Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Gila River Indian Reservation
This Reservations past is very suspicious. It was created on February 28, 1859. It is directly related to the events which happened in Kansas when the Chippewa's reached a treaty agreement with the United States. Many Idaho and Montana Chippewa's were relocated to the Gila River Reservation in 1909 and after. This Reservation is also known as the Maricopa Reservation. Actually both are connected which means they are the same Reservation. In 1909, the United States knew a civil war was going to happen in Mexico and wanted to keep the Arizona Indians out of the conflict. They created a large Reservation which included Gila Bend, Gila River, Maricopa and Ak Chin, Papago or Tohono O'odham, and San Xavier. It probably covered close to 6,000 sq. mi. What happened in 1916-1917, was the fragmentation of the large Reservation, into the Gila Bend, Gila River, Maricopa and Ak Chin, Papago or Tohono O'odham, and San Xavier Reservations. Below are the demographics of this Reservation. Tohono O'odham leaders, know they originally had a larger Reservation. Below is important information about the non federally recognized Kickapoo Chippewa's of Arizona.
Nomadic (Kickapoo Chippewa's) Papago
In 1909, the United States knew a civil war in Mexico was looming on the horizon. They, thus, created the large Gila Bend (Papago Reservation) Reservation in 1909 to keep the Indians living in southeastern Arizona, out of the Mexican Civil War. It was reported in 1901 or 1902, that around 2,000 or more nomadic Papagos lived in southeastern Arizona. They were really the Kickapoo Chippewa's. In late 1909, several hundred Chippewa's from Idaho and Montana were deported to the new Gila Bend Reservation which covered close to 6,000 sq. mi. Gila Bend Reservation was not reduced in size in 1909. It was dramatically increased in size to keep the Kickapoo Chippewa's at peace.
On January 14, 1916, President Wilson created (reduced the size of the Gila Bend Reservation created in 1909), the 3.1 million acre Papago Reservation. From near 6,000 sq. mi. it was reduced to 3.1 million acres. On February 1, 1917, the Chippewa's Tohono O'Odham Reservation was officially created. It is also home to a few Pima who lived around, and on the Pima San Xavier Reservation, which is almost adjacent to Tucson, Arizona. The San Xavier Reservation was originally known as the Papago Reservation. Thus, the reason for why the Chippewa's changed the name of the Papago Reservation to Tohono O'odham Reservation.
Many Montana Chippewa's were relocated to the Colorado River Reservation, Hopi and Navajo Reservation, the San Carlos and White Mountain Apache Reservation, and the Agua Caliente, Augustine, Cabazon, Chemehuevi, Fort Yuma, Martinez-Torres, Morongo, Santa Rosa, and Twenty-Nine Palms Reservations of California. The Athabascan's or Dene People, are really Algonquin Chippewa. A link to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia is below. Read it and learn the truth.
Gila Bend Reservation was created on December 12, 1882 and modified (supposedly reduced in size but at that time doing such meant risking the Indians getting involved in the Mexican Civil War) or increased in size, by the executive order of June 17, 1909. Gila Bend Reservation and Gila River Reservation, are actually connected to the Papago Reservation, as are the Maricopa Akchin Reservation and San Xavier Reservation. All five Reservations were amalgamated in either 1911 or 1912, and became what is now known as the Papago Reservation. It should be known as Gila Bend Reservation. The United States is not being honest.
The Tohono O'odham are claiming nearly all of southern Arizona. In fact, the United States obviously set aside more land than 3.1 million acres, to keep the Indians out of the Mexican Civil War. So when the process to create the Tohono O'odham Reservation commenced in 1916 and it was created on February 1, 1917, it actually was reduced in size. By 1917, the Mexican Civil War was practically over. It's important to not forget what happened to the Montana Chippewa's in 1909 and 1916-1917, because they involve the Tohono O'odham. That's very obvious.
Before 1917, there was supposedly no Papago Reservation. An estimate of the nomadic Papagos (they were really Kickapoo Chippewa's), who lived in extreme southern Arizona, south of Tucson, to northern Mexico, from 1902, put their population at 2,046. Two decades earlier it was over 4,800. Most fled to Mexico. Many did settle down on the Papago Reservation. By 1930, their population on the Papago Reservation or the Tohono O'odham Reservation, was 5,146. Their population had more than doubled in about 30 years. That's proof many Montana Chippewa's were also relocated to the Papago (Gila Bend) Reservation.
The Kickapoo Chippewa's
Within the past 15 years, the Kickapoo Chippewa's of southeastern Arizona, have become active in trying to become either State recognized or Federally recognized. They live between Douglas, Arizona and Wilcox, Arizona. They number close to 200. So there are close to 200 Kickapoo Chippewa's who are continuing to cling to their Anishinabe Tribal identity in Arizona. And don't get to thinking the Kickapoo are not Chippewa. According to the 19th century Ojibwa author Peter Jones, the Kickapoo speak Chippewa as do the Abenaki, Cree, Delaware, Menominee, Miami, Mohegan, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac or Sauk, and Shawnee. If they speak Chippewa, it means they are Chippewa. Google Jones 19th century book "History of the Ojebway Indians" and read the chapter titled "The Indian Language." You will have no choice but to take the information on this page very seriously.
At the present time, the border the Papago Reservation shares with Mexico, is a troubled location. It is not out of the ordinary to hear reports, especially during the hot summer months, of Mexicans attempting to make it into the United States (for most their original homeland), meeting early deaths in the desert which surrounds this Reservation. Some of the Reservations citizens are mistaken for Mexican and forced to leave their country. An action which greatly upsets Reservation leaders.
The Papago Reservation is a land rightfully classified as a desert. However, the Sonoran Desert is a lush one. The Reservation is covered by a plentyful abundance of vegetation. The eastern part of the Reservation has the Baboquivari Mountains which includes Kitt Peak which has an elevation of 6,842 feet. Baboquivari Peak is higher, however, with an elevation of 7,730 feet. The mountains are covered by a forest. Kitt Peak has the coldest winters with an average January high of 49 degrees. Out in the desert, the winter highs tend to be in the mid 60s to low 70s. Summers are hot and long with June, July, and August each with an average high of above 100 or near 100. Kitt Peak is much cooler during the summer months, with the hottest month averaging only 80 degrees for an average high temperature.
Other small mountain ranges are located on the Reservation. However, they are small mountains compared to the Baboquivari Mountains and have no forests. Some of the smaller mountain ranges have peaks over 4,000 feet. However, unlike Kitt Peak which receives over 23 inches of precipitation yearly, they receive much less rain and, thus, can't support forests. During some point in the past they probably did support forests but human intervention eliminated the forests. The mountains do beautify the land however.
Agriculture activity on the Papago Reservation is almost non existent. The land is not suitable for the growing of crops. The Reservation has a number of dry riverbeds which are brought back to life when precipitation is especially heavy. At one time the rivers flowed continously but a warm up in climate conditions and the current long drought, has changed the ecosystem. Elevations throughout the Reservation, range from 1,000 feet above sea level to 7,730 feet.
Economic conditions on the Papago Reservation are not so well. Sells is not only the administrative center but the commerce center of the Reservation. Besides Sells, only a few other settlements have any commerce activity. That is probably how the citizens prefer it. Throughout the many Papago settlements are small corrals or fenced areas, where the people raise livestock and poultry. The many settlements are included under certain Papago towns like Chuichu, Pisinemo, and Sells but they are really their own distinct communities. Kitt Peak is an issue which is very important to the leaders of the Papago Reservation. They should attempt to gain control of the observatory and even establish a settlement there.
And, not to forget, the leaders and citizens of the Tohono O'odham Reservation can be as white as they can to appease the whites but we know what's going on and the future has been prepared for acts of retaliation. That future is long from now. No one living now will be around when those plans of retaliation commence. So instead of putting on a show of appeasement to let the whites know you are on their side, back off and stay out of this. Below are the demographics of the Papago Reservation which is now known as the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Their population is Increasing.
Demographics of the Tohono O'odham (Gila Bend) Nation
Covers 5,122 sq. mi. (5,513 sq. mi. when including the original Tohono O'odham Reservation)
Florence Village - (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Gila Bend - (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Gila River - 11,712 (584.00 sq. mi.)
Maricopa and Akchin - 1,001 (83.00 sq. mi.)
Tohono O'odham - 10,201 (4,453 sq. mi.)
San Xavier (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Pasqua Yaqui - 3,484 (it was created in 1978 and is connected to San Xavier District - it has an area of 1.8 sq. mi.)
Total on Reservation Population (2010) - 26,398
Language is Pima
Demographics of the Gila River District
Covers 584 sq. mi.
Population is 11,712
Language is Pima
The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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