Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

Nez Perce Indians

According to a website about the Algonquian People or Anishinabe People, a small portion of the Anishinabek who lived near Lake Nipissing in Ontario, are known as the Amikwa. Amikwa means Beavers. It is also pronounced as Amikwag. After the white invaders formed alliances with non Algonquian Tribes in the early 17th century, they launched military campaigns against the Anishinabe People. Before 1661, the Amikwa who are also known as the Nez Perce, lived near Lake Nipissing in Ontario. They are a branch of the eastern Chippewa's who lived east of Lake Superior. Lake Nipissing is some 200 miles east of Lake Superior. The Nez Perce Chippewa's originally lived between the northern shores of Lake Huron to north of Lake Nipissing.

The Migration

During the 1650s, the white invaders and their Indian allies, launched military campaigns against the eastern Chippewa's. These military onslaughts singled out the location north of Lake Huron to Lake Superior. At first, the white invaders and their Indian allies, inflicted defeats which led to the Nez Perce Chippewa's (the Amikwa or Beavers) retreating to the west. They had settled along the northern shores of Lake Superior by 1661. Unlike other Chippewa's, they were instructed to migrate to the west, as told to do by the Seven Fires Prophecy. However, many stayed and actually returned to the Lake Nipissing area. They are known as the Nipissing.

The North Nez Perce

This westward migration of the Nez Perce Chippewa's probably commenced between the 1630s and 1650s. And it commenced north of Lake Superior. During the migration, one group was instructed to go to the north. They may be the Chipweyan the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia wrote of. Click here to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia. You'll learn the Athabascan People or Dene People including the Apache, Chipewyan, and Navajo, are in fact Algonquian. They (the Chipewyan) forced their way up to the southern shores of Hudson Bay. Then they followed the southern shores of Hudson Bay northwest and then forced their way north up to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. They eventually settled along the McKenzie River Valley. Some drifted west and south into what is now northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. They are the Beaver Tribe of that location. Their communities include: Blueberry River; Doig River; East Moberly Lake; Fort Nelson; Halfway River; Prophet River; and West Moberly Lake. All are in British Columbia. In Alberta, the Beaver Tribe has two communities. The Sekani Tribe of British Columbia are also from the Beaver Tribe. They live in northern British Columbia. Their communities include: Kwadacha; McLeod Lake; Takla Lake; and Tsay Keh. The Nez Perce Chippewa's or Beaver and Sekani of Alberta and British Columbia, are better known as the Saulteau.

The South Nez Perce

During the 17th century westward migration, the other group migrated directly to the west. They eventually reached the Alberta region. From there, they settled in Montana then Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The Pii-ka-ni of extreme southern Alberta are the Beaver Tribe. They are probably a branch of the Se-ka-ni. Either the Sekani migrated to the north or vice versa. The Pii-ka-ni live in Alberta and Montana. They are the Nez Perce Chippewa's who signed the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. The Pii-ka-ni or Nez Perce of Montana have the following Montana Reservations: Blackfeet; Flathead; Fort Belknap; Fort Peck; and Rocky Boy. After the 1876-1877 Black Hills and Nez Perce War, many of the Montana Nez Perce Chippewa's or Pii-ka-ni, fled up to Canada. For all we know, they may have continued the migration up to northern Alberta, northern British Columbia, and even further north.

In extreme southern Alberta, the Pii-ka-ni and the other Blackfoot, signed Treaty 7 in 1877. Large Reserves were created for them in extreme southern Alberta. They are known as the Blood; Piikani; Siksika, Stony; and Tsuu T'ina Reserve. In the summer of 1910, it was reported that the Se-ka-ni were hostile towards signing an adhesion to Treaty 8. It was also reported during the 1910 summer Treaty 8 negotiations, that the Si-can-nies really belong to the other side of the mountains. An odd statement! The 1910 Treaty 8 negotiations were held at Fort Nelson, British Columbia. The Rocky Mountains are some 60 miles west of Fort Nelson. That would place the Se-ka-ni in the Dease Lake region of northwestern British Columbia. However, the whites could have been suggesting that the Se-ka-ni came from the United States. On August 4, 1911, a group of 98 Se-ka-ni signed an adhesion to Treaty 8. In 1914, the remaining Nez Perce Chippewa's of northern British Columbia, were admitted to Treaty 8. Among them were the remaining Se-ka-ni or Saulteau, of course.

In Idaho, Oregon, and Washington States, the Nez Perce Chippewa's were not dealt with fairly by the United States. The United States broke every treaty agreement. They eventually stole the entire Nez Perce Reservation. There are at least 13 cities, towns, and cdp's (Census Designated Places) within the boundaries of the Nez Perce Reservation of Idaho. Only one is predominantly Indian. That is Lapwai. According to the 2010 census, the population of Lapwai is 1,137. Indians make up 78% of Lapwai's population but 82% when including mixed bloods. The Nez Perce are doing far better in Canada and Montana. They may not know who they are even at the Nez Perce Reservation of Idaho, but this information can be helpful. If you accept the truth that is. And the Nez Perce or Amikwa Chippewa's, continue to live in their original territory in Ontario. Between the east shores of Lake Superior, north shores of Lake Huron, to Lake Nipissing. It was in that location where the name Saulteaux or Saulteau (pronounced as Soe-Toe) was first used by the white invaders. It may be related to Sho-sho-ni. Meriwether Lewis wrote Sho-sho-ni as So-so-ni. So-so-ni is a Shoshoni word which means high growing grasses. Wild Rice can be classified as a high growing grass.

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