Algonquian Tribes | Climate | Communities | First Nations | History | Home | Migrations | Reservations | Tribes



Chief Rocky Boy's Reservations


The Shoshone Chippewas


Click for the latest Redby weather forecast.
WebCrawler
Algonquin News




Chipewyan Indians




Loucheaux Subgroup (aka Barren Ground Chipewyan)


They include:

Gwich'in (aka Kutchin and the Loucheaux)

Han

Upper Tanana

Northern Tutchone

Tanacross

Mentasta dialect of Ahtna

Upper Kuskokwim

Koyukon

Holikachuk

Deg Xinag



The Northern Saulteaux

They are directly descended from the Chipewyan Hare Indians. They came up from the southeast at some distant date in the past. According to the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, a group of Lenni Lenape was sent to the southern shores of Hudson Bay then to the region of the Barren Grounds which includes northern Alaska. They are known as the Chipewyan. They met a people who claimed to have migrated to the McKenzie River Delta region, from a westward location which had no winters and had an animal with human facial features. In the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, they reported the people to also be Lenni Lenape. However, the Eskimo and Gwich'in or Loucheaux, spoke almost identical languages which means that information was corrupted. We must exclude the Gwich'in or Loucheaux who were not subjugated by the Chippewa's. They do not speak Dene or Algonquin. It is clearly written in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene or Athabascans, speak Algonquin. Those Loucheaux who were subjugated by the Chippewa's were absorbed by them.



Gwich'in people are known historically to have been closely related to the Eskimo. They are also known as the Loucheaux. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Gwich'in spoke a language almost identical to the Eskimos. It means they are foreign. Unlike the Eskimos, many of the Gwich'in were subjugated by the Chippewa military. Those who escaped Chippewa subjugation stayed very close to other Eskimo people between what is now Inuvik, Northwest Territories and Kugluktuk, Nunavut or the Beaufort Sea. Every summer white ships sailed to the region between Inuvik and Kugluktuk and supplied the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food. This intensified after an overland route between Kugluktuk and what is now Baker Lake, Nunavut was discovered in the 1760s or 1770s. White leaders learned from the Chippewa's or Chipewyan, that a river from Baker Lake led all the way to what is now Bathurst Inlet, Nunavut. They established some sort of supply line in the Bathurst Inlet region where the Eskimos and Loucheaux were supplied with cannons, guns, and food every summer. This probably happened during the 1770s.



With an ever increasing amount of cannons and guns, the Eskimos and Gwich'in fought their way from Bathurst Inlet to Baker Lake then to the area where Chesterfield Inlet is now. Chesterfield Inlet is located along the northwestern shores of Hudson Bay. Later on, Hudson Bay Company established a post or fort at Chesterfield Inlet. Though Chesterfield Inlet was an important location, Churchill was far more important. White leaders knew they could not only supply the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food by using the Bering Sea to sail to the region between Inuvik and Bathurst Inlet, they also knew they could bring in 1,000s of Eskimos and Gwich'in to the Churchill region using the overland route between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet.



Chippewa military leaders were aware of what was transpiring and intensified their military campaigns between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet. However, the Eskimos and Gwich'in successfully established themselves in the Chesterfield Inlet region. From there, they were shipped down to Churchill then to York Factory. They used both locations to invade northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan. Using Churchill River, they sailed to Reindeer Lake then south to where Hudson Bay Company established a fort at Cumberland house, Saskatchewan in 1774. From York Factory, they sailed the Nelson River to the interior of Manitoba. Most likely they used the Churchill River more often at first but after the 1780-1782 cowardly acts of the whites, the Indian population had been dramatically reduced. Nelson River became their prime route to the Saskatchewan region after 1782. In 1800, Hudson Bay Company became aware of a Chippewa fort located in southwestern Saskatchewan.



Peter Fidler, who worked for Hudson Bay Company, established a post or fort at Chesterfield House, Saskatchewan that same year (1800). Estuary, Saskatchewan was later built near Chesterfield House. Chesterfield House was 132 miles north of Montana. After the fort was built, they sent in 100s of Eskimo and Gwich'in soldiers to fight the Chippewa's of the Alberta, Montana, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region. The war has been fabricated by white historians to have been a war between the Algonquin Blackfoot Confederacy and the Algonquin Cree which is incorrect. No Algonquin's who knew about the Seven Fires Prophecy, would fight each other. They knew better. In 1803, Hudson Bay Company built Chiswick House in the Northwest Territories which was located near Fort Resolution.



Using the Reindeer Lake region, they sent 100s of Eskimo and Loucheaux soldiers to the area south of Great Slave Lake and north of Lake Athabasca, from the Reindeer Lake region. A war which had been ongoing for more than 50 years was now intensifying. It was a war about the Northwest Passage. White goals were to halt contact between the North American Chippewa's and Siberian Chippewa's and destroy the Chippewa capitol at the Great Falls of the Missouri in Montana. Years before Lewis and Clark visited Montana in 1805, other whites had already been to Montana. That includes the Great Falls of the Missouri River.



An example of how the Eskimo and Loucheaux population increased between 1800 and 1856, between Inuvik and Estuary, was recorded by Hudson Bay Company. Their (Hudson Bay Company) McKenzie River District (located in what is now the Northwest Territories) had an estimated population of 10,430 in 1856. Their (Hudson Bay Company) Saskatchewan District had an estimated population of 28,050 in 1856. Hudson Bay Company's Saskatchewan District covered southern Alberta and the western part of southern Saskatchewan or the plains. It was reported that the population of Saskatchewan District was decreasing which means the whites and their Asian allies were losing the war by 1856. They also reported that the population of the Indians who lived in the forests was increasing.



Chippewa leaders knew the whites were exchanging bottles of the hard drink which contained poison and always did instruct their people to stay away from the white forts and trading posts. They only visited the trading posts once or twice a year. However, they could not prevent all of their subjects from doing business at the trade posts. Eskimo and Loucheaux people almost always tended to set up their camps very close to the white forts and trading posts. Thus, the whites could actually give almost accurate population estmates of the Asians. The Chippewa population was much higher. Though their population was decimated in the late 18th century, the Chippewa population had increased dramatically in the Alberta, Montana, Northwest Territories, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region by 1856 as a result of a migration of the Great Lakes Chippewa's to the west. That is why they eventually brought the Eskimos and the Loucheaux out of the conflict. They eventually absorbed them after the whites knifed them in the back. By the 1860s, the whites no longer needed the military support of the Eskimos and the Loucheaux.



So the Loucheaux, who are the northern most Saulteaux, are really an admixture of Algonquin and Eskimo, especially in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Our focus is on non Eskimos who speak Dene or Athabascan. We know from the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene people or Athabascans's, are Algonquin. Later in the 19th century, white historians made a blunder by classifying the Dene or Athabascan's as being of a distinct language family. However, the Dene or Athabascan people are Algonquin. And don't even speculate that the Lenni Lenape came from Asia. It's the other way around. There is a reason why they have now commenced a new language family known as the Dene-Yeniseian Language Family. The Yeniseian people live in Siberia.





The Beaver

When the Anishinabek commenced their expansion westward, one of the first Athabascan tribes they subdued was the Beaver or Dunneza. Their original territory was located in central and northern Alberta and central and northern Saskatchewan. Today, the Beaver are a mixture of Anishinabe and Athabascan. There live in Alberta and British Columbia. The Anishinabek have been forced to lose their Anishinabe identity. Since the Beaver were once accustomed to using the Ojibway syllabics, that tells the Anishinabe people that the Beaver are partly Anishinabe. Since the Beaver live in areas where few white people live, i will not include the sizes of their Reserves, because the whites left them with huge areas of land in northern Alberta and northern British Columbia, as fishing and hunting lands. That land probably covers over 100,000 sq. mi. Beaver First Nations are as follows.



Child Lake - Alberta
Boyer - Alberta
Clear Hills - Alberta
Horse Lake - Alberta

Prophet River - British Columbia
Beaton River - British Columbia
Doig River - British Columbia
Blueberry River - British Columbia
West Moberly Lake - British Columbia

The Chippewan (Chipewyan)

Originally the Chippewan lived in central and northern Manitoba and parts of what are now the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, north of the Manitoba border. They are really Anishinabe. Parts of Saskatchewan were also Chipewyan land. They were the first Athabascan tribe to be subdued by the expanding Anishinabek. That conquest occurred anywhere between the late 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. However, it probably occurred nearly 1,000 years ago. Since some Chippewan are accustomed to using the Ojibway syllabics, that tells the Anishinabe people that the Chippewan are partly Anishinabe. Since the Chipewyan live in areas where few white people live, i will not include the sizes of the Reserves, because the whites, by treaty, left them with huge areas of land to be used as fishing and hunting lands. That land may cover close to 1,000,000 sq. mi. Included among the Chippewan are the Dogrib people, Gwich'in people, Sahtu people, and Yellowknife people who all, excepting the Gwich'in, speak dialects of Chippewan. Of course, you only need to look at how Chipewyan (Chippewan) is pronounced, to understand that they are in fact Anishinabe. Their First Nations (communities) are as follows.



Cold Lake - Alberta
Fort Chipewyan - Alberta
Fort McKay - Alberta
Fort McMurray - Alberta
Janvier - Alberta

Barrens Land - Manitoba
Churchill - Manitoba
Sayisi Dene - Manitoba
Northlands - Manitoba

Fort Resolution/Deninu Kue - Northwest Territories
Smith's Landing - Northwest Territories
Lutsel K'e - Northwest Territories

Buffalo River - Saskatchewan
Black Lake - Saskatchewan
Clearwater River - Saskatchewan
English River - Saskatchewan
Font Du Lac River - Saskatchewan
Lac La Hache - Saskatchewan
Patunanak - Saskatchewan
Stony Rapids - Saskatchewan
Turnor Lake - Saskatchewan

The Dogrib

These people probably originally lived in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, east of Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake. When the expanding Anishinabek conquered the Chipewyan, they then subdued the Dogrib to the north of the Chipewyans. Since the Dogrib were once accustomed to using the Ojibway syllabics, that tells the Anishinabe people that the Dogrib are partly Anishinabe. The Dogrib recently signed a treaty with Canada which settled a land dispute between the two nations. The Canadians left the Dogrib people (Tli Cho people) with a territory of 15,100 sq. mi. or 39,000 sq. km. Their nation is located between Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake.



The Slavey or Sahtu

They are the Hare Indians or northern most Saulteaux. Originally the Slavey or Sahtu people, lived to the east but were driven out by the expanding Anishinabek in probably the 18th century. Since the Sahtu people were once accustomed to using the Ojibway syllabics, that tells the Anishinabe people that the Sahtu people are partly Anishinabe. In 1993, Canada and the Sahtu signed an agreement which left the Sahtu people with a territory of 15,999 sq. mi. or 41,437 sq. km. Their nation is located in the western portion of the Northwest Territories.



Gwich'in and Han

These people are obviously partially Anishinabe. The Gwich'in and Han live in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon in Canada. They may have originally lived further eastward, before the Anishinabek commenced their westward expansion. They have not, from what i have learned, used the Ojibway syllabic writing system. However, they do have a figure in their ancient folklore who somewhat resembles Nanabozho, who is extremely important to the Algonquians. In the 1992 Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, the Gwich'in were left with 21,983 sq. mi. or 56,935 sq. km., in the Northwest Territories. Part of that land is located in the Yukon. There are currently 9,000 Gwich'in. In Alaska, the Gwich'in live in the towns of Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, and Venetie. You would think the weater is cold year round at those cities but they have warm summers. For an example, at Chalkyitsik which is north of Fairbanks, it is warmer in the summer. The average summer highs in Chalkyitsik are for June, July and August a balmy 71.5, 73.1 and 68.5. Most people think Alaska does not get too hot in the summer but they are wrong obviously.



Ahtna and Tanaina

Only partially, Native to the State of Alaska, the Ahtna and Tanaina people probably lived further towards the east before the Anishinabek commenced their westward expansion. At the present time the Ahtna Indians of Alaska have 1,770,000 acres or 2,766 sq. mi., or 7,154 sq. km. of land. Their population is around 1,200.



Koyukon including the Deg Hit'an and Holikachuk

These Athabascan people live in the interior of Alaska and are probably members of the Alaska Native Corporation. All may be affiliated with the Doyon region of the Alaska Native Corporation. The tribes which make up Doyon, have total land area of 12.5 million acres, or 18,750 sq. mi., or 48,562 sq. km.



Tanana including the Kuskokwim and Tuchone

These Athabascan people live in the interior of Alaska and are probably members of the Alaska Native Corporation. All may be affiliated with the Doyon region of the Alaska Native Corporation. The tribes which make up Doyon, have total land area of 12.5 million acres, or 18,750 sq. mi., or 48,562 sq. km.




Little Shell Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation | Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation


Free Book


The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago




Home | Contact


2009-2014 Anishinabe-History.Com