the Bitterroot Valley when Ignace the Moose arrived, or he is Ignace Paul. The elder Aeneas Paul married a woman from the Flathead Tribe. His son also married into the same tribe. It is claimed the elder or Old Ignace was smitten with Christianity which could indicate he was a mixed blood. He supposedly journeyed to St. Louis in 1835 to request that missionaries be sent to the Bitterroot Valley. After a period of waiting for their arrival, he became impatient and commenced another trek to St. Louis but was killed in 1837. The poor man was played by the whites. His son (Young Ignace) then took over for his departed father and journeyed to St. Louis in 1839 to again request for missionaries. This time the mistake worked out. It may have been Young Ignace who greeted Father DeSmet in July of 1840 and not the 90 year old chief Big Face.
Aeneas Paul was also known as Old Ignace, while his son was also known as Young Ignace. Young Ignace was very much like Antoine Plante's son who went by the same name, and often acted as a guide to guide whites around. Antoine Plante was probably related to the Montana Paul's. Unfortunately, the first of the Paul clan of Montana were played into establishing the first white settlement in what is now Montana. Today, it is known as Stevensville. That is a no, no! It is revolting! White Christian Missionaries were after money when they ventured to Indian settlements to try and convert Indians to their religion. They were paid by the church that hired them. Unfortunately, they were only thinking of themselves.
Chief Aeneas Paul
Though Aeneas may look like another unrelated word, it is a mispronunciation of Ignace. Chief Aeneas Paul was the son of Aeneas Paul or Old Ignace. He was born in Manitoba or Quebec, or before Old Ignace arrived to the Bitterroot Valley. He is very important to the Montana as well as California, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming States Paul clan. His sister Agnes Paul (read Agnes Ignace very carefully until you understand the conspiracy) was born in 1820. Click here to learn about him. Don't let their insult bother you! She married Jacques Finley. Jacques Finley's father was born in Fort Finlay, Canada in 1768. He married a Chippewa woman with the surname of Cree. Both Agnes (Aeneas) Paul and Miaquam (may be a female Chippewa name) Finley married. Click here to read about the first Paul's of Montana!
They lived from western Montana to central Washington. Chief Paul Young Ignace was quite fond of the region from western Montana to central Washington. The Paul clan of the Pacific Northwest can trace their roots back to Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, and possibly Michigan. The Kootenai who know they originally lived in Michigan, will accept this important information. We know Aeneas Paul or Young Ignace had one son.
Chief Aeneas Paul or Koostatah I
He also went by the name Big Face II or Big Knife II. He represented the Chippewas during the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty negotiations. Chief Paul told the whites his people were often at war against many tribes. He actually claimed the last tribe they made peace with were the Blackfeet which is quite strange. The Blackfeet are Algonquin like the Chippewas. In fact, they are both the same people. We keep learning that the Blackfeet were constantly at war against other Algonquins. You can't believe that if you know about the Seven Fires Prophecy. Their name is a reference to the Black Heels - Black Hills, which are located in southwestern and western Montana.
Chief Paul was the leader of the Dayton Creek Kootenai. Their main settlement now is Elmo. They no longer know who they are. They are a mixture of Algonquin and non Algonquin Indians. Chief Paul negotiated on behalf of his people with United States representatives sent to negotiate the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. It was reported that Chief Paul signed the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty, but his accepted name Aeneas Paul does not appear on the treaty. Strong evidence that chief Paul refused to sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. However, a Flathead chief with the name Paul, did sign the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty. We don't know if it was chief Aeneas Paul however. Another Kootenai chief named chief Michelle did sign the treaty and then supposedly returned to Canada. Afterwards chief Paul became his successor.
Even now the Flathead Reservation has one of the highest percentages of the Paul surname of any location in the Pacific Northwest. I included only five Flathead Reservation communities. Their total population is 10,091. And St. Ignatius along with Ronan, have the highest percentage with 1.0 per 100. I could not find any white page listings for Fort Belknap Agency and Lodgepole, which are Fort Belknap Reservation communities. I could only include Harlem and Hays. Next is the Great Falls region, then the region just north of the Flathead Reservation, or the Kalispell region. The Babb, Montana region has the highest percentage of the Paul Surname in Montana. In North Dakota, the Rugby and Bismarck-Mandan region has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. In South Dakota, it is Pierre.
In Idaho, the Nez Perce Reservation and the immediate surrounding region, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. The Nez Perce Reservation is far worse off than the Flathead Reservation. Only one town of the Nez Perce Reservation (Lapwai) is predominantly Indian. Next is the region near the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. In Washington State, the region between the Colville-Spokan Reservation and north of the Yakima Reservation, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Next is the Yakima Reservation region. In Wyoming, the region between Cody and Powell have the highest percentage of the Paul Surname. In California, the region from Eureka to Crescent City, has the highest percentage of the Paul surname. Of course, i'm keeping these areas in California near Reservations. All have above normal % for the Paul surname in the United States which number 72,248.
In Alberta, the Paul Clan has long lived there. Today, the Alexander and Paul First Nations have leaders (councilors) with the Paul surname. The Paul First Nation is supposedly Lakota but Canada set aside a large Reserve named the Montana Reserve which was located around Piegon Lake. Canada refused to honor treaty agreements and stole the Reserve. It forced many of the Chippewas living at the Montana Reserve which now includes the Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson First Nations, to move north where the Paul First Nation is now. It was originally named the Alexis First Nation or went by another name. Chief Paul assumed power over the Reserve west of Edmonton in 1887. It's name was then changed to the Paul First Nation. These Alberta Paul's may have originally lived in Montana before the 1877 exodus. However, it's very likely many Paul's from Manitoba settled in Alberta long before 1877.
Babb, Blackfeet Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 30
Siletz Reservation, Oregon: 1.1 per 100
Nez Perce Reservation, Idaho: 1.0 per 100
Rugby, North Dakota: 1.0 per 200
Flathead Reservation (Arlee; St. Ignatius; Ronan; Pablo; and Polson), Montana: 1.1 per 300
Parker, Yakima Reservation, Washington: 1.0 per 300
Hays, Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Harlem, Borders Fort Belknap Reservation, Montana: 1.0 per 400
Cody, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Powell, Wyoming: 1.0 per 500
Bismarck-Mandan, North Dakota: 1.5 per 1,000
Rathdrum (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.5 per 1,000
Hoopa-Yurok Reservation Region, California: 1.2 per 1,000
Yakima Reservation Region, Washington: 1.1 per 1,000
Washington State (between Colville-Spokan and north of Yakima Reservations): 1.1 per 1,000
Dickinson, North Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Pierre, South Dakota: 1.1 per 1,000
Moscow (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.1 per 1,000
La Grande (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 1.1 per 1,000
Warm Springs Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Klamath Reservation Region, Oregon: 1.0 per 1,000
Yreka-Lewiston-Red Bluff Region, California: 1.0 per 1,000
Rawlins, Wyoming: 1.0 per 1,000
Spirit Lake (Coeur d'Alene Reservation Region), Idaho: 1.0 per 1,000
Great Falls, Montana: 0.9 per 1,000
Kalispell, Montana Region: 0.8 per 1,000
Pendleton (Umatilla Reservation Region), Oregon: 0.8 per 1,000
The October 18, 1908 Swan Valley Massacre
A group of supposed Pend d'Oreilles (they were really Chippewas who were minding their own business), were hunting in the Swan Valley. Through treaty agreements they were allowed to fish and hunt. The 8 Chippewas had supposedly purchased hunting permits which they showed to the game warden and a few deputized citizens who accompanied him. They supposedly went off on their hunting trip in September of 1908. They were not the only Chippewas hunting in the Swan Valley or Seely Valley, at the time. Many others were doing likewise. By October, the whites had realized something else had transpired among their leaders. Charles Peyton (the Game Warden) and the deputized citizens, went looking for the Chippewas who were using the Swan Valley for hunting. They found one of their camps in the Swan Valley. He demanded the proof they had permits to hunt which they did. The State of Montana was breaking treaty law. The Indians had the right, by treaty, to fish and hunt. However, Peyton returned the next day in the mood for killing.
Peyton told the Chippewas to leave the Swan Valley by the next day when he warned he would return again. The Chippewas supposedly agreed to pack their belongings but before they could get everything ready, Peyton returned as he warned. He entered their camp shooting his gun. He meant to kill which means historians are not being honest about this historical event. In the first moments, two of the Chippewas were shot and eventually died. A third Chippewa man was killed after he tried to reach for his gun. The 13 year old son of one of the Chippewa men killed, got his gun and shot Peyton in the stomach. A deputy then shot and killed the 13 year old boy. One of the wifes of the Chippewas killed, got her a gun and finished off Peyton. She killed him dead on.
This event (the Swan Valley Massacre), which was a shock to the Chippewas who were honoring treaty agreements, led to the following: At the time (1908), the United States was having all kinds of problems with the Montana Chippewa Indians. The United States was preparing to break treaty promises. They sent Indian Agent Frank Churchill to Montana to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, in 1908-1909. Churchill requested from the government of the United States, to withdraw all of Valley County, Montana from white settlement and to have a 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation set aside in the same said county, for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation who were very hostile. It was not for the Chippewas of western Montana. The Fort Peck Reservation was forced to deal with the Fort Peck Reservation Land Act.
Unlike the Flathead Reservation, Fort Peck Reservation has no mountains. Fort Peck Reservation was actually eradicated. The government of the United States agreed to Churchills requests. The Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation, were relocated to the new 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation which borders the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation. Both the Blackfeet and Flathead Reservations, were also forced to deal with Land Acts which ceded surplus Reservation land to the whites. At the Flathead Reservation, the ceded surplus land is located between Flathead Lake and Mission Creek. At the Blackfeet Reservation, the ceded surplus land is located from just north of Little Browning (it is about a mile from Cut Bank, Montana) 25 miles north to the Canada border. It extends about 20 miles west and then south to Cut Bank Creek.
Today, the government of the Flathead Reservation recognizes the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. They are the only Montana Reservation i know of at the present time, that recognizes the Little Shell Chippewas. In the 1970s and 1980s, Rocky Boy Reservation provided medical care and other needs for the Little Shell Chippewa Indians of Montana. Little Shell Chippewas can receive medical attention and other benefits on the Flathead Reservation. They supposedly number only around 100 on the Flathead Reservation now. However, at epodunk.com the demographics of Lake County put the Chippewa population at 1% or near 300, of the county's population. Much of the Flathead Reservation is in Sanders County and some is in Missoula County. The total Chippewa population on the Flathead Reservation may be closer to 400 than 300.
Many of the Reservations Indians are obviously having tribal identity problems. The Cherokee make up 1% of the Reservations population as do the Cree and Sioux. The Navajo also make up 1% of the Reservations population. The Blackfeet and Mexican's each make up 2% of the Reservations population. We can accept the stats for the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree but not the Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux. The Cherokee, Mexican's, Navajo, and Sioux are far more popular among the whites than the Blackfeet, Chippewa's, and Cree. A total of 8% of the Reservations population of 28,000, is identifying themselves as non Salish and Kootenai. That is nearly 3,000 of the Reservations Indian population of over 7,000.
The Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
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Proclamation of May 22, 1909 (The Original Blackfeet Reservation is Illegally Eradicated)
On May 22, 1909, President Taft took full advantage of a defenseless people and illegally eradicated the huge Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation the United States promised the Chippewas by signing the 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The United States also illegally eradicated the new Chippewa Reservation they set aside for the Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy, in 1902. President Taft's actions also singled out the Coeur d'Alene, Columbia, and Colville-Spokane Reservations, or the western part of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy and the other Chippewa leaders, were exasperated about the actions of the whites and completely dejected. They were defenseless. They were living throughout the entire land area of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation in 1909. They were not landless as white historians lie to you about. The Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy, were forced to leave their homes for Birdseye, Montana which is 3.5 miles northwest of Fort Harrison, Montana, in late 1909. They were then transported to the Blackfeet Reservation in November of 1909. Those Chippewas who lived close to the Blackfeet Reservation and Flathead Reservation, used horses to move to those Reservations. Ogima Rocky Boy's troubles were not over. He also had to deal with the Fort Peck Reservation Chippewas who were the most hostile. Their Reservation (Fort Peck Reservation) was eradicated. Ogima Rocky Boy knew by late 1909, the whites did not have the courage to honor anything.
In 1887, the United States once again resorted to infidelity (refused to honor treaties) and illegally eradicated the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation set aside on April 15, 1874. They set aside 4 much smaller Reservations from the 1874 Blackfeet Reservation which include the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (Rocky Boy's Reservation), Fort Belknap Reservation, and Fort Peck Reservation. Rocky Boy's Reservation was actually set aside in 1887. A map of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is below. It would stay unchanged until the Fort Peck Reservation Land Act of 1908.
1916 and the Lies
In early 1916, ogima Rocky Boy passed away. Some suspect he was murdered. A few months later the United States once again resorted to infidelity (refused to honor treaty agreements) and dramatically reduced the size of the Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was reduced from over 1,000 sq. mi. to under 100 sq. mi. The land addition of 2,592 sq. mi. was eradicated. Several hundred full blood Chippewas were forced off of Reservation rolls and relocated to the Papago Reservation of Arizona in 1917 and the Navajo Reservation in 1918. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation had its name changed to Rocky Boy's Reservation. Those who were kicked off of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation rolls were full bloods. Many mixed bloods were allowed to remain instead. Before 1909, the population of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was between 500 and 1,000. After the 300 or so full blood Chippewas were kicked off the Reservation, the population of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation declined to around 400. For you to understand this information more clearly, Rocky Boy's Reservation was not set aside in 1916 but most of it was stolen in 1916. Havre, Montana is actually within Rocky Boy's Reservation. Check out the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation map. Fort Belknap Reservation remained as it was before 1909. It covers around 1,014 sq. mi. Below are maps of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Judith Basin Indian Reservation. As Mentioned, these Reservations are still intact, as is the real Rocky Boy's Reservation.
I can provide links to online books and newspaper articles about the history of Rocky Boy's Reservation but it ain't necessary. You only need to look at the 1887 map of Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation. It tells the truth. As for the real Rocky Boy's Reservation, i had no choice but to provide links to online books and newspaper articles, to educate you about the true history of the real Rocky Boy's Reservation. Why did the whites resort to this cover-up? Read the Seven Fires Prophecy. The Arapaho, Assiniboine, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Cree, Flathead (the Flathead are the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreille, and Spokane), Gros Ventre, Kootenai, and Nez Perce are all Chippewa. We are dealing with a probable rebirth of the Chippewa Nation. The whites will not tolerate a rebirth of the Chippewa Nation. Our suggestion to you is either accept a Chippewa Nationality or stay out of this. This subject is taken very seriously by Chippewa Traditionalists. You do not want to enrage them.
The Unratified September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty
There are strong indicators that this treaty (the unratified September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty) was in fact ratified by the United States. We know the whites were attracted to farm land. It is an abundance of farm land the whites wanted. More about that is below. The northwestern border of the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty is the Teton River. The treaty commenced as follows:
Commencing at a point where the parallel of Forty-Eight degrees of North latitude intersects the dividing ridge of the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, thence in an easterly direction to the nearest source of the Teton River--thence down said river to its junction with the Marias River--thence down the Marias to its junction with the Missouri River--thence down the Missouri River to the mouth of Milk River--thence due south to the Forty-Ninth parallel of North latitude--thence west on said parallel to the main range of the Rocky Mountains--thence southerly along the same range to the place of beginning.
You can clearly see the mistakes. Boundaries do not correspond as they should. The boundary commences at Forty-Eight degrees North latitude. It should have commenced at Forty-Nine degrees North latitude (the Canada-US Border). From Forty-Eight degrees North latitude, it extends to the mouth of Milk River which is also at Forty-Eight degrees North latitude.
Then the obvious major mistake is where it is written due south to the Forty-Ninth parallel of North latitude from the mouth of Milk River. That can't be. The Forty-Ninth degrees of North latitude is the Canada-US Border. It really is due south to the Forty-Sixth degrees of North latitude which is the Yellowstone River. From there, it extends west to the southern end of Bitterroot Valley which is also at Forty-Sixth degrees of North latitude. Then it goes back to place of beginning which is the northeastern shores of Flathead Lake.
Land north of the Marias River, Missouri River, and Teton River has far more farm land than land south of those rivers. Use google earth. In fact, the land north of the Marias, Missouri, and Teton Rivers west of the Bear Paw Mountains, is probably the one location in Montana with the most farm land. So that should let you figure out on your own, if the United States ratified the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty. Indians already know that treaty was ratified by the United States.
If in fact the United States ratified the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty, it means they never set aside land north of the Marias and Missouri Rivers to be a Reservation, as they supposedly did with the July 5, 1873 Treaty and April 15, 1874 Treaty. However, they did set aside the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation, and Fort Peck Reservation. They were not very interested in either Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation. Fort Peck Reservation was completely different. It had far too much available farm land.
Blackfeet Reservation (the 2nd to 4th one) was not linked to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation, and Fort Peck Reservation. Its eastern boundary is where Cut Bank Creek merges with the Marias River. It follows Cut Bank Creek to Cut Bank, Montana. Then it follows directly north to the Canada-US Border. In some way it is obviously connected to the Blackfeet Reservation created on September 1, 1868. If that treaty was ratified by the United States.
It it was, then the lawsuit filed by Joseph Dussome, Elizabeth Swan, and other Chippewa leaders in 1951, has no merits. It is senseless. Or they were spies working for the United States. If the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty was ratified by the United States, it also means the land east of the current Blackfeet Reservation, north of Teton River, and north of both Marias and Missouri Rivers, was ceded. A google earth map of the probable Blackfeet Reservation created on September 1, 1868 is below. It may be the Chippewa Reservation (the Turtle Mountain Reservation) chief Little Shell III refused to cede, or about the fraudulent 10 cent an acre treaty which is the McCumber Agreement.
I'll commence it at the mouth of Milk River then in a line following the Missouri River to the confluence of the Marias and Teton Rivers which is 0.9 miles from the confluence of the Marias and Missouri Rivers. The first Blackfeet Reservation Agency was located 9.6 miles to the southwest at Fort Benton Trading Post. It was established in 1855. Then the boundary follows the Teton River to its source in the Rocky Mountains. From there (if the current Blackfeet Reservation is involved in the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty), the boundary extends 7 miles north to Swift Reservoir which is the southwestern boundary of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Then the boundary follows directly northeast to the confluence of Cut Bank Creek and Marias River. Then the boundary follows Cut Bank Creek to a location about a mile or less northwest of Cut Bank, Montana. Then the boundary follows a straight line to the Canada-US Border. Then the boundary follows the Canada-US Border to Lake Kookanusa. Then the boundary follows the main range of the Rocky Mountains on the east side of the Continental Divide (the Rocky Mountain Trench) to the northeastern border of Flathead Reservation. It includes Flathead Reservation. It follows the Rocky Mountain Trench (the Continental Divide) to the southern end of Bitterroot Valley. Then the boundary extends east all the way to Yellowstone River. Then back to commencement.
Using google earth, you'll notice this Reservation is predomiantly mountainous and rugged. Land the whites were not very interested in. Flathead Reservation has the most abundant farm land in western Montana which means the likelihood what is now Flathead Reservation, actually being set aside to be a Reservation, is very unlikely. North of Flathead Lake is Flathead Valley. It also has an abundance of agriculture land but not as extensive as southern Flathead Valley (aka Mission Valley). So it is likely only the Mission Mountains including the western slopes of the Mission Mountains from just north of Turtle Lake to Mission Creek, and eastern shores of Flathead Lake, and the region from Old Agency to Mission Creek to the Mission Mountains, and the southern part of Flathead Reservation from just west of Perma to the northwestern part of Flathead Reservation where Elmo is located, and the Arlee and Evaro region to Mount Jumbo or Hell Gate Canyon or Hell Gate Pass, is Flathead Reservation. Is there any convincing evidence the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty was ratified?
New Blackfeet Reservation Agency at the Teton River and the Mullan Road War
Less than a year after the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty, the Blackfeet Reservation Agency was moved from Fort Benton Military Post (by 1869 it was converted to a military post) to a location 3 miles northwest of Choteau, Montana, near the Teton River. According to the Blackfeet leader chief White Calf, the Teton River Valley was considered the fairest portion of their Reservation. The new agency was called Four Persons Agency by the Blackfeet. Its a good name for this Reservation, as is Teton River Reservation. Though it is not strong proof the September 1, 1868 Blackfeet Treaty was ratified, it does hint that it was. During that time (1869) the war along Mullan Road to southwestern Montana, was intensifying again. White settlers were not honoring treaty agreements. Making matters worse, the whites were killing off the buffalo and other wild game the Indians subsisted on.
In late 1865, the United States launched an invasion to the Sun River Valley between Great Falls and Augusta, by sending around 1,500 of their soldiers to the Sun River Valley. In early 1866, up to 800 supposed white miners (they were really American soldiers disguised as miners) were allowed to stay at St. Peters Mission adjacent to Rainbow Falls in Great Falls. Chippewa leaders ordered their soldiers to drive out the white soldiers, white Christian Missionaries stationed at St. Peters Mission, and the Indians who lived there. Many casualties were obviously inflicted on both sides.
Later in 1866, the United States commenced to building Fort Shaw and Camp Cooke. Red Clouds War (should be known as Red Thunders War) and Snake River War (both conflicts were the same) was intensifying. In early 1867, Fort Buford (it was located very near the Mullan Road in extreme northwestern North Dakota about a mile from Montana) was destroyed by Chippewa soldiers. Sometime in 1867, a truce was probably accepted. Then the negotiations for the 1868 Blackfeet Treaty commenced. It ended the conflict. However, the United States established forts at Camp Cooke (it is located north of Lewistown at the mouth of Judith River - 1866-1870), Fort Shaw (1867-1891), Fort Logan (1869-1880), and Fort Benton (1869-1881). All those forts were within 80 miles of Great Falls.
Fort Ellis (Bozeman, Montana - 1867-1886) was built to defend the white invaders living in southwestern Montana. Some of the white towns in southwestern Montana were fortified during those times. Several other American military posts were built in the Livingston, Montana region in 1867 and 1869. Camp Green Clay Smith (1867-1868), Fort Howie (1867), Fort Thomas F. Meagher (1867), and Fort Parker (1869-1875). The American forts in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming, were minor compared to the forts in the Great Falls region and Bozeman-Livingston region. That is why the United States abandoned their forts in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. They used southwest Montana and northeast Montana to invade Montana.
They accomplished their goal of establishing forts in the Great Falls, Montana region. Traffic along the Mullan Road from northeastern Montana to southwestern Montana, had better protection by 1867. Steamboats were used to send in settlers and supplies to southwest Montana and bring supplies and travellers back east. Steamboats could travel almost as far as the Great Falls of the Missouri River. The most dangerous location along the Mullan Road was the Great Falls, Montana region. That is why those forts near Great Falls were built. The region between Helena and Fort Benton was the most dangerous. After reaching Fort Benton from southwestern Montana, the risk level dropped. Steamboats were common at Fort Benton. Large trains of wagons guarded by up to 100 teamsters or civilians, with supplies, regularly used the Mullan Road between Fort Benton and Helena. They were armed with repeating rifles and revolvers. Indian casualties were heavy.
By 1869, the Chippewas knew the United States was not honoring treaty. That is why they increased the number of their soldiers to combat the white invaders who reguarly killed their livestock or buffalo. Through treaty agreements, the United States agreed to leave the Chippewas livestock alone. After Fort Logan (it is located 55 miles south of Great Falls) was built in 1869 and Fort Benton was converted to a military post in 1869, Chippewa leaders knew for certain the United States would not honor treaty. Fort Benton and Fort Logan are within the Blackfeet Reservation created on September 1, 1868. As mentioned, the Mullan Road War was again intensifying by 1869. White settlers were causing a great deal of trouble. They deliberately killed Indians when they had the chance and killed the livestock of the Indians.
It was reported in 1869, that 69 whites had been killed along the Mullan Road. It can be attributed to the construction of Fort Logan and Fort Benton being converted to a military post. Indian casualties were 10 to 15 times higher as a result of their inferior weapons. Mullan Road would remain very dangerous until the early 1880s. Between 1860 and 1882, 1,000s of casualties had been inflicted on the white settlers along Mullan Road. That does not include the many battles fought between the Chippewa Military and the United States Military. The Mullan Road War is ignored yet it was obviously the deadliest Indian-white War in the west. Future historians will have to investigate the war supposedly fought in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. I strongly suspect the major battles were fought in the Great Falls, Montana region.
In 1876, a new agency for the Blackfeet Reservation was built along Badger Creek within the boundaries of the current Blackfeet Reservation. It was named Running Crane Agency. The Chippewas of Blackfeet Reservation, can trace the date of their eventual settlement at the current Blackfeet Reservation, to 1876. Before 1876, few Indians lived at what is now the current Blackfeet Reservation. They lived primarily to the south and southeast, in the Marias River Valley, Sun River Valley, Teton River Valley, and in the Lewistown region where Arrow Creek, Dog Creek, and Judith River are situated. The Great Falls region had the largest Indian population. Another area east of the current Blackfeet Reservation, also had a significant Indian population. They lived in the Milk River Valley. After 1876, the whites commenced to force the Chippewas to relocate to the area where the current Blackfeet Reservation is located. It took a long time. Even in the mid 1890s, the Chippewas living in the Great Falls region were forced to relocate. What the United States was doing was depopulating the Blackfeet Reservation created on September 1, 1868.
Ogima Little Shell III Honored Treaty Agreements
In 1895, ogima Red Thunder and many other Chippewa leaders, took refuge in a fort and demanded that they wanted to hear from Washington D.C. They had obviously sent a message to the government of the United States about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation which the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation is a part of. In early May of 1895, ogima Little Shell III made his last attempt to persuade the government of the United States to honor treaty agreements. A Chippewa leader named Laspelle Langan had been arrested and that bothered the other Chippewa leaders. White newspapers circulated the event as the Turtle Mountain Indian War but it was not a war. As mentioned, the Chippewas took refuge in a fort to wait for news from Washington D.C. about the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. When they realized a number of white police officers had surrounded their fort, they knew the government of the United States would not honor treaty agreements. After the leader of the white police officers warned the Chippewas in the fort that they would attack if they refused to surrender, they quickly decided to surrender.
Once they noticed the white police officers preparing shallow rifle pits, it was undeniable proof that it was news from Washington D.C. Among those who were arrested was ogima Red Thunder. He attacked a white police officer with his knife. He was 87 years old at the time. Those Chippewa leaders who were arrested numbered 7. They were transported to Rolla, North Dakota. Ogima Little Shell III, led around 150 Chippewas to the fort to attempt to reinforce the fort. They arrived too late and ogima Little Shell III was arrested. He was also transported to Rolla, North Dakota. The 150 Chippewas who were with ogima Little Shell III, were allowed to go back to their homes. This event happened in northeastern Montana. White historians will tell you it happened in Rolette County, North Dakota.
With the real leaders of the Anishinabe Nation in jail, the United States commenced to eradicate the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation. As with ogima Joseph (chief Joseph), and ogima Sitting Bull, the United States forced ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and the other Anishinabe leaders, to live in Rolette County, North Dakota. They did not want them in Montana which still had a very large Chippewa population. Ogima Joseph was first sent to Oklahoma with many Chippewas. In the mid 1880s, they were sent to the bogus Colville Reservation in Washington State. Ogima Sitting Bull was sent to the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation of South Dakota. In 1895, there was still 10,000s of Chippewas living in Montana. The United States did not want a large Chippewa population living in Montana. It was probably around this time the United States commenced to negotiate with ogima Rocky Boy, or Rocky Boy became a principle Chippewa leader of the west.
And the eradication of the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation was not a peaceful one. The United States was caught off guard in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Up to 20,000 or more Chippewas had fled to Isle Royale in Lake Superior. The 1889 Nelson Act provoked many to flee. Then the Curtis and Nelson Acts of 1898 was the ignition that led to the 1898 War. It was a short brutal war with 10,000s of casualties. It also led to the United States returning land to the Chippewas of those locations.
First of the Deportations (forced relocations)
In 1896, the United States refused to conduct themselves in a honorable manner. Most of the Little Shell Chippewas who were forced to relocate, lived in the Great Falls, Montana region. However, many fled into what is now the Bob Marshall Wilderness region and the adjoing Swan Valley. Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was an issue white settlers refused to ignore. A map of the Fort Assinibone Indian Reservation is below. Havre, Montana was located within the boundaries of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation which is also known as the Fort Assiniboine Military Reservation. Today, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is known as Rocky Boy Reservation. However, in 1896 it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. White settlers would not tolerate the Chippewas living so close to Havre and they complained constantly. By 1896, the United States reached an agreement with Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation. They accepted new land in the western part of the Southern Ute Reservation of southwestern Colorado and in Alberta. Those who moved to Alberta settled primarily at the Montana Reserve which is just south of Edmonton. Those who moved to Colorado, settled at what is now the Ute Mountain Reservation in 1897 and at the Chemehuevi Reservation located around what is now Joshua Tree National Park in southern California. Ute Mountain Reservation was created in 1897. And it was not a peaceful one. Many Chippewas strongly protested.
Trains brought the Chippewas who probably numbered at least a couple of hundred to over a 1,000, to the Ute Mountain Reservation and Chemehuevi Reservation. In 1918, the Southern Ute Reservation and Ute Mountain Reservation, consolidated. In 1916, Rocky Boy Reservation was dramatically reduced in size. It was not created in 1916. We know from late 19th century maps, that the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was located where Rocky Boy Reservation is now and it covered over 1,000 sq. mi. From over 1,000 sq. mi. it was reduced to a little under 100 sq. mi. Many of the Chippewas who lived at the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation were relocated to the Papago Indian Reservation of Arizona in 1916 and the Navajo Indian Reservation around the same time. On the Navajo land additions map, look for the year number 1918. Early on, ogima Rocky Boy played a very important role in having the new Reservations set aside with the help of affluent whites. Joseph Dussome and other Chippewa leaders, also played important roles in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, in having new Chippewa Reservations set aside.
Other historical events which have links to Montana, are the Ute Exodus of 1906 to the Pine Ridge Reservation and the 1907 Lemhi forced relocation to the Fort Hall Reservation of southeastern Idaho. In 1906, the Ute supposedly fled their Utah Reservation for the Pine Ridge Reservation. We know Montana is involved because the Ute's were halted in southeastern Montana. They were being forced to leave their Montana lands for land allotments in South Dakota. Historians claim the Lemhi Shoshone were forced to leave their Reservation near Salmon, Idaho, for new land at the Fort Hall Reservation. It was over 500 Chippewas who were forced to leave their homes in southwestern Montana, for new land at Fort Hall Reservation and a Reservation at the Navajo Reservation. Look for the year numbers 1905 and 1907 on the Navajo land additions map. That is where the Fort Shaw Chippewas, Lemhi Chippewas, and Ute Chippewas settled at. We can trace the origins of the Fort Assinibone Chippewas or Rocky Boy Chippewas, relocation to Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and Washintgton, to 1896, or about a year after ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and Other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, were arrested in 1895.
The Creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
A number of Chippewa families returned to their native Montana from the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewam in early 1879, or a couple of years after the 1877 exodus, where they settled down to live in northern Montana with Chippewas who were already living there. The location is the Judith Basin INdian Reservation. It was among these Chippewas who lived in northern Montana, that new Chippewa leaders emerged in the early 20th century. They kept with them very important historical information.
We know about the creation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana through Howard Paul who was the son of Joseph Paul. According to Howard Paul, a number of Chippewas held a meeting on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewiston, Montana in 1920 or 1921, when he was 7 years old. According to Lloyd Paul who did an extensive genealogy report on the Montana Paul's, Howard Paul was born in 1914 at Forest Grove, Montana which is between Grass Range and Lewistown and directly south of the bogus Fort Belknap Reservation. Howard Paul was referring to a meeting held on his families ranch about 40 miles east of Lewistown, in 1921 and not 1920. According to these Chippewa leaders from the 1920s, they claimed to be from chief Red Bear (Red Thunder) and from chief Rocky Boy and Pembina Chippewa also.
Joseph Paul was obviously a leader among the Chippewas in the Fergus County, Montana region well before 1920. His birth is very suspicious. Genealogy reports indicate he had two mothers. His father, Elzear Paul, married Rose LaPlante on January 21, 1878. Joseph Paul is listed as being one the four children of Elzear and Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante. Rose Paul or Rose LaPlante, died in 1881. Joseph Paul's birth date is supposedly either 1886, 1887, or 1888. His obituary stated that Joseph Paul was born on October 1, 1883. His age at the time of death in 1959 was 75. He could not have been born in 1883. His father, Elzear Paul, was without bride. He was born at Fort Maginnis, Montana. However, there were 2 Forts in Montana with the name Fort Maginnis. One was located near Lewistown, while the other a few miles south of Cut Bank. Fort Maginnis near Cut Bank, was closed in 1879. So 1879 was probably the year Joseph Paul was born. After Elzear Paul's first wife died, he married Rose Daniels in 1886. Joseph Paul is listed as one of Rose Daniels children. So there is some problem we can't set aside. If Rose LaPlante gave birth to Joseph Paul, it had to have been between 1878 and 1881.
He and several members of his family including his father Elzear Paul, were allotted land in Fergus County. He eventually sold his land allotments and moved to Great Falls, as did his father Elzear Paul. While in Great Falls, Joseph Paul became the Representative for the Chippewas of the Great Falls region. On June 9, 1939, the representatives of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, met at the home of Joseph Paul in Great Falls. Something transpired which led to some sort of friction. Joseph Dussome represented Reservation Chippewas, while Raymond Gray formed an organization in Great Falls he named the Montana Landless Indians. Gray's organization was the most threatening to Joseph Paul. Joseph Paul wanted to preserve the original Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation. Dussome focused on Reservations.
The Meeting and the Blackfeet Reservation
We know from the meeting held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 9, 1939, that the Chippewas claimed the entire area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, as their Reservation. A total of 9 Respresentives were assigned to each area of the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The maps below will help you understand this important information. The Representatives were the following: area number 565 were represented by ? (Hays), Joe Azure (Harlem), Joseph Dussome (Box Elder), and Thomas Ouellette (Wolf Point); area number 574 were represented by Millie Salois (Dupuyer) and Joseph Paul (Great Falls); area number 399 were represented by Joseph Paul (Great Falls), Thomas Sangray (Augusta), and Elizabeth Swan (Lewistown); area number 398 was represented by William Boyer (Helena). Since part of Great Falls is within area number 574, it was represented by both Millie Salois and Joseph Paul.
After the June 9, 1939 meeting at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana, the eventual breakup of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation government followed. World War II likely influenced most of the Representatives to attempt to get compensation for the agreement to accept the eventual loss of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation after 1855.
At Hill 57, which is adjacent to Great Falls, Montana, the Chippewas owned land they considered their Rancheria. On August 18, 1950, the United States auctioned off the Hill 57 Chippewa Rancheria to the highest bidder. It then led to the eradication of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in northwestern California, and the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Reservation in western Oregon. On August 18, 1958, or 8 years after the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Hill 57 Rancheria was Terminated, the United States passed the California Rancheria Act. It Terminated 41 Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. On August 13, 1954, the United States passed the Western Oregon Indian Termination Act.
Joseph Dussome hired a lawyer in 1950 and in 1951 they filed a lawsuit about the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. In 1973, the United States rejected (refused to honor treaties) the lawsuit. They claimed the Chippewas did not live in Montana before the 1880s which is a lie. If the United States had actually agreed with the Chippewas, they then would have agreed that the original Blackfeet Reservation set aside on October 17, 1855, is in fact a Chippewa Reservation. The United States is resorting to infidelity. We are honoring treaty agreements. We are federally recognized but the government of the United States refuses to honor treaties. Below are pages about the Termination Acts and the population of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Rancherias in California. Their population was more than 411. Though they gave no population for the Rancherias, they did give the number of voters on the Rancherias. The number of voters probably represents about half the population of each Rancheria. Hopland (Nokomis) has probably suffered the largest population decline. The populations are from between 1930 and 1935.
You ever wonder how many of the so called Japanese Americans who were sent to interment camps during World War II were actually Indian? Probably quite a few! The reason for the low Reservation populations of Indians in California and Oregon, is because the United States forced many of the California and Oregon Indians to relocate to the Navajo Reservation and a few others. Many, however, were Japanese. Either you can accept this information or stay away.
Hill 57 Termination or the start of the Termination Era
Western Oregon Termination Act
California Rancheria Termination Act
California Rancherias Populations 1930
Demographics of the Little Shell Chippewa Indians Blackfeet Reservation
Population is ?
Blackfeet-Flathead (Rocky Boy's Reservation) Communities - 2010 population for both is 18,480 (Blackfeet 9,152 including mixed bloods and Flathead 9,328 including mixed bloods) - does not include non Indians.
East Glacier Park Village
Two Medicine Lake
Clarice Paul Homesite
Coriacan Village Trailer Park
Elmo (aka Elmo Homesite)
Kopp Road Trailer Park
Mission Dam Homesite
Old Agency (aka Dixon Agency Homesite)
Pablo (aka Pablo Homesite)
Turtle Lake (aka Turtle Lake Homesite)
West Ravalli Trailer Park
Big Valley (Terminated) - 194
Big Lagoon - 20
Blue Lake (Terminated) - 41
Cache Creek (Terminated) - 36
Coyote Valley - 96
Dry Creek - 42
Elk Valley (Terminated) - 44
Grindstone - 146
Guidiville (Terminated) - 1
Hoopa (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 2,291 - Total: 2,851
Hopland (Terminated) - 33
Karuk Reservation - 249
Laytonville - 171
Manchester - 179
Mark West (Terminated) - ?
Middletown (Terminated) - 53
Pinoleville (Terminated) - 196
Potter Valley (Terminated) - 138
Quartz Valley Reservation (Terminated) - 50
Redwood Valley (Terminated) - 113
Robinson (Terminated) - 129
Rohnerville (Terminated) - 67
Round Valley Reservation - 235
Sherwood Valley - 139
Smith River (Terminated) - 42
Stewarts Point - 55
Sulphur Bank - 56
Table Bluff (Terminated) - 71
Trinidad - 59
Upper Lake (Terminated) - 47
Yurok (Hoopa-Yurok Reservation) - 560 - Total: 2,851
Cloverdale (Terminated) - ?
Graton (Terminated) - ?
Lyyton (Terminated) - ?
Coeur d'Alene Communities
East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Ford: Spokane Reservation
South East Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Wellpinit: Spokane Reservation
Westend: Spokane Reservation
Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw
June 9, 1855 Yakima Treaty Disputed Land Communities
Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boy's Reservation)-Fort Belknap Reservation Communities - 2010 population for both is 6,930 (Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation 3,260 including mixed bloods and Fort Belknap 3,670 including mixed bloods and the cities of Harlem and Dodson, Montana.
Fort Belknap Agency
Clear Creek Road
Fort Peck Communities
Hill 57 (Terminated)
Population 10 to 20
Aseniwuche Winewak (Alberta)
Foothills Ojibway Society (Alberta)
Montana including Ermineskin, Louis Bull, and Samson (Alberta)
Nakcowinewak or Nakawe Nation (Alberta)
Tsuu T'ina (Alberta)
Akisq'nuk (British Columbia)
Kelly Lake (British Columbia)
Lheidli T'enneh (British Columbia)
Lower Kootenay (British Columbia)
McLeod Lake (British Columbia)
Shuswap (British Columbia)
St. Mary's (British Columbia)
Tobacco Plains (British Columbia)