Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

The Hill 57 (Twin Peaks) Chippewa Reservation

Before 1805, what is now Hill 57 was possibly visited by white traders. We just don't have strong historical evidence which tells of such an early contact. In 1805, Lewis and Clark visited what is now the Great Falls, Montana region and knew a Chippewa settlement was located near where Hill 57 is. Lewis mentioned a trader who lived at the mouth of the Cheyenne River in South Dakota who told him about the strange bomb like sounds of the Black Hills. His name was Jean Valle. It is well documented that the strange bomb like sounds heard often in the Great Falls, Montana region, were known of long before any whites showed themselves. The Arikara named the mountains the Black Mountains. And the Minnetaree, who are the Gros Ventre (Chippewa's), who include the Arikara, Crow, and Hidatsa they subjugated, told Lewis and Clark the bomb like sounds came from the Rocky Mountains to their west. Most will point to the Black Hills of South Dakota but they are very wrong. What Valle told Lewis could be evidence he was in the Great Falls, Montana region well before Lewis and Clark showed themselves in June and July of 1805.

The waterfalls did not keep Lewis and Clark in Great Falls for one month. They were captured! Or they paid an extednded visit in order to negotiate. In the early 20th century, many Chippewa's were living at Hill 57 and around the Great Falls region. Chief Little Bear often lived near Hill 57. We know he lived at the Chippewa village located where Wadsworth Park is now, on the westside of Great Falls. Wadsworth Park is about 2 miles west of Hill 57. Hill 57 may have been named by the Chippewa's, Little Shell Mountain or Little Shell Hill. They may have name it Turtle Mountain for all we know.

Pembina and Saginaw

Chippewa's have lived in what is now Great Falls for as long as 1,500 years. Some time in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Chippewa's from Michigan commenced to migrate into the Montana region, where they merged with the Chippewa's already native to the Montana region. They are known as the Black River and Swan Creek Chippewa's. However, they are more properly known as the Saginaw Chippewa's. Since some Kootenai of western and northwestern Montana, claim they originally lived in Michigan, we can be certain they are Chippewa's. They continued on with their Great Lakes or woodland lifestyle. Their canoes are identical to Chippewa canoes. Funny thing is, they didn't need canoes in Montana. One possible exception is the Great Falls of the Missouri River region. To avoid the waterfalls, they needed to build a canal. They needed canoes for that purpose.

Saginaw are also known as the Sac and Sauk, and O-sau-gee which is sometimes spelt as Osage. Chief's Little Bear and Rocky Boy's parents, were probably Saginaw Chippewa refugees. Chief Ignace Paul of the Kootenai, was also a Chippewa. His parents migrated into western Montana during the War of 1812. Historians will claim he was Iroquois but that's a lie! Read the Seven Fires Prophecy! He was either Pembina and Saginaw Chippewa.

Other Chippewa's from northwestern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and Minnesota and the Dakotas, also migrated into Montana in the 18th and 19th century. They are the Pembina Chippewa's. Among them were many Metis who were people of mixed ancestry. After the white confederation launched an invasion to the south of Manitoba during the War of 1812, they were defeated and subjugated by the Chippewa's. They were confined to a small area in southern Manitoba, between St. Peter, Winnipeg, Portage la Prairie, and Ste. Agathe. They are the blond haired and blue eyed white Indians white historians often refer to. Most were subjugated by the Chippewa's until 1869, when the white leader by the name Louis Riel, helped to lead a rebellion. The Red River Rebellion of 1869-1870, was almost without violence.

After Riel helped to liberate the whites of southern Manitoba, he conspired to cause more trouble with other whites. Many other whites who traced their ancestry to the Red River Colony of southern Manitoba, moved out to the plains of Saskatchewan, Montana, and North Dakota. Riel wanted to liberate them from Chippewa rule. That probably happened in 1877. In 1879, Riel may have helped to establish the white Spring Creek Colony near Lewistown, Montana. Lewistown was actually commenced by the whites who were subjugated by the Chippewa's. In the 1880s, Riel started trouble in Alberta and Saskatchewan. It led to the 1885 Northwest Rebellion. A war started by the whites establishing new white colonies in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Those Little Shell Chippewa's who claim to be of Metis ancestry, are letting the real Chippewa's know that they are corrupt. Instead of accepting an Indian identity they are claiming otherwise. If they accept a Metis identity instead of an Indian identity, they have no right involving themselves in the affairs of the Montana Chippewa's. Many of the Little Shell Chippewa's of Great Falls, are Plants or have been Planted.

Establishment of the Hill 57 Chippewa Reservation

Before the Hill 57 Chippewa Reservation was established, the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana was the largest Indian Reservation in Montana. On Indian land cession maps at the Library of Congress, the Chippewa's Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana has the numbers 399 and 574, on Montana Indian land cession maps. Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana was fraudulently eradicated by the United States who hired (bought) Indians to sign the fraudulent McCumber Agreement which is also known as the 10 an Acre Treaty. We can trace the dates of the creations of the Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls, Montana region.

1894: Great Falls Park Commission

On April 18, 1894, the city of Great Falls created the Great Falls Park Commission. Purpose of the Park Commission was to create and maintain parks in the city of Great Falls. They were authorized an issuance of $40,000 to purchase three sites for future parks in Great Falls. What the United States was really doing was preparing to deport the large Chippewa population within the Chippewa's Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana. Their main goal was to have chiefs Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and other defiant Chippewa leaders, arrested and relocated away from Montana. They did that in early May of 1895. Three sites were selected in the Great Falls region. They are listed below.

Highland Park

Park Island

Sun River Park (Wadsworth Park)

So we know there are at least three Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region. That does not include the Fort Shaw Indian School Reservation, which is 20 miles west of Great Falls. It was established in 1892. It may have been the first Chippewa Reservation created for the Chippewa's before or after the fraudulent McCumber Agreement. Below is a map of Fort Shaw Indian School Reservation. The United States fooled Chippewa leaders who thought it was for education. Later Dussome and Mansfield, covered it up by using Rehabilitation. More about that is below.

Highland Park is curious. It could indicate a mountainous area or an area above or to the north. North of Great Falls are three lakes. They are Benton Lake, Black Horse Lake, and Grassy Lake. All three were lakes before the white invasion. After settling in the Great Falls region, the whites used Blackfeet Gulch to drain all three lakes which the Chippewa's used to grow wild rice. Black Horse Lake actually extended as far east as the BNSF Railway. The Highland Park (Reservation) may have extended to Grand Falls. Between Grassy Lake and Grand Falls, the distance is around 27 miles. From south to north, Highland Reservation may have averaged 7 or 8 miles. Highland Reservation may have covered between 100 and 200 sq. mi. Much of the Reservation was wetlands. Even today the region is prone to become wetlands during times of heavy precipitation. It extended as far south as Mount Royal or Hill 57 and possibly Sun River Park. Just north of Mount Royal, may have been another much smaller lake. Using google earth you can see lines resembling canals, which lead to Mount Royal. The small lake was adjacent to it. It's 2.4 miles northeast of Mount Royal.

Park Island is an island in the Missouri River. I know of no park being created on the large island which was important to the Chippewa's. Park Island is located over a third of a mile south of the 10th Ave South Bridge and one mile north of the White Bear Islands which may have been a part of the Park Island Chippewa Reservation. Land on both sides of the Missouri River where the White Bear Islands are located, was probably included within this Reservation. It may have extended to the Ulm region where the old St. Peters Mission or Garrison, was located. We know there was a Chippewa village just south of Great Falls. It may have been located near where Gibson Flats is. This Reservation was not as large as the Highland Chippewa Reservation.

Sun River Park is located outside the city limits of Great Falls. Today, it is known as Wadsworth Park. An ancient Chippewa village was located there up until either the 1940s or 1950s. The village may have actually been a part of the Highland Chippewa Reservation. Sun River Park may have included the entire Bob Marshall Wilderness Area including Scapegoat Wilderness Area.

1894: Chief Little Bear Fooled

About a month after the so called Great Falls Park Commission was created, two sneaky white men visited the ancient Chippewa vllage where Sun River Park or Wadsworth Park is. They got to negotiating with chief Little Bear about holding Sun Dances across Montana. Chief Little Bear was always trying to find ways of raising money up to help his people and agreed to the deal. They first had to get permission from the Great Falls Chamber of Commerce. After negotiating with the Great Falls Chamber of Commerce, they got their permission to hold the Sun Dance in late May of 1894. Chief Little Bear didn't know it but he agreed to accept the Reservations created the previous month or on April 18, 1894. After chief Little Bear heard that chiefs Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and other Chippewa leaders had been arrested and deported out of Montana, he probably became concerned. He knew the Chippewa's did not agree to cede the vast Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana. However, he also knew if he didn't do what the whites wanted, he would be deported to Canada.

1896: The Deportations

In June and July of 1896, the United States sent their soldiers to the Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana, to commence gathering the defenseless Chippewa's to be deported. Most were deported out of State. They numbered in the 1,000s. It was not just a couple of hundred. It took about two months for the deportations. Chief Buffalo Coat told the whites, the leading advisor in the tribe was a full blooded Chippewa who strongly protested the deportations. He was chief Little Bear. Along with chief Lucky Man, chief Little Bear was deported to Canada to stand trial for the Frog Lake Massacre. Both chief Little Bear and chief Lucky Man, were acquitted. Both then returned to their native Montana. Chief Little Bear eventually became one of chief Rocky Boys sub-chiefs. Many of the Chippewa's who were deported to Canada and the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, returned to the Great Falls region. They merged with the Chippewa's who lived at one of the four Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region. After the deportations, only around 3,000 to 4,000 Chippewa's lived in the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Exactly how many were deported is unknown. It was not a couple of hundred however. It could have been as many as 10,000 to 15,000.

1909: The Deportations

In 1908, chief Rocky Boy was notified that Indian Inspector Frank Churchill wanted to meet with him. Churchill found chief Rocky Boy near Garrison, Montana (the Garrison near Ulm probably) and commenced to negotiate with him about the Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region and the rest of Montana. What followed was other forced deportations. Chief Rocky Boy commenced to gather the Chippewa's for the deportations in 1908. By November of 1909, the first of the deportations commenced. Many were deported to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. A new 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation was added on to Fort Belknap Reservation also. Several hundred Chippewa's were also deported to the Gila Bend or Papago Reservation of Arizona. There are no historical documents that mention anything about eradicating the Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region, exept Fort Shaw. They don't show up until Joseph Dussome and Mike Mansfield, or decades later. What we do have is evidence of new Chippewa Reservations set aside at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, Crow Reservation, Flathead Reservation, and Fort Belknap Reservation. In 1908, the Chippewa population in the Great Falls region was obviously near 10,000. After the forced deportations, it was near 3,000. Rainbow Dam was built in 1910. Fort Shaw Indian School Reservation was closed in 1910 also. In 1915, Ryan Dam was built behind Grand Falls. Besides the events of 1916 and 1917, little happened in the Great Falls region for the next 25 years.

In the early 1930s, the United States supposedly wanted to purchase a tract of land near Great Falls, to give each Chippewa family who lived at and around Hill 57, 5 acres of land. Thy really wanted to eradicate the Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region. What brought on these events was the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Besides Hill 57, other Chippewa settlements in the Great Falls region include Mount Royal (it is the top of Hill 57), the Chippewa village located at what is now Wadsworth Park (it was originally known as Sun River Park), a Chippewa village located at Wire Mill Road which is better known as Smelter Hill, and a Chippewa village located on the southern fringe of Great Falls, either near Gibson Flats or possibly the White Bear Islands. Chippewa's never left the Great Falls region including Hill 57.

According to Raymond Gray, who conducted a census of the Chippewa villages located adjacent to Great Falls during 1940-1941, the population of the Chippewa villages was 278. Most lived at Hill 57 (37 families or around 150 people), Mount Royal (11 families or around 44 people), Wire Mill Road (8 families or around 33 people), Sun River Park or Wadsworth Park (8 families or around 33 people), and south of Great Falls (4 families or around 17 people). According to sources, the Chippewa village adjacent to Great Falls southern side, was not an actual Chippewa village in 1941 but about 4 families who lived among whites. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was a Chippewa village. A census was conducted in 1955 of Hill 57 including Mount Royal, and the settlements population was over 400 which means something is wrong. Between 1941 and 1955, the population of Hill 57 including Mount Royal, more than doubled.

Rehabilitation: Joseph Dussome & Mike Mansfield

During the 1930s, the Indian traitor Joseph Dussome, commenced to negotiate about having new Chippewa Reservations created. At least three were planned. They ranged in size from 75,000 acres, 65,000 acres, and 50,000 acres. Very good indications of the sizes of the Chippewa Reservations in the Great Falls region. Dussome was joined by Raymond Gray but both worked separately at having the three Chippewa Reservations eradicated. Around 1941 or so, Dussome changed his request for Reservations to that of a Rehabilitation Program. As a result of the long war, Dussome waited. Then in 1950, Mike Mansfield promoted Dussomes Rehabilitation Program to the government of the United States. It was passed on August 18, 1950.

On August 18, 1950, the United States auctioned off the land owned by the Chippewa's at Sun River Park or Wadsworth Park, and that illegally ended those Reservations created in 1894. Below is a link to the August 18, 1950 Treaty that illegally eradicated the three Reservations, one of which was where the ancient Chippewa village William Clark clearly depicted on his map of the Great Falls region. Below is his map. Place your mouse arrow over the map and click on the right of your mouse where "save image as" is, and save it to your My Documents or desktop. It will help you get a magnified view of the map. Look for the Sun River or Medicine River and the discrepancy. You'll notice it when you see something drawn by Clark adjacent to Sun River. That is the Chippewa village located at what is now Sun River Park or Wadsworth Park. We know chief Little Bear lived at that village in 1894. Below is a link to a pdf book about chief Little Bear negotiating for a planned sun dance in Great Falls. Don't be fooled by the whites claiming the Indians were Cree. They were Chippewa. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy. The information about the Chippewa village is on page 42. Sun River Road leads to the site of the ancient Chippewa village. Most of the village may have been located on the south side of Sun River.

Chippewa Village 1894

The 1950 Illegal Eradication of the three Chippewa Reservations

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