Ojibway Indians of Manitoba


Below is a list of the Anishinabe Indians of Manitoba. It includes the northern Ojibwa People known as the Chipewyan and Cree. According to 19th century Ojibwa historians, the Cree spoke a dialect of the Ojibway Language. In 1852, Peter Jacobs wrote an account of his travels to northern Manitoba or Norway House. Jacobs was Ojibwa and spoke the Ojibwa Language. He wrote the following: He performed the whole of the service (preaching) well, and read his sermon well; but i am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway - Cree and Swampy (Cree) or Oji-Cree. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other than either to the noble and majestic Ojibway; and that is the language i profess to understand.



The Oji-Cree

Learning about the origins of the Oji-Cree and the Oji-Cree Language, is not at all difficult. Around 1930, a report was written about the Ojibwa's from Island Lake, Manitoba. These Ojibwa's are also known as Saulteaux. They can claim their language is Oji-Cree yet there is evidence that indicates another theory that is very disturbing. White Christian missionaries forced their converts to speak Cree at Island Lake. Written below is excerpt from 1930, about Island Lake Ojibwa's from northeastern Manitoba. Big Trout Lake is 200 miles east of Island Lake, Manitoba. Big Trout Lake along with Sachigo Lake and Wapekeka, are the northern most of the so called Oji-Cree.



Linguistically, the Island Lake natives may be characterized by calling them Saulteaux or better perhaps, Saulteaux-Ojibwa, indicating more clearly by this hyphenated term the close relationship of their language to Ojibwa proper. Locally, they are said to speak a mixed dialect of Saulteaux and Cree. This mixture is reported to be especially typical of the Maria Portage groups, while the natives at Smooth Rock are reputed to speak a purer Saulteaux. It may be pointed out in this connection that Cree is utilized in the United Church services and at the Catholic mission, too, so that in recent years practically all of the lslandlakers have learned to understand Cree and many speak it. The assimilation of Cree would consequently appear to be partly the result of christianization and partly due to contact with the Norway House Cree since the canoe route referred to has been open. The linguistic base at Island Lake may very well be Saulteaux-Ojibwa with an overlay of Cree due to modern conditions. On the other hand, it is not impossible that a much older contact with Cree-speaking peoples has affected the language much more deeply than a superficial inspection would indicate, since the Saulteaux of this region may have been marginal to Cree bands for a considerable period, because to the south and east we find only Saulteaux spoken today.



Long before Jacobs made his trip to Norway House, the Ojibwa's had battled a people (possibly the Inuit) and defeated them. Though the Eskimos had invaded North America some time in the 16th century, they were confined to the coastal areas of the Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay. In 1717, James Knight estimated that 5,000 to 6,000 Chipewyan People had been killed in battles against the Cree which is ridiculous. He wrote that since the first white trading post had been built at the mouth of Hayes River in 1684, which was York Factory, that the Cree had killed between 5,000 and 6,000 Chipewyan. The Ojibwa war against the invading Eskimos and whites, was not minor. It was deadly. By the late 17th century, the whites invaders were transporting more Eskimos to the Hudson Bay region and to Labrador and Greenland. Eskimos kept themselves close to the white trading posts for protection. In 1774, the invading whites and their Eskimo allies, got their courage up and invaded the interior of northern Manitoba. They actually forced their way as far west as Cumberland House in Saskatchewan and established a trading post at that location. Soon after, the war dramatically intensified. Ojibwa soldiers easily dominated the Eskimos and whites in that location. From Alaska, to the shores of Hudson Bay, a great many Eskimos had been defeated and subjugated by the Ojibwa military.



As was their custom then, the Ojibwa's mixed their language and culture with the people they defeated and subjugated. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Cree, Chipewyan, Copper and Dogrib are derived from the Lenni Lenape. The Lenni Lenape or Delaware, are really Ojibwa. They spoke a dialect of the Ojibwa Language. They were among the first Ojibwa's to reach the east coast, from some location along the Missouri River, between St. Louis and Montana. The Ojibwa's (the 1832 book named them Lenni Lenape) from the Great Lakes region, sent large numbers of their soldiers and their families, to the north and northwest. They named these Great Lakes Ojibwa's who were sent to the Hudson Bay region and northwest to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, the Chipewyan. Then (1832) they knew the Chipewyan were very aware of their origins. They knew they came from some southeasterly location. The Cree, Copper, Dogrib and all Athabascan Tribes are actually Chipewyan. Some time in either the 16th century or 17th century, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's from the Great Lakes region, commenced their trek to the north and northwest, to support the Ojibwa's native to those regions, fight the whites and their Eskimo allies. They early on subjugated many of the Inuit and mixed their language and culture with theirs.



Nearly all the tribes in the Northwest Territories are Chipewyan. That's according to the 1832 Edinburg Encyclopedia. Much further to the south and southeast, are the Cree who are more Ojibwa. Of course, I'm referring to their language. Among the Chipewyan, their language is far more mixed. However, the Chipewyan are in fact Ojibwa's who absorbed many non Ojibwa's among them. They (the Chipewyan and all other Athabascans) only need to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, to learn the truth. From Peter Jacobs 1852 accounts, it's reasonable to class all Cree as being Oji-Cree. Jacobs considered their language to be inferior to the Ojibwa Language. Click the following link to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia.I've also included an excerpt from Edinburgh Encyclopedia about the tradition of the Lenape in which they knew about that eastern migration 19th century Ojibway authors wrote about:



The general tradition of the Lenape is, that their family (clan, nation, totem) originally came from the westward, taking possession of the whole country from the Missouri to the sea, and destroying the original inhabitants, whom they name Alligewi. In this migration and contest, which continued for many years, they say that the Iroquois moved in a parellel line with them, but in a more northerly course and finally settled on the St. Lawrence. The Lenape, being the more numerous family, soon sent detachments northward, as far as the shores of Hudson's Bay, and gave rise to the chief northern tribes now along the arctic circle. This account gives color to the tradition of the Chipewyans, who are a numerous tribe of Lenape, that their immediate ancestors were from the eastward, contrary to the general tide of migration above detailed.



First of all, there were two groups of Ojibwa's who commenced that eastern migration. To the south, the Lenape or Delaware, forced their way northeast from a location in the region between Nebraska and Texas. Up north, the other Ojibwa's forced their way straight east from possibly the Montana region. They forced their way into what is now Quebec and New York State. Early European explorers wrote about their expedition to the St. Lawrence River in the early 16th century and wrote that the Indians who lived there were not Algonquin. When the Europeans returned some 6 to 7 decades later, they wrote that the Algonquin's were now living along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec and New York State. Those Algonquin's are in fact Iroquois or the Iroquois are Ojibwa. According to Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Lenape were more numerous than the Iroquois. However, there is something missing. Remember, Edinburgh Encyclopedia wrote that the Lenape were located south of the Iroquois. We can't exclude that information. It was from either the Iroquois or both the Iroquois and Lenape, that soldiers were sent to Hudson Bay in the 17th century, to fight the invading Eskimos and whites. Lenape soldiers forced their way as far south as Florida to fight the white invaders. Both the Iroquois and Lenape Ojibwa's followed Seven Fires Prophecy. They knew about the whites and their evil intentions. Later, in the 19th century, white historians gave other names to these two groups of Ojibwa's. Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho and Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne. In New York, the Ojibwa's there are better known as Assinica or Seneca. Assinica is an Ojibwa word meaning Stony Place. They are also known as Assiniboine or Assinibwan. To Ojibwa Traditionalists who believe the history white historians have written for them, this is not good information. Why? It means the Dakota or Sioux, are in fact Ojibwa. Where'd they get the name Dakota from? The Ojibwa word for alliance and association which is "Wi-do-ko-da-wi-win."





Southern Ojibwa Reserves of Manitoba


Berens River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,071

Bloodvein:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,052

Brokenhead:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 670

Buffalo Point:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Buffalo Point Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,442 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 33

Chemawawin:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,447

Crane River (O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Si-Pi):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 498

Dauphin River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 246

Ebb And Flow:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Ebb and Flow Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 11,522 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,699

Fairford (Pin-ay-mo-tang):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,211

Fisher River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,908

Fort Alexander:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,346

Gamblers:
This band of Ojibway, inhabit the Gamblers Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 1,040 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 72

Garden Hill:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,906

Grand Rapids (Misipawistik):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,132

Hollow Water:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,006

Indian Birch (Wuskwi Sipihk):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 175

Jackhead (Ki-non-je-oh-steg-on):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 348

Keeseekoowenin:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Keeseekoowenin Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 6,071 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 494

Lake Manitoba:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,020

Lake St. Martin:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,564

Little Black River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 905

Little Grand Rapids:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,271

Little Saskatchewan:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 672

Long Plain-Dakota Tipi (both are connected or the same Reserve):
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Long Plain Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 8,923 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 919 with 752 (Long Plain) and 167 (Dakota Tipi)

Moose Lake (Mosakahiken):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,528

Norway House:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 4,212

Opaskwayak:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,166

Pauingassi:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 585

Peguis:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,552

Pine Creek:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,116

Poplar River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,195

Red Sucker Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 930

Rolling River:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Rolling River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,576 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 563

Roseau River:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Roseau River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve located in the western section of the Ojibways former territory is approximately 7,576 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,146

St. Theresa Point:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,798

Sandy Bay:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Sandy Bay Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 16,456 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,916

Sapotaweyak:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 914

Skownan (Waterhen):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 737

Swan Lake:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Swan Lake Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,057 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 579

Valley River (Too-ti-na-o-wa-zi-beeng):
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Valley River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 11,535 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 888

Wasagamack:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,837

Waywayseecappo:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Lizard Point Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 24,856 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,509

Northern Ojibwa Reserves of Manitoba


Barren Lands:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 417

Cross Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 5,718

Fox Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 220

Gods Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,427

Gods River (Man-to Sip-pi):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 747

Lac Brochet:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 898

Mathias Colomb (Pukatawagan):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 604

Marcel Colomb:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 226

Nelson House (Ni-sich-ah-wa-yah-sihk):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,846

O-pi-pon-ah-pi-win:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,092

Oxford House (Bu-ni-bon-i-bee):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,501

Sayisi:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 304

Shamattawa:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,414

Split Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,333

War Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 139

York Factory:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 384