Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
They are mysterious. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Gwich'in are Eskimo. Their language was described as being very similar to the language of the Eskimo people and distinct from the Athabascan's or Dene. According to the same 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Athabascan's or Dene, are Algonquin. They speak Algonquin. All Athabascan's or Dene who live in what is now eastern Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, and northern Saskatchewan spoke Chipewyan according to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia. And the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia further went to describe the Chipewyan as being Lenni Lenape. Lenni Lenape people are the Delaware Indians. A large group of the Lenni Lenape were sent northwest to just south of Hudson Bay at some point in the past. Probably to fight the white invaders who were becoming pests in the Hudson Bay region in the 17th century while searching for the Northwest Passage.
Today, the Gwich'in are considered to be Athabascan or Dene which means there must be two distinct groups of Gwich'in people. One are a mixture of Chippewa and Eskimo, while the other are an Eskimo people. A reason for the discrepancy surrounding Gwich'in history is the Seven Fires Prophecy which is also the reason why the whites have classified the Athabascan's or Dene, as speaking a language not related to Algonquin. Those old books written in the early 19th century are far more reliable than later books written about Native Americans and their languages and cultures.
After white explorers found what is now the Bering Sea, they sailed into the Beaufort Sea then reached the area where the McKenzie River Delta is located. They knew the Mongols were Chippewa and contact between the North American Chippewa's with the Siberian Chippewa's was still going on. Their goal was to stop the contact between the North American Chippewa's and Siberian Chippewa's. They knew about the extremely long and harsh winters in extreme northern Alaska and extreme northern Canada and that it would be futile to send white settlers to that region so they forged alliances with an Asian People (the Eskimos) from Asia, to bring them to extreme northern North America.
Though Vitus Bering is credited with discovering the Bering Sea in 1728, white explorers from Russia had already discovered the Bering Sea about a century earlier. However, it was not properly recorded. Soon after 1728, the whites commenced to bring 1,000s of Asians (Eskimos) from Asia, to extreme northern Alaska, extreme northern Canada including to what is now northern Quebec, and Greenland. It was not for peaceful purposes. It was to stop the contact between the North American Chippewa's and Siberian Chippewa's. After 1728, a long brutal war between the Chippewa's and the whites and their Asian (Eskimo) allies commenced.
We know the Chipewyan are the northern most Saulteaux or Algonquin's. Their land was largely located throughout the vast Barren Grounds of northern Canada and northern Alaska. They (the Gwich'in) subsisted primarily on caribou and are also known as the Caribou Eaters and the Loucheaux. After the initial Asian invasion, they subjugated large numbers of the Asian invaders. Thus, the reason for a Gwich'in Dene people.
Their (the northern most Chippewa's) territory covers the Alaskan Barren Grounds north of the Brooks Mountain Range, from the Chuckchi Sea to the Beaufort Sea, south to an area just north of what is now Fairbanks, Alaska. What is now Highway 11 or the Pipeline Highway, was the western border north of Fairbanks. It extends into what is now Yukon just north of Dawson and east to what is now the border of the Northwest Territories. It includes all land in Yukon to the Beaufort Sea. It also includes all of extreme northern Canada (that includes Nunavut) from the western border of the Northwest Territories to the Gulf of Boothia. Their northern border in Canada being the Beaufort Sea and the Gulf of Boothia. Their southern border in Canada being the southern border of the Northwest Territories, northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and a part of northeastern Alberta. Their eastern border in Canada being Hudson Bay. More about the Gwich'in is below.
Loucheaux Subgroup (aka Barren Ground Chipewyan)
Gwich'in (aka Kutchin and the Loucheaux)
Mentasta dialect of Ahtna
The Northern Saulteaux
They are directly descended from the Chipewyan Hare Indians. They came up from the southeast at some distant date in the past. According to the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, a group of Lenni Lenape was sent to the southern shores of Hudson Bay then to the region of the Barren Grounds which includes northern Alaska. They are known as the Chipewyan. They met a people who claimed to have migrated to the McKenzie River Delta region, from a westward location which had no winters and had an animal with human facial features. In the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, they reported the people to also be Lenni Lenape. However, the Eskimo and Gwich'in or Loucheaux, spoke almost identical languages which means that information was corrupted. We must exclude the Gwich'in or Loucheaux who were not subjugated by the Chippewa's. They do not speak Dene or Algonquin. It is clearly written in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene or Athabascans, speak Algonquin. Those Loucheaux who were subjugated by the Chippewa's were absorbed by them.
Gwich'in people are known historically to have been closely related to the Eskimo. They are also known as the Loucheaux. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Gwich'in spoke a language almost identical to the Eskimos. It means they are foreign. Unlike the Eskimos, many of the Gwich'in were subjugated by the Chippewa military. Those who escaped Chippewa subjugation stayed very close to other Eskimo people between what is now Inuvik, Northwest Territories and Kugluktuk, Nunavut or the Beaufort Sea. Every summer white ships sailed to the region between Inuvik and Kugluktuk and supplied the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food. This intensified after an overland route between Kugluktuk and what is now Baker Lake, Nunavut was discovered in the 1760s or 1770s. White leaders learned from the Chippewa's or Chipewyan, that a river from Baker Lake led all the way to what is now Bathurst Inlet, Nunavut. They established some sort of supply line in the Bathurst Inlet region where the Eskimos and Loucheaux were supplied with cannons, guns, and food every summer. This probably happened during the 1770s.
With an ever increasing amount of cannons and guns, the Eskimos and Gwich'in fought their way from Bathurst Inlet to Baker Lake then to the area where Chesterfield Inlet is now. Chesterfield Inlet is located along the northwestern shores of Hudson Bay. Later on, Hudson Bay Company established a post or fort at Chesterfield Inlet. Though Chesterfield Inlet was an important location, Churchill was far more important. White leaders knew they could not only supply the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food by using the Bering Sea to sail to the region between Inuvik and Bathurst Inlet, they also knew they could bring in 1,000s of Eskimos and Gwich'in to the Churchill region using the overland route between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet.
Chippewa military leaders were aware of what was transpiring and intensified their military campaigns between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet. However, the Eskimos and Gwich'in successfully established themselves in the Chesterfield Inlet region. From there, they were shipped down to Churchill then to York Factory. They used both locations to invade northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan. Using Churchill River, they sailed to Reindeer Lake then south to where Hudson Bay Company established a fort at Cumberland house, Saskatchewan in 1774. From York Factory, they sailed the Nelson River to the interior of Manitoba. Most likely they used the Churchill River more often at first but after the 1780-1782 cowardly acts of the whites, the Indian population had been dramatically reduced. Nelson River became their prime route to the Saskatchewan region after 1782. In 1800, Hudson Bay Company became aware of a Chippewa fort located in southwestern Saskatchewan.
Peter Fidler, who worked for Hudson Bay Company, established a post or fort at Chesterfield House, Saskatchewan that same year (1800). Estuary, Saskatchewan was later built near Chesterfield House. Chesterfield House was 132 miles north of Montana. After the fort was built, they sent in 100s of Eskimo and Gwich'in soldiers to fight the Chippewa's of the Alberta, Montana, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region. The war has been fabricated by white historians to have been a war between the Algonquin Blackfoot Confederacy and the Algonquin Cree which is incorrect. No Algonquin's who knew about the Seven Fires Prophecy, would fight each other. They knew better. In 1803, Hudson Bay Company built Chiswick House in the Northwest Territories which was located near Fort Resolution.
Using the Reindeer Lake region, they sent 100s of Eskimo and Loucheaux soldiers to the area south of Great Slave Lake and north of Lake Athabasca, from the Reindeer Lake region. A war which had been ongoing for more than 50 years was now intensifying. It was a war about the Northwest Passage. White goals were to halt contact between the North American Chippewa's and Siberian Chippewa's and destroy the Chippewa capitol at the Great Falls of the Missouri in Montana. Years before Lewis and Clark visited Montana in 1805, other whites had already been to Montana. That includes the Great Falls of the Missouri River.
An example of how the Eskimo and Loucheaux population increased between 1800 and 1856, between Inuvik and Estuary, was recorded by Hudson Bay Company. Their (Hudson Bay Company) McKenzie River District (located in what is now the Northwest Territories) had an estimated population of 10,430 in 1856. Their (Hudson Bay Company) Saskatchewan District had an estimated population of 28,050 in 1856. Hudson Bay Company's Saskatchewan District covered southern Alberta and the western part of southern Saskatchewan or the plains. It was reported that the population of Saskatchewan District was decreasing which means the whites and their Asian allies were losing the war by 1856. They also reported that the population of the Indians who lived in the forests was increasing.
Chippewa leaders knew the whites were exchanging bottles of the hard drink which contained poison and always did instruct their people to stay away from the white forts and trading posts. They only visited the trading posts once or twice a year. However, they could not prevent all of their subjects from doing business at the trade posts. Eskimo and Loucheaux people almost always tended to set up their camps very close to the white forts and trading posts. Thus, the whites could actually give almost accurate population estmates of the Asians. The Chippewa population was much higher. Though their population was decimated in the late 18th century, the Chippewa population had increased dramatically in the Alberta, Montana, Northwest Territories, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region by 1856 as a result of a migration of the Great Lakes Chippewa's to the west. That is why they eventually brought the Eskimos and the Loucheaux out of the conflict. They eventually absorbed them after the whites knifed them in the back. By the 1860s, the whites no longer needed the military support of the Eskimos and the Loucheaux.
So the Loucheaux, who are the northern most Saulteaux, are really an admixture of Algonquin and Eskimo, especially in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Our focus is on non Eskimos who speak Dene or Athabascan. We know from the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene people or Athabascans's, are Algonquin. Later in the 19th century, white historians made a blunder by classifying the Dene or Athabascan's as being of a distinct language family. However, the Dene or Athabascan people are Algonquin. And don't even speculate that the Lenni Lenape came from Asia. It's the other way around. There is a reason why they have now commenced a new language family known as the Dene-Yeniseian Language Family. The Yeniseian people live in Siberia.
Gwich'in Nation is located west of Great Bear Lake and south of the Beaufort Sea. The Gwich'in Nation covers 56,935 sq. km. or 21,983 sq. mi. A small part of the Gwich'in Nation is located in Yukon. Avoid negotiating any land deals with the whites! All of the Northwest Territories is Ojibwa land. It includes the Akaitcho Nation, Dehcho Nation, Sahtu or Saulteau Nation, Tlicho Nation, and the Gwich'in Nation. Chippewan leaders must not cede any of the land. If you do we will not recognize such actions. We will claim the land so future Ojibway people in Canada, the United States, and elsewhere will keep the land as Ojibway land. Below is a list of Gwich'in (Han and Kutchin) settlements. Below is a map of the Gwich'in Nation. Watch your land above and on the surface!
Aklavik - Population is 594
Fort McPherson - Population is 776
Inuvik - Population is 3,484
Tsiigehchic - Population is 175
Mayo, Yukon (mixed village) - Population is 248
Old Crow, Yukon - Population is 253
Arctic Village, Alaska - Population is 152
Atqasuk, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 228
Beaver, Alaska - Population is 84
Birch Creek, Alaska - Population is 28
Chalkyitsik, Alaska - Population is 83
Circle, Alaska - Population is 100
Nuiqsut, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 402
Fort Yukon, Alaska - Population is 583
Sagwon, Alaska - Population is ?
Stevens Village, Alaska (mixed village) - Population is 87
Umiat, Alaska - Population is ?
Venetie, Alaska - Population is 202
The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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