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Ojibway Indians of Manitoba


Below is a list of the Anishinabe Indians of Manitoba. It includes the northern Ojibwa People known as the Chipewyan and Cree. According to 19th century Ojibwa historians, the Cree spoke a dialect of the Ojibway Language. In 1852, Peter Jacobs wrote an account of his travels to northern Manitoba or Norway House. Jacobs was Ojibwa and spoke the Ojibwa Language. He wrote the following: He performed the whole of the service (preaching) well, and read his sermon well; but i am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway - Cree and Swampy (Cree) or Oji-Cree. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other than either to the noble and majectic Ojibway; and that is the language i profess to understand.



Long before Jacobs made his trip to Norway House, the Ojibwa's had battled a people (possibly the Inuit) and defeated them. Though the Eskimos had invaded North America some time in the 16th century, they were confined to the coastal areas of the Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay. In 1717, James Knight estimated that 5,000 to 6,000 Chipewyan People had been killed in battles against the Cree which is ridiculous. He wrote that since the first white trading post had been built at the mouth of Hayes River in 1684, which was York Factory, that the Cree had killed between 5,000 and 6,000 Chipewyan. The Ojibwa war against the invading Eskimos and whites, was not minor. It was deadly. By the late 17th century, the whites invaders were transporting more Eskimos to the Hudson Bay region and to Labrador and Greenland. Eskimos kept themselves close to the white trading posts for protection. In 1774, the invading whites and their Eskimo allies, got their courage up and invaded the interior of northern Manitoba. They actually forced their way as far west as Cumberland House in Saskatchewan and established a trading post at that location. Soon after, the war dramatically intensified. Ojibwa soldiers easily dominated the Eskimos and whites in that location. From Alaska, to the shores of Hudson Bay, a great many Eskimos had been defeated and subjugated by the Ojibwa military.



As was their custom then, the Ojibwa's mixed their language and culture with the people they defeated and subjugated. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Cree, Chipewyan, Copper and Dogrib are derived from the Lenni Lenape. The Lenni Lenape or Delaware, are really Ojibwa. They spoke a dialect of the Ojibwa Language. They were among the first Ojibwa's to reach the east coast, from some location along the Missouri River, between St. Louis and Montana. The Ojibwa's (the 1832 book named them Lenni Lenape) from the Great Lakes region, sent large numbers of their soldiers and their families, to the north and northwest. They named these Great Lakes Ojibwa's who were sent to the Hudson Bay region and northwest to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, the Chipewyan. Then (1832) they knew the Chipewyan were very aware of their origins. They knew they came from some southeasterly location. The Cree, Copper, Dogrib and all Athabascan Tribes are actually Chipewyan. Some time in either the 16th century or 17th century, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's from the Great Lakes region, commenced their trek to the north and northwest, to support the Ojibwa's native to those regions, fight the whites and their Eskimo allies. They early on subjugated many of the Inuit and mixed their language and culture with theirs.



Nearly all the tribes in the Northwest Territories are Chipewyan. That's according to the 1832 Edinburg Encyclopedia. Much further to the south and southeast, are the Cree who are more Ojibwa. Of course, I'm referring to their language. Among the Chipewyan, their language is far more mixed. However, the Chipewyan are in fact Ojibwa's who absorbed many non Ojibwa's among them. They (the Chipewyan and all other Athabascans) only need to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, to learn the truth. From Peter Jacobs 1852 accounts, it's reasonable to class all Cree as being Oji-Cree. Jacobs considered their language to be inferior to the Ojibwa Language. Click the following link to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia.





Southern Ojibwa Reserves of Manitoba


Berens River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,071

Bloodvein:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,052

Brokenhead:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 670

Buffalo Point:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Buffalo Point Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,442 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 33

Chemawawin:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,447

Crane River (O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Si-Pi):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 498

Dauphin River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 246

Ebb And Flow:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Ebb and Flow Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 11,522 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,699

Fairford (Pin-ay-mo-tang):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,211

Fisher River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,908

Fort Alexander:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,346

Gamblers:
This band of Ojibway, inhabit the Gamblers Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 1,040 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 72

Garden Hill:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,906

Grand Rapids (Misipawistik):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,132

Hollow Water:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,006

Indian Birch (Wuskwi Sipihk):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 175

Jackhead (Ki-non-je-oh-steg-on):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 348

Keeseekoowenin:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Keeseekoowenin Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 6,071 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 494

Lake Manitoba:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,020

Lake St. Martin:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,564

Little Black River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 905

Little Grand Rapids:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,271

Little Saskatchewan:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 672

Long Plain-Dakota Tipi (both are connected or the same Reserve):
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Long Plain Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 8,923 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 919 with 752 (Long Plain) and 167 (Dakota Tipi)

Moose Lake (Mosakahiken):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,528

Norway House:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 4,212

Opaskwayak:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,166

Pauingassi:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 585

Peguis:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,552

Pine Creek:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,116

Poplar River:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,195

Red Sucker Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 930

Rolling River:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Rolling River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,576 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 563

Roseau River:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Roseau River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve located in the western section of the Ojibways former territory is approximately 7,576 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,146

St. Theresa Point:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,798

Sandy Bay:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Sandy Bay Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 16,456 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,916

Sapotaweyak:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 914

Skownan (Waterhen):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 737

Swan Lake:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Swan Lake Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 7,057 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 579

Valley River (Too-ti-na-o-wa-zi-beeng):
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Valley River Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 11,535 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 888

Wasagamack:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,837

Waywayseecappo:
This band of Ojibways, inhabit the Lizard Point Reserve in Manitoba, Canada. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is approximately 24,856 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,509

Northern Ojibwa Reserves of Manitoba


Barren Lands:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 417

Cross Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 5,718

Fox Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 220

Gods Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,427

Gods River (Man-to Sip-pi):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 747

Lac Brochet:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 898

Mathias Colomb (Pukatawagan):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 604

Marcel Colomb:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 226

Nelson House (Ni-sich-ah-wa-yah-sihk):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,846

O-pi-pon-ah-pi-win:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,092

Oxford House (Bu-ni-bon-i-bee):
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,501

Sayisi:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
Language is Ojibway
Population is 304

Shamattawa:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,414

Split Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,333

War Lake:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 139

York Factory:
Ojibwa Treaty 9 Reservation Community
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 384



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