They are mysterious. Below is a map of Gwich'in Territory and a list of their communities and their populations. According to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Gwich'in Indians are Eskimo. Their language was described as being very similar to that of Eskimo People and distinct from Athabascan's. According to that same 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Athabascan's are Algonquin. They speak Algonquin. Nearly all Athabascan's who live in what is Northwest Territories, Nunavut, northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba spoke Chipewyan according to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. And 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia further went to describe Chipewyan People as being Lenni Lenape. Lenni Lenape people are Delaware Indians who are really Ojibway. If they spoke Ojibway, it means they are Ojibway. A large group of Lenni Lenape were sent northwest to just south of Hudson Bay then to Beaufort Sea. Probably to fight white invaders who were bringing Aleuts and Eskimos to McKenzie River's Delta and further east to Hudson Bay.
Today, Gwich'in Indians are considered to be Athabascan which means there must be two distinct groups of Gwich'in People. One are a mixture of Ojibway and Eskimo, while the other are an Eskimo People. A reason for a discrepancy surrounding Gwich'in Indians history, is Seven Fires Prophecy which is also why whites have classified Athabascan's, as speaking a language not related to Algonquin. Those old books written in early 19th century, are far more reliable than later books written about Native Americans and their languages and cultures. According to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, they described Gwich'in People as living on both banks of McKenzie's River and were named Squint-eyes or Quarrellers and Loucheaux. They spoke a dialect of Esquimaux. They found Russian copper coins among them which proves they were allies of whites. However, Ojibway Soldiers were in that region and dominated invading Eskimos. English and Russians brought greater numbers of Eskimos to McKenzie Rivers Delta then to Hudson Bay however.
Today, Gwich'in Indians live in Northwest Territories, Yukon and Alaska. They are closely related by language to Han Indians, Kutchin Indians and Loucheaux. Supposedly Loucheaux is preferred in Canada to name these people. Their population is not numerous. Gwich'in Territory is located west of Great Bear Lake and south of Beaufort Sea. Gwich'in Territory has a land area or 9,221.7 sq. mi. or 23,884 sq. km. However, it's not in compact form which means it's not acceptable. Gwich'in Territory must be in compact form. Gwich'in Land is also located in Yukon and Alaska.
Aklavik - Population is 594
Fort McPherson - Population is 776
Inuvik - Population is 3,484
Tsiigehchic - Population is 175
Mayo, Yukon (mixed village) - Population is 248
Old Crow, Yukon - Population is 253
Arctic Village, Alaska - Population is 152
Atqasuk, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 228
Beaver, Alaska - Population is 84
Birch Creek, Alaska - Population is 28
Chalkyitsik, Alaska - Population is 83
Circle, Alaska - Population is 100
Nuiqsut, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 402
Fort Yukon, Alaska - Population is 583
Sagwon, Alaska - Population is ?
Stevens Village, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 87
Umiat, Alaska - Population is ?
Venetie, Alaska - Population is 202