Northern Ojibway Indians
Besides being known by Northern Ojibway, they are also known as Bungee or Bungi, Lake Indians and Ne-kaw-aw-uck (aka Na-kaw-aw-uck). Below are 18th century maps that can help you! In Ojibway, Bungee or Pangi means little. It was Hudson Bay Company servants or employees, who named them Bungee. Why they named these Ojibway People "Little" is possibly because they had little to trade. Pangi may be pronounced differently in other Ojibway Dialects further south. Pani or Pawnee is possibly another Ojibway pronunciation of Pangi. 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia is very helpful in our attempt to learn more about Northern Ojibway People. They were sent up towards Hudson Bay from a southern location, to combat Eskimo invaders and white invaders. They gave rise to Chipewyan, Copper, Cree and Dogrib People. Employees at York Factory kept records of daily affairs and did not know about Northern Ojibway Indians until 1741. However, Cree People (they are really Eskimos known as Beaver Indians and Keskatchewan Indians) are Ojibway as are Chipewyan, Copper and Dogrib People.
HBC employees possibly did not know about the Ojibway Totemic System which was advanced, when they first established forts along Hudson Bay and James Bay. Within Ojibway Society were 6 major totems. They were Military and Police or Nokaat or Makaat Dodim; Hunter or Gaossed Dodim; Fisher or Kinosoot Dodim; Merchant or Odawaht Dodim; Farmer or Kitigant Dodim and Education and Medicine or Midet Dodim. Within each major Ojibway Totem were smaller totems affillated with their major totem. So the Ojibway Military and Police Totem had many smaller totems within their totem or nation. Ojibway's named their totems nations! That confused whites after they learned of the Ojibway Totemic System. Each major Ojibway Totem functioned for their totems or nations existence. Farmer Totem Members tended to agriculture. Merchant Totem Members tended to trade including creating everything needed for daily needs including canoes, clothing, housing which was more advanced in the 17th and 18th century, containers to hold food supplies, ect. Hunter Totem Members tended to hunting for wild game including providing bones and hides to the Merchant Totem. The Education and Medicine Totem was small and secretive and functioned as their nations title implies. In 1741, HBC employees at York Factory made mention of Ojibway's (their Military and Police Totem) forcing their way to their fort. An escalation in war was going on. The Cree (HBC employees named them Beaver Indians and Keskatchewan Indians yet they are Eskimos) were causing trouble
James Isham reported in 1749, that he had become more acquainted with Northern Ojibway Indians. He knew they were well established at Lake Winnipeg or were coming up from that location. A noticeable change happened between 1749 and 1782. Northern Ojibway Indians shifted their territorial range farther north. This was done to prepare for an escalation in war. In 1748, King Georges War ended. On June 21, 1752, 100's of Ojibway Soldiers attacked and destroyed a Miami Ojibway (Miami People are Ojibway) town named Pickawillany. Ojibway's living there had become friendly towards whites. They allowed English traders to establish a fortified trade post at Pickawillany. Ojibway Soldiers also destroyed Englands Fort Pickawillany on June 21, 1752. Same thing was happening at York Factory. Battle of Pickawillany commenced Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War)
HBC employees at York Factory, recorded details of Northern Ojibway Indians visiting their fort in 1773 and 1774 to trade. They were really scouting that area. They knew whites and their Cree (Beaver Indians or Eskimos) allies, were preparing to invade interior Manitoba. They did that in 1774. They invaded as far as Cumberland House in Saskatchewan. This commenced a Cree (Eskimo) retreat southwest into Saskatchewan. Northern Ojibway Indians then forced their way north of Nelson River and took control of that region. However, with help from their Cree (Eskimo) allies, whites established their first inland settlement at Cumberland House, Saskatchewan in 1774. Between York Factory and Cumberland House, Ojibway People controlled that area. Cree or Northern K'eska'tchewan People were called Beaver Indians. They now live in northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. There are no Cree First Nations in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec! HBC employees wrote that in 1762, large numbers of Northern Ojibway Indians had left their rich hunting grounds far south of York Factory and harboured around York Factory. This was during Pontiac's War.
In 1771, Andrew Graham wrote that Northern Ojibway Indians now command all lakes from York Factories Rivers (they are Nelson River and Hayes River) leaving Cree People (Eskimos) very little land. In fact, they were confined to areas near York Factory and where Churchill is situated in Manitoba. In 1775, Graham wrote that Cree or Keskatchewan People, had receded or resorted southwest towards Cumberland House, Saskatchewan. They were accompanied by whites. By 1775, there were no Cree (Eskimos) People in northern Manitoba, except near Churchill and York Factory. Their migration took them further west and northwest. They retreated northwest to support Eskimos at MacKenzie Rivers Delta. An intense war was going on there. By 1800, invading Eskimos and invading whites had established several forts in the Northwest Territories and north Alberta. If you are proud and law obeying, you don't want to know how they did it! Ojibway Soldiers had defeated the Cree (Eskimos) in many battles in the MacKenzie River region, Coppermine River region and Back River region and enslaved many of them. Most were enslaved along the MacKenzie River. Ojibway's named them Slaves. Their known as Slavey. In 1824 or about when Ojibway leaders were becoming less prone to fight, Alexander Stewart who was in charge of an HBC trade post at Island Lake, Manitoba, wrote he noticed a difference among Ojibway People living in that region. At Oxford House, he called them Cree and wrote they were industrious and much more civilized than Ojibway People at Island Lake. He described Ojibway People at Island lake as being good hunters, superstitious, very ignorant and very quarellsome. They not only were hostile towards white traders, they were hostile towards each other. We know what that represents. At Island Lake, Ma-kaat Do-dim (Ojibway Nations Military and Police Totem) were more numerous than other Ojibway Totems. At Oxford House, Ojibway Nations O-da-waht Do-dim (Merchant Totem) were more numerous than other Ojibway Totems. At that time, Ojibway Soldiers subjugated whites, Eskimos and mixed bloods that invaded extreme southern Manitoba before and during the War of 1812. They were granted Red River Colony. Below is an excerpt from an 1845 book about RRC:
Northern Ojibway People
1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia provides very important information pertaining to Northern Ojibway People. According to modern historians, the Chipewyan forced their way east from a west location. However, according to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Chipewyan came up from a southeast location. We know from 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia that Ojibway People forced their way east from a west location. What that represents is obvious. The Chipewyan were with Ojibway People when they forced their way east. They were then sent north to Hudson Bay then to Beaufort Sea. Chipewyan is pronounced as Chip-a-waan. Though 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia detailed the Ojibway's gave rise to the Chipewyan, Copper, Cree and Dogrib, we must exclude Cree for obvious reasons. Since Cree People are also known as Beaver Indians, we have to include Blackfeet People as being Eskimo also! Why? Beaver Indians are Athabascan. Included as being Beaver Indians are the Sekani and T'suu Tina or Sarcee. The T'suu Tina were in an alliance with the Blackfoot Confederacy! The T'suu Tina Reserve adjacent to Calgary is located near where Fort Calgary was! And we must exclude the Copper and Dogrib also. According to historians they were fighting each other. They really meant the Ojibway's were fighting the Cree (Eskimos). We will name the northern most Ojibway's Chipewyan.
Chipewyan Territory is vast. It extends from Hudson Bay at Churchill, Manitoba, to Baker Lake in Nunavut. It originally extended to Beaufort Sea and Gulf of Boothia. It extends west to MacKenzie River Vally, northern Yukon and northeast Alaska. Ojibway People controlled all of MacKenzie Rivers Tributaries. Below is an excerpt from the same 1845 book:
Before 1780, the Chipewyan were very numerous. They possibly numbered in the 100,000's in 1780. Hearne wrote that the Chipewyan living at Wholdaia Lake in what is now far eastern Northwest Territories, lived a comfortable life and never went hungry. That was before 1780. The Chipewyan lived as far south as northern Alberta and northern Saskatchewan. Included as Chipewyan or northern most Ojibway's, are these following Chipewyan's:
Eth-e-ne (aka Etheneldeli)
Gwich'in (they live from MacKenzie River Valley to northeast Alaska and must be listed as Northern Ojibway)
Sahtu (probably a mispronunciation of Saulteaux)
Ta-sa-no (aka Tat-sa-not-ti-ne and Yellowknifes)
Thi-ya-no (aka Thi-la-not-ti-ne)
Tii-yii-cho (aka Tlicho)
In Alaska, there are other Athabascan Peoples yet i will not include them yet for a reason. It's the Dene-Yeniseian Language Family. They include Eskimos as being Athabascan. In North America, the northern most Ojibway's enslaved and absorbed many Eskimos. There's also another reason. It's Prophecy! In the 20th century, Canada forced interior Chipewyan's and Eskimos to relocate to villages along Beaufort Sea, Hudson Bay and James Bay, and to Ojibway Reserves in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. When those forced relocations took place, the interior Chipewyan's and Eskimos were living a primitive yet good way of life. They seldom went hungry as a result of incredible numbers of lakes and plenty of wild game. They were devastated by forced relocations! The Chipewyans of interior Nunavut have lost their nationality in Nunavut! And Canada set aside large areas of land in Nunavut for foreign Eskimos. We do not recognize that land set aside for Eskimos. The Eskimos are foreign! That land belongs to Ojibway People!
As a result of Ojibway children being forced to leave their home communities to go to boarding schools, the Chipewyan Peoples have lost their Ojibway Nationality! They were forced to stop speaking Ojibway, become Christians, dress as whites do, ect. They are a lost Ojibway Tribe!