Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
They are supposedly of Caddoan stock but are also Anishinabe. To understand the Anishinabe Pawnee, read William Clark's (the William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition) account about the Indians in the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region. White historians claim that the Pawnee were native to the region between northern Nebraska to central Kansas. They lived near the Missouri River and to the west of the same river. They were accustomed to a sedentary lifestyle. They were partially civilized and devoted to hunting the huge herds of buffalo which roamed throughout the Great Plains. They were subjugated by the powerful Anishinabe Nation. That either occurred in the 17th or 18th century. To understand this information, read William W. Warrens 19th century book "History of the Ojibway People." Warren tells the Anishinabe people they lived along the Missouri River indispersed among the native tribes. Clark named these people who the whites refer to as being of Caddoan origin, as the Chippaway. He also said they were known by other names including O-jib-a-no and Saulteaux (pronounced as "soe-toe"), which are obviously known of by the Anishinabe people. Clark said they spoke a language he called Chippaway. Pawnee Indians and all other Caddoan Indians, are very important to the Anishinabe people. And you know why now! So the Chippaway Indians are not Chippewa's? Google "Chippaway" and you'll learn that it was used by the whites in the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to the Chippewa's of the Ohio region and elsewhere.
You can also visit the Lewis and Clark Jouranals website with information about the Chippaway people by clicking this link. After you get to the page, scroll down and you'll notice Clarks information on 72 different groups of Native Americans. Numbers 46 through 50, are about the Chippewa's who lived in the Minnesota region. Clark called them Chipaways, or Algonquin's, or O-chi-pa-wa, or Soe-toe (Saulteaux), or as he spelled the name Souteau, Souteaus, Souteu, Souters, Souteaux. Number 53 is about the Chippaway people. Clark also said they were known as Pania which is the Pawnee Tribe of course. The Chippaway or Pawnee, are really the Black River and Swan Creek Chippewa's. They subdued the native Indians of the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region. However, an earlier group of Anishinabe people from the Montana-Wyoming region invaded the Oklahoma-Texas region in the 17th century. That means that there are two different groups of Chippewa's we have to pay careful attention to.
After the United States commenced to negotiate with the Anishinabe Nation (that part of the Anishinabe Nation which lived on the Great Plains), they used illicit means to force their way out on to the Great Plains. One of those illicit means was to separate the many different Indian Nations subjugated by the powerful Anishinabe Nation, from their Anishinabe subjugators. They lied to the many Indian Nations subjugated by the Anishinabe Nation, especially about recognizing that each of the Indian Nations subjugated by the Anishinabe Nation had their own country (territory). The United States did that through the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty and other treaties. A series of wars were fought in the northern plains, between 1850-1880, in which some of the Pawnee joined with the Anishinabe soldiers to fight the whites. Most probably stayed neutral and became bitter enemies of their Anishinabe subjugators who promised to protect them and their land. When they realized the Pawnee people would not help the Indian cause, it definitely caused much friction. Through treaties, the Pawnee were forced to cede land (land Anishinabe soldiers fought to defend) and were settled on a Reservation in Nebraska in 1859. Their Nebraska Reservation covered 300 sq. mi.
Unable to control their greed for land, the extremely corrupted whites forced the Pawnee to agree to eliminate their Nebraska Reservation. Afterwards, they were relocated (forcefully and not willingly as white historians suggest) to Oklahoma where the Pawnee tribe now lives. That occurred in the 1870s. Of course, that means the relocation process was a long one and probably a hostile one. They have no Reservation in Oklahoma as a result of the extremely corrupted whites and their greed. Their Oklahoma Reservation was eradicated by the filthy 1887 Dawes Act. Before the whites invaded, the Pawnee population was probably higher than 50,000. Now it is only 5,500. An interesting note about these Caddoan people deals with the fact that the name Pawnee is of French European origins. That means this Caddoan Tribe were known by another name. The French whites held 1,000s of Indian slaves in Quebec and Louisiana, in the 19th century, and named them Paniiz. Most likely the name is derived from Pawn as in pawn shop. The whites were pawned white slaves of the Indians, in exchange for Indian slaves of the whites. These Pawnee Indians are really Anishinabek who absorbed many Caddoan people among them.