Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

Fort Yuma Indian Reservation

It is located very near Yuma, Arizona. Most is located in California with the remainder in Arizona. According to Senor Don Antonio Garcia Cubas, the Yuma language is a part of the Mexican-Opata Language Family which is a part of the Uto-Aztecan Language Family. That was until the whites north of Mexico corrupted Cubas linguistic 19th century work. The author of the following book, cleverly indicated that the Apache and Navajo are Yuman. Click here to read a bit of a google books book about Senor Don Antonio Garcia Cubas work. Read it carefully! You'll eventually read the part Apache or Yavipai.

In 1884, the Fort Yuma Reservation was established. The agency which handled the affairs of the Reservation was originally located at the Mission-Tule River Agency in California. In 1902, the population of the Yuma Reservation was 707. The 2000 population was 2,376. The Yuma, Mexicans, and mixed bloods made up 2,079 of the Reservations population. Yuma 1,350, Mexican 592, and Mixed bloods 137. The Fort Yuma Reservation covers 69 sq. mi., or 178 sq. km.

The Chiricahua (Gadsden) Indian Reservation

On June 30, 1854, the United States supposedly ratified the Gadsden Purchase. Why would the United States even think about adding land which is about the most worthless land in the United States? It extends from the area where the Colorado River merges with the Gila River at Yuma, Arizona. It follows the Gila River east to where the old Chiricahua Apache Reservation was located, then into extreme southwestern New Mexico. It has few farms and is primarily a desert and mountainous. The United States did not purchase the area of land known as the Gadsden Purchase. They set it aside to be an Indian Reservation in 1854 for the Chiricahua Apache who are Algonquin Chippewa. The eastern part of the so called Gadsden Purchase, is where the Chiricahua live. They were content with the Reservation but not the United States. The United States again resorted to infidelity which caused violence. Mangas Coloradas, Cochise, Victorio, Geronimo and other Chiricahua leaders resisted the infidelity of the United States. If there was a reason for why the United States refused to honor the treaty, it is the Chiricahua (Gadsden) Reservation bordered Mexico. Later on, the United States changed their attitude after the initial violence of the Mexican Civil War erupted around 1909. The June 30, 1854 Gadsden Treaty is obviously one of the Isaac Stevens Treaties.

Illegal Eradication of the Chiricahua (Gadsden) Indian Reservation

On February 28, 1859, the United States refused to honor treaty and commenced to fragment the vast Chiricahua Reservation. They illegally established the Gila River Reservation (it includes the Akchin) on that date (February 28, 1859). It led to an increase in violence between the Indians and the invading whites. On December 14, 1872, the United States illegally established the Chiricahua Reservation. This is the date the Chiricahua Reservation was ignored. In 1874, the United States illegally established the San Xavier Reservation. On October 30, 1876, the United States publicly announced the illegal eradication of the vast Chiricahua Reservation. Increased violence between the Chiricahua and the white invaders, multiplied. On December 12, 1882, the United States illegally established the Gila Bend Reservation. On January 9, 1884, the United States illegally set aside the Fort Yuma Reservation. To learn where these Algonquin Chippewa's came from, we have to first detail the historical events which happened in Michigan in the 1830s. Chippewa ogima (chief) Eshtonoquot was the principle Chippewa leader in the 1830s in Michigan. He was Swan Creek and Black River (Saginaw) Chippewa. In fact, the name Tohono may be derived from chief Eshtonoquot's name. He led 10,000s of Chippewa's west during 1838-1839. He followed the Seven Fires Prophecy.

1854 and the Christian Moravian Munsee

On May 6, 1854, the Christian Delaware Moravian Munsee (they are really Chippewa's who converted to Christianity) were assigned a Reservation when Delaware leaders reached a treaty agreement with the United States. So the actual date the Chiricahua Reservation was created, was May 6, 1854. On July 16, 1859, the Kansas Chippewa's led by ogima Eshtonoquot, agreed by treaty to allow the Moravian Munsee Delawares to live on their Reservation. Since we have two widely different dates and one historical record which indicates the Chippewa's were the hosts, it means the Chippewa's were already living in southern Arizona before 1854. What actually happened on July 16, 1859, was the refusual of ogima Eshtonoquot to accept the loss of the promised Chiricahua Reservation.

Ogima (chief) Eshtonoquot

He is far more important to the Indians of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah than they realize. He was one of the principle Chippewa leaders who led the 10,000s of Chippewa's from the Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois region, west into Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas in 1838-1839. In late 1864, he ordered an exodus be commenced to Mexico, from Kansas. The whites were not cooperating with him. On January 8, 1865, the United States tried to stop the Chippewa's but were defeated at the Battle of Dove Creek. The Chippewa's made it to Mexico. White historians are robbing the Chippewa's of this part of their history by claiming the Kickapoo fought the Battle of Dove Creek. The Battle of Dove Creek was fought about 20 miles southwest of San Angelo, Texas in what is now Tom Green County, Texas. This event would lead to the creation of the Navajo Reservation 4 years later. Ogima Eshtonoquots death on January 29, 1868 finally led to the Chippewa's agreeing to relocate to the Navajo Reservation. White Christian missionary, Romig, was instrumental in coercing the Chippewa's to relocate.

The June 1, 1868 Treaties

A few months after ogima Eshtonoquot's death, a treaty agreement was reached with Kansas Chippewa leaders and the United States. That happened on June 1, 1868. That is the same day and year the treaty which created the Navajo Reservation was agreed upon. You are smart enough to know right from wrong. Ogima Eshtonoquot was responsible for the creations of the Apache Reservations, Navajo Reservation, and the Tohono O'odham Reservations. That includes the Deseret Reservation, Chiricahua (Gadsden) Indian Reservation, which the Cocopah, Fort Yuma, Gila Bend, Gila River, San Xavier, and Tohono O'odham Reservations are a part of. We can include the old Chiricahua Apache Reservation which was located in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico as well. Ogima Eshtonoquot was a traditionalist. He fought for new large Chippewa Reservations in the west. If the United States refused to cooperate, he then called for an exodus be commenced to Mexico. He also refused to leave Kansas and kept in contact with the Michigan Chippewa's. Below is a link to a pdf book about ogima (chief) Eshtonoquot.

ogima Eshtonoquot

1895 & Forced Relocations

After ogima Little Shell III and other Montana Chippewa leaders including ogima Red Thunder, were arrested in May of 1895 and forced to move to the Turtle Mountain Reservation in Rolette County, North Dakota, the United States commenced to force the large Chippewa population of Montana to relocate elsewhere, even Canada. In 1896, the first forced relocations happened at Great Falls, Montana and Havre, Montana. Many were relocated to Canada and to Arizona, California, and Utah. The forced relocations continued up to around 1918.

On January 14, 1916, the first steps were commenced to find a new homeland for the Chippewa's from Rocky Boy Reservation who were left without homes after the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation was reduced from 1,000 sq. mi. to 87 sq. mi. On February 1, 1917, the Chippewa's Tohono O'Odham Reservation was officially created. It is also home to a few Pima who lived around and on the Pima San Xavier Reservation which is almost adjacent to Tucson, Arizona. The San Xavier Reservation was originally known as the Papago Reservation. Thus, the reason for why the Chippewa's changed the name of the Papago Reservation to Tohono O'odham Reservation.

Many Montana Chippewa's were relocated to the Colorado River Reservation, Hopi and Navajo Reservation, the San Carlos and White Mountain Apache Reservation, and the Agua Caliente, Augustine, Cabazon, Chemehuevi, Fort Yuma, Martinez-Torres, Morongo, Santa Rosa, and Twenty-Nine Palms Reservations of California. The Athabascan's or Dene People, are really Algonquin Chippewa. A link to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia is below. Read it and learn the truth. The Gila Bend Reservation was created on December 12, 1882 and modified (reduced in size) by the executive order of June 17, 1909.

Of course, 100s of Chippewa's from Idaho and Montana were relocated to the Gila Bend Reservation during the turbulent year of 1909 in Montana. Chief Rocky Boy probably helped to have the Gila Bend Reservation become a homeland for Montana Chippewa's. As for why they reduced the size of the Gila Bend Reservation, it is related to the events which commenced in Mexico (the Mexican Civil War of 1910-1920). The Tohono O'odham are claiming nearly all of southern Arizona. In fact, the United States may have set aside nearly all of southern Arizona in 1909, or just the Tohono O'odham Reservation, to be a Chippewa Reservation, to keep the Chippewa's out of the Mexican Civil War. So when the process to create the Tohono O'odham Reservation commenced in 1916 and it was created on February 1, 1917, it actually may have been dramatically reduced in size, or it was actually created on June 17, 1909. By 1917, the Mexican Civil War was practically over. It's important to not forget what happened to the Montana Chippewa's in 1909 and 1916-1917, because they involve the Tohono O'odham. That's very obvious.

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