Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Wind River Reservation
It is one of the largest Indian Reservations in the United States and where chief Washakie and possibly Sacajawea, are buried. This Reservation has a troubling past. It was supposedly established in 1868 for the Ute people (they claim Shoshone) only. In 1877, the northern Arapaho (they are really Anishinabe), were forced by the whites on to the Reservation. All was not well because many of the Utes were once subjugated by the Anishinabek and a feeling of ill attitude existed. Over time, however, the Utes would start to view the whites in very much the same manner as did the Anishinabek. That be around 1928. Actually it occurred earlier in the 20th century. The Shoshone are Anishinabe. Maps of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation below will help the Shoshone realize their true nationality. The Cheyenne are the Chippewa's who lived in southern Minnesota. They forced their way out to the plains of South Dakota and Nebraska, in the mid or late 17th century. They eventually migrated to the Colorado, Kansas, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming regions. Shoshone is derived from the Anishinabe word for south and southerner. That is Shaw-an and Shaw-an-ni. The whites dropped the "an" from Shaw-an-ni and just pronounced it as Shaw-ni. As for the first "sho" in Shoshone, it may have a relationship with "west southwest or simply southwest. And read Andrew Blackbirds 1887 book "History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan." Blackbird wrote the the Chippewa or Anishinabe Language, was extensively spoken among the Shoshone People."
The 1896 Great Falls Deportations
In 1896, the whites snuck up to the Anishinabe ogimak (leaders) of the Wind River Reservation, and commenced to speak to them in their famous forked tongue language. They proposed to the Anishinabe ogimak to have an area of their Reservation, at Big Horn Hot Springs near Thermopolis, set aside as a National Park, or some sort of Reservation to be under government control. Anishinabe ogimak were impressed with the idea of an area of their country being set aside as a National Park or a Reservation to protect the hot springs. In 1896, the United States forced several thousand Chippewas living in the Great Falls, Montana region to relocate elsewhere. One location was Wind River Reservation. They settled in the mountainous area of the northern portion of the Reservation, east of Thermopolis, and also between Morton and Riverton. There is a reason why the Arapaho outnumber the Utes at Wind River Reservation. Algonquin's make up 70% of the Reservations Indian population, while the Utes make up 30%. Chippewas settled in the north part of the Wind River Reservation, which today has few people living there. It is an extremely rugged and mountainous land. In 1902, the Algonquin's made up 50% of the Reservations population, while the Utes also made up 50% of the Reservations population.
On August 26, 1872, the corrupted whites reached an agreement with the Utes for ceding the extreme southern part of the Reservation. It is known as the Lander Purchase Act. This occurred before the Anishinabek settled on this Reservation. The Anishinabek were still at war against the whites at the time (1872). On March 3, 1891, the United States attempted to force the Utes and Anishinabek (Arapaho), to cede their Reservation land north of the Wind River or Big Wind River. However, they refused. Quite unlike what occurred in Oklahoma where the Arapaho and Cheyenne ceded their Oklahoma land to the United States but without proper Anishinabe government ratification. That occurred on March 3, 1891. Many of the Oklahoma Anishinabek fled to northern Mexico afterwards. The United States tried again in 1893 to coerce the Anishinabek into ceding much of their Reservation but they refused. Below is a map of the Chippewa Reservation created in 1896, north of Wind River or Big Wind River, that was opened to white settlement on August 15, 1906. And directly below that is a google earth satellite image of the current Wind River Reservation. A dispute about the northern portion is ongoing. However, the United States continues to consider the northern portion as being a part of Wind River Reservation.
On August 15, 1906, President Roosevelts Proclamation illegally took the northern part of the Wind River Reservation. To this day it is a disputed land area. Land north of the Wind River or Big Wind River, was opened to white settlement. However, leaders of Wind River Reservation now are claiming the entire area north of Wind River or Big Wind River, as being a part of Wind River Reservation. And present day maps confirm that land north of Wind River or Big Wind River, is a part of Wind River Reservation. Since there are no Indian settlements north of Wind River or Big Wind River, we will focus on the southern part of Wind River Reservation, south of Wind River or Big Wind River. It is off limits. No white settlements are located there.
It is a land that is very mountainous and rugged, excepting the river valleys. Many of the mountain peaks in the western and southwestern part of the Reservation, are higher than 11,000 and 12,000 feet in elevation. Many lakes are located in those mountains. There are a few farms in the river valleys but not very many. Elevation ranges from over 4,800 feet to over 12,000 feet in elevation. Climate conditions are extreme. Winters are long and cold, while summers are long and hot in the river valleys.
The 1905 Wind River Land Act
In 1904 (the same year the infamous 10¢ an acre treaty was supposedly ratified by the United States), the corrupted whites commenced to negotiate with the leaders of the Wind River Reservation, about ceding 1.5 million acres (the northern portion of the Reservation) of the 2,268,000 acre Reservation. The United States did it for a specific reason. The Chippewas who were relocated there in 1896 and set aside the 1.5 million acres to be their Reservation. They were probably having serious problems with Chippewa parents who refused to send their children to white boarding schools. White teachers brainwashed them.
The 1906 ExodusAn event occurred in 1906 which greatly upset the whites of not only Wyoming but Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. White historians refer to it as the 1906 Ute Exodus. It involved not only the Uintah-Ouray Reservation of Utah but the Wind River Reservation of Wyoming, the old Lemhi Reservation of Idaho, and North Dakota and South Dakota Reservations as well. The Land Acts were causing all kinds of problems. Southwest Montana had a significant Chippewa population in 1902 who were led by ogima Rocky Boy. For all we know, the Chippewas of southwest Montana, were forced to relocate to Wind River Reservation around 1902-1904. Ogima Rocky Boy was negotiating with the United States about the Land Acts and having new Chippewa Reservations created. Ogima Rocky Boy commenced the negotiations in early 1902. So if any Chippewas from southwest Montana were relocated, it happened between 1902 and 1904.
Many Indians had commenced to travel by horse across the plains of Wyoming east of Wind River Reservation. Fort Washakie was an obstacle. Newspapers reported the Indians were peaceful but agitated. They followed a northeastern route into northeastern Wyoming. The area east of Sheridan, Wyoming. Many were captured just east of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, in southeastern Montana. Before that, many had been captured then relocated to Pine Ridge Reservation, while many others were relocated to the Uintah-Ouray Reservation of northeastern Utah. After they were captured in southeastern Montana, they commenced to negotiate with white representatives. They told them they wanted to go to the Black Hills. According to Lewis and Clark, the infamous Black Hills are located in the Great Falls, Montana region. Read Lewis and Clarks journals from June 2, 1805. They were at what is now Loma, Montana. They claimed they were directly above (north) of the Black Hills. Of course, the Highwood Mountains which look like a part of the Little Belt Mountains. Those captured, were relocated to the Cheyenne Agency Reservation of South Dakota. They were not allowed to return to the Black Hills near Great Falls nor to the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. Those who stayed at Wind River Reservation, were forced to relocate to the southern portion of the Reservation. Click here to read about the 1906 exodus off the Wind River Reservation. As mentioned, the 1.5 million acre Chippewa Reservation was opened to white settlement on August 15, 1906. On August 25, 1906, Governor Brooks of Wyoming, requested for federal support.
Below are the Reservations (the southern portion) demographics. I have included the population stats for Arapahoe, Boulder Flats, Crowheart, Ethete, Fort Washakie, and Johnstown. However, in the northern part where Crowheart and Johnstown are located, especially Johnstown, many white farms are located. Johnstown is located partially off the Reservation. One hundred whites live at Johnstown. At Crowheart, it is similar but it is located within the Reservation. Seventy whites live at Crowheart which covers 31.4 sq. mi. Riverton is not located within the Reservation (the southern portion). Whites make up between 10% and 15% of the Reservations population. It is off limits.
Demographics of the Wind River Reservation
Covers 1,200 sq. mi. or 768,000 acres (it does not include the 1.5 million acres the northern portion covers)
Population is 5,759
Indian: 5,046 (it includes mixed bloods and Mexicans)
White: 604 (won't include Johnstown's white population)
Language is Anishinabe-Ute
Wind River Reservation Communities
Little Shield (chief Little Shell was also known as Little Shield): It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 4.3 miles to the northeast of the main part of Arapahoe. It's population is included with that of Arapahoes.
North Arapahoe: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 1.9 miles to the north of the main part of Arapahoe. It's population is included with that of Arapahoes.
St. Stevens: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is 3.9 miles to the northeast of the main part of Arapahoe. It's population is included with that of Arapahoes.
Yucca: It is a part of Arapahoe. However, it is located 4.6 miles to the east of the main part of Arapahoe and 1.1 miles southeast of St. Stevens. Much of Yuccas population is included with that of Arapahoe. However, most is not. Yucca is not located within the southern portion of Wind River Reservation. It is located within the northern portion which was supposedly opened to white settlement on August 15, 1906. The extreme southeastern portion of the northern portion of Wind River Reservation which was supposedly opened to white settlement on August 15, 1906. On the above map of the northern portion of Wind River Reservation, it is located in the extreme southeast very near where St. Stevens is written and land allotments colored red are located.
Chief Friday: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 1.2 miles to the south of the main part of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
Trosper: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 3.6 miles to the southeast of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethetes.
White Hawk: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 3.2 miles to the southeast of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
Yellow Calf: It is a part of Ethete. However, it is located 2.5 miles to the east of the main part of Ethete. It's population is included with that of Ethete's.
Noseep: It is a part of Fort Washakie. However, it is located 2.5 miles to the northwest of Fort Washakie. It's population is included with that of Fort Washakie's.
Plunkett: It is a part of Boulder Flats. However, it is 1.9 miles to the northeast of Boulder Flats. It's population is included with that of Boulder Flats.
South Boulder Flats: It is a part of Boulder Flats. However, it is located 0.6 miles from the main part of Boulder Flats. It's population is included with that of Boulder Flats.
Alkali Lake: It is located just south of Wind River and north and east of Alkali Lake. I don't know what the population is.
Roy Lake: It is located to the southeast of Alkali Lake. It's housing units are located to the east and southeast of Roy Lake. I don't know what the population is.
The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago
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