Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

Papago Indian Reservation

This Reservations past is very suspicious. It was supposedly established in 1916 and 1917. Original Papago Reservation covers 3.1 million acres or 4,844 sq. mi or 12,545 sq. km. It was set aside for an Ojibway People known as Kickapoos on January 14, 1916 and February 1, 1917. However, in 1902 chief Rocky Boy was in Montana negotiating for new Ojibway Reservations. He sent a letter to President Roosevelt requesting for Reservations which was supposedly denied. They lied. Not long after receiving their reply, chief Rocky Boy sent Ojibway scouts out to look for land for Montana Ojibway's. Papago Reservation is one of chief Rocky Boy's Reservations. Chief Rocky Boy requested to settle on surveyed and unsurveyed land which was granted. Papago Reservation was established on July 1, 1874. Later, land additions were added through deceptive ways. As mentioned, chief Rocky Boy requested to settle upon surveyed and unsurveyed land. More about that is below. In 1909, United States knew a civil war was going to happen in Mexico and wanted to keep Arizona Indians out of that conflict. They created a large Reservation which included Gila Bend, Gila River, Maricopa and Ak Chin, Papago or Tohono O'odham (San Xavier). It probably covered much of southwestern and southern Arizona. What happened in 1916-1917, was a fragmentation of that large Reservation, into Gila Bend, Gila River, Maricopa and Ak Chin, Papago or Tohono O'odham, and San Xavier Reservations. Below are demographics of this Reservation and links to it's communities. Tohono O'odham leaders, know they originally had a larger Reservation. Further below is important information about those non federally recognized Kickapoo Chippewa's of Arizona.

Demographics of Tohono O'odham Nation

Covers 5,122 sq. mi. (5,513 sq. mi. when including original Tohono O'odham Reservation)

Florence Village - (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Gila Bend - (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Gila River - 11,712 (584.00 sq. mi.)
Maricopa and Akchin - 1,001 (83.00 sq. mi.)
Tohono O'odham - 10,201 (4,453 sq. mi.)
San Xavier (population and land area is included with Tohono O'odham)
Pasqua Yaqui - 3,484 (it was created in 1978 and is connected to San Xavier District - it has an area of 1.8 sq. mi.)

Total on-Reservation Population (2010) - 26,398

Language is Pima

Demographics of Tohono O'odham District
Papago or Tohono O'odham - 2010 population is 10,201
Gila Bend or San Lucy - 2010 population is included with Papago Reservation or Tohono O'odham Reservation
Florence Village - 2010 population is included with Papago Reservation or Tohono O'odham Reservation - 54 people live in their village
San Xavier - 2010 population is included with Papago Reservation or Tohono O'odham Reservation

Papago Reservation Communities

Ali Chukson
Ali Molina
Chiawuli Tak
Haivana Nakya
Maish Vaya
Pan Tak
Santa Rosa
Wahak Hotronk
Sif Oidak
Vaiva Vo
Ali Chuk
Gu Oidak
Ko Vaya
Pia Oik
Pisinemo Trading Post
San Miguel
Santa Cruz
Sikul Himatk
Sil Nakya
Tat Momoli
Tonuk Vo

Chief Rocky Boy and Land Additions

After receiving news they could settle on surveyed and unsurveyed land, chief Rocky Boy prepared his Ojibway's for relocating to their new Reservations. Their new Reservations were actually land added onto existing Reservations by deceptive ways to distract whites. On April 4, 1902 Santa Rita Forest Reserve was established in southern Arizona. It was adjacent to or very close to, Papago Reservation (aka San Xavier Reservation). Other Forest Reserves were established and added onto Papago Reservation. Garces Forest Reserve was added onto Papago Reservation on July 1, 1908. There is evidence Papago Reservation is much larger.

September 10, 1968 Decision

On that date, Indian Claims Commission decided to further negotiate a Papago land claim in Arizona. Papago leaders claimed they held title to land from Santa Cruz River Valley (Patagonia, Rincon and Santa Catalina Mountain Ranges as their east boundary), to Gila Mountain Range and Tinajas Mountain Range almost adjacent to Yuma. Gila River was their northern boundary. Santa Cruz River was their eastern boundary. Mexico was their southern boundary. Was there a vast Papago Reservation in that location before 1910? Probably. In Montana, American leaders were Deporting Montana Ojibway's out of Montana. Some were Deported as far away as Puerto Rico (LuQuillo Forest Reserve was established on January 1, 1903) and Carib Reserve or Carib Territory on Dominica which was established or it's boundaries were announced on July 4, 1903. Many were Deported to Alaska and Canada. Remember, in 1902 chief Rocky Boy received permission to settle on surveyed and unsurveyed land. In 1902, there were yet some 2,000 Papago's or Kickapoo Ojibway's living a nodamic life in southern Arizona. American leaders already knew by 1902 a war was going to happen in Mexico. They were going to eradicate Mexico's large Indian and black Reservations, in northern Mexico. They were located in Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa and Sonora. All States located in northern Mexico. Below is an excerpt from a July 4, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper Aricle:


When Squads Return From Idaho and
Northwestern Montana and Report
Indians Will Pull Down Their Houses
and Hit the Trail for New Homes
Far From the Slaughterhouse.

Anaconda. June 5. Since receiving word
from Washington that each of their num-
ber are entitled to 160 acres of land some-
where in this vast country, the band of
nomad Chippewas encamped near the city
of Anaconda have assumed an air of ac-
tivity to which they have been strangers
many long months.

The question which is now agitating
the members of the band is where they
shall settle down and till the soil, take up
the white man's burden and lose trace of
the noble aborigine.

The entire band is thoroughly imbued
with a desire to get away from their pres-
ent quarters and already Chief Rocky Boy
has dispatched runners to look over vari-
ous sections where they are to be allowed
to live.

No Suke, a half breed Chippewa, com-
monly known as "Jim" and who is a power
in the band is strongly in favor of the
band taking land in the vicinity of To-
bacco plains, or along St. Mary's river
in northwestern Montana.

The Best Place.

This Indian is familiar with the greater
portion of Idaho and Montana and of all
the country open for them to settle in he
considers that the most favorable.

However, there is some land in Idaho
that some favor and Indians are now ab-
sent looking over both strips. When they
return and report on the lands they have
seen the Chippewas will decide where
they want to go and will lose no time in-
striking their tepees and hitting the trail.

This will be good news to the residents
of Anaconda and vicinity and especially
to the ranchers living below in the Deer
Lodge valley.

To these ranchers the Indians have
proved a continual source of annoyance
because of their polluting the waters of
the creek with camp offal and the con-
sequent danger of disease.

Nomadic (Kickapoo Chippewa's) Papago

On January 14, 1916 President Wilson created (reduced and not increased Gila Bend Reservations size created in 1909), a 3.1 million acre Papago Reservation. It was reduced to 3.1 million acres. On February 1, 1917 Chippewa's Tohono O'Odham Reservation was officially created. It is also home to a few Pima who lived around, and on, Pima San Xavier Reservation, which is almost adjacent to Tucson, Arizona. San Xavier Reservation was originally known as Papago Reservation. Many Montana Chippewa's were relocated to Colorado River Reservation, Hopi and Navajo Reservation, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache Reservation, and Agua Caliente, Augustine, Cabazon, Chemehuevi, Fort Yuma, Martinez-Torres, Morongo, Santa Rosa, and Twenty-Nine Palms Reservations of California. Athabascan's or Dene People, are really Algonquin Chippewa. An excerpt from 1832s Edinburgh Encyclopedia is below. A link to 1832s Edinburgh Encyclopedia is also below. Read it and learn about who Athabascan People really are. All Athabascan People should be named Chipewyan which is pronounced as Chip-ah-wan. Gila Bend Reservation was created on December 12, 1882 and modified (supposedly reduced in size but at that time doing such meant risking Indians getting involved in Mexico's Civil War) or increased in size, by an executive order of June 17, 1909. Gila Bend Reservation and Gila River Reservation, are actually connected to Papago Reservation, as are Maricopa Akchin Reservation and San Xavier Reservation. All five Reservations were amalgamated in either 1911 or 1912, and became what is now known as Papago Reservation. It's really much larger.

3. The Lenni-Lenape spoken by a great family, more widely spread than the other two, from which the Crees, Chipewyans, the Copper, and the Dog-rib Indians are derived. Edinburgh Encyclopedia was referring to three great language families in North America. They are really Chippewa, Ottawa and Potawatomi. Of course, they spoke a same language. The Lenape, being the more numerous family, soon sent detachments northward, as far as the shores of Hudsons Bay, and gave rise to the chief northern tribes now along the arctic circle. Of course, those Lenape's are Chippewa's.

Edinburgh Encyclopedia


Before 1917, there was supposedly no Papago Reservation. An estimate of nomadic Papagos (they were really Kickapoo Chippewa's who were really Apaches who were kicked off Chiricahua Reservation in 1877), who lived in extreme southern Arizona, south of Tucson, to northern Mexico, from 1902, put their population at 2,046. Two decades earlier it was over 4,800. Most fled to Mexico. Many did settle down on Papago Reservation. By 1930, their population on Papago Reservation or Tohono O'odham Reservation, was 5,146. Their population had more than doubled in about 30 years. That's proof many Montana Chippewa's were also relocated to Papago Reservation.

Kickapoo Chippewa's

Within past 15 years, Kickapoo Chippewa's of southeastern Arizona, have become active in trying to become either State recognized or Federally recognized. They live between Douglas, Arizona and Wilcox, Arizona or very near their old Chiricahua Reservation. They number close to 200. So there are close to 200 Kickapoo Chippewa's who are continuing to cling to their Anishinabe Tribal identity in Arizona. And don't get to thinking Kickapoos are not Chippewa. According to 19th century Ojibway author Peter Jones, Kickapoos speak Chippewa as do Abenaki, Cree, Delaware, Menominee, Miami, Mohegan, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac or Sauk, and Shawnee. If they speak Chippewa, it means they are Chippewa. Google Jones 19th century book "History of the Ojebway Indians" and read it's chapter titled "The Indian Language." You will have no choice but to take this information on this page very seriously.

Papago Reservation is a land rightfully classified as a desert. However, Sonoran Desert is a lush one. Papago Reservation is covered by a plentyful abundance of vegetation. Papago Reservations eastern region has sacred Baboquivari Mountains which includes Kitt Peak which has an elevation of 6,842 feet. Baboquivari Peak is higher, however, with an elevation of 7,730 feet. Baboquivari mountains are covered by a forest. Kitt Peak has their coldest winters with an average January high of 49 degrees. At lower elevations, winter highs tend to be in mid 60s to low 70s. Summers are hot and long with June, July, and August each with an average high of above 100 or near 100. Kitt Peak is much cooler during summer months, with it's hottest month averaging only 80 degrees for an average high temperature.

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