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Severn River Band of Cree and Saulteaux Indians


They are located in northwestern Ontario, living along the Severn River (in Ojibway, Sachigo River) and it's tributaries. Severn River commences at Deer Lake and flows northeast to it's mouth at Hudson Bay. All Indians who live along Severn River and it's tributaries, are Ojibway. To the northwest are the Oji-Cree. To learn more about Oji-Cree, read below. Severn River or Sachigo River, was an important waterway to Ojibwa People who used the waterway for trade. At Deer Lake, wild rice lakes were not far off. Wild Rice was harvested and transported down Severn River to Ojibway camps and villages who bartered for the delicious food. It was also transported to Hudson Bay and distributed throughout the Hudson Bay region. This was being done after Ojibway settlers forced their way to the region from the west. In either the 16th century or 17th century, the whites brought Eskimos to North America to fight Ojibwa's for control of that Northwest Passage which white leaders put first. Along Severn River are many tributaries including Fawn River, Sachigo River and Windigo River. In 1689, England built Fort Severn and stationed their soldiers and Eskimo Soldiers, at the fortification. Eskimo Soldiers often launched military campaigns against the Ojibwa's from Fort Severn. England knew Severn River was considered important by Ojibway leaders. They, thus, built the fort in 1689. Sachigo Lake was probably one of the more important locations along Severn River and it's tributaries for good reasons. To the west of Sachigo Lake by some 4 miles, is Ponask Lake which is connected to Saskatchewan River (aka Hayes River). Ojibway traders used the area to trade with the Saulteaux Ojibwa's and Oji-Cree in what is now northeastern Manitoba. A long narrow yet small mountain ridge, was that only obstacle preventing lake and river navigation throughout that entire region.



They don't know their history. According to Edinburgh Encyclopedia (it's from 1832), Great Lakes Ojibwa's sent large numbers of their soldiers up north where Hudson Bay is located. They did so to fight invading Eskimos and their white allies. They eventually reached Beaufort Sea and there they are known as Chipewyan including Copper, Dogrib and Athabascans in general. South of Chipewyan territory, are woodland Crees who are also Ojibwa according to Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Crees lived north of Nelson River and Saskatchewan River, or those rivers were some kind of boundary. Both Chipewyans and Crees absorbed many Eskimos within their communities. As was Ojibwa customs, they mixed their culture and language with that of their Eskimo subjects. That is why that language discrepancy (the Oji-Cre Language) exists. Edinburgh Encyclopedia also details Ojibwa eastern migrations. Ojibwa soldiers took control of land from Missouri River then to North America's Atlantic Coast. They claim their language is Oji-Cree yet there is evidence that indicates another theory that is very disturbing. White Christian missionaries forced their converts to speak Cree at Island Lake. Cree is actually that Oji-Cree Language. According to Peter Jacobs, the Indians at Norway House were quite different. In 1852, Peter Jacobs wrote an account of his travels to northern Manitoba or Norway House. Jacobs was Ojibway and spoke the Ojibway Language. He wrote the following: He performed the whole of the service (preaching) well, and read his sermon well; but i am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway - Cree and Swampy (Cree) or Oji-Cree. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other than either to the noble and majestic Ojibway; and that is the language i profess to understand. Written below is excerpt from 1930, about Island Lake Ojibwa's from northeastern Manitoba. Sachigo Lake (one of Severn Rivers tributaries) is 80 miles east of Island Lake. Big Trout Lake is 57 miles east of Sachigo Lake.



Linguistically, the Island Lake natives may be characterized by calling them Saulteaux or better perhaps, Saulteaux-Ojibwa, indicating more clearly by this hyphenated term the close relationship of their language to Ojibwa proper. Locally, they are said to speak a mixed dialect of Saulteaux and Cree. This mixture is reported to be especially typical of the Maria Portage groups, while the natives at Smooth Rock are reputed to speak a purer Saulteaux. It may be pointed out in this connection that Cree is utilized in the United Church services and at the Catholic mission, too, so that in recent years practically all of the lslandlakers have learned to understand Cree and many speak it. The assimilation of Cree would consequently appear to be partly the result of christianization and partly due to contact with the Norway House Cree since the canoe route referred to has been open. The linguistic base at Island Lake may very well be Saulteaux-Ojibwa with an overlay of Cree due to modern conditions. On the other hand, it is not impossible that a much older contact with Cree-speaking peoples has affected the language much more deeply than a superficial inspection would indicate, since the Saulteaux of this region may have been marginal to Cree bands for a considerable period, because to the south and east we find only Saulteaux spoken today.



Severn River (Sachigo Sippi) Band of Saulteaux Ojibway's


Bearskin Lake

Big Trout Lake

Deer Lake - These people may be troublemakers. Send detectives to their settlements. They broke away from Island Lake Ojibway's in 1909. There are actually two groups within their settlements. They are Cranes and Suckers. It is that Sucker Clan that you must be weary of.

Fort Severn - Ojibways from the area where Sachigo River branches from Severn River, were forced to relocate to Fort Severn in 1973.

Keewaywin

Koocheching

MacDowell Lake

Muskrat Dam

North Caribou Lake

North Spirit Lake

Sachigo Lake

Sandy Lake

Climate conditions along Sachigo River are from Sandy Lake


Climate conditions at Sandy Lake are very cold winters and summers that are nothing to brag about. Summer highs average above 70 during July. Summers at Sandy Lake are more spring like. Climate averages of Sandy Lake are below. They are almost identical to climate conditions at Island Lake, Manitoba and Big Trout Lake. Winters are frigid and long there. Taking into consideration their 53° north latitude, you'd think their climate would not be so cold. They barely have summers there.



Highs

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
C -17.2 -12.3 -4.1 5.6 13.9 19.2 22.7 20.8 13.4 6.2 -4.5 -14.4
F 1.0 9.9 24.6 42.1 57.0 66.6 72.9 69.4 56.1 43.2 23.9 6.1 39.0


Lows

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
C -28.1 -25.0 -18.4 -7.2 1.1 7.5 11.6 10.4 4.8 -0.8 -11.4 -23.7
F -18.6 -13.0 -1.1 19.0 34.0 45.5 52.9 50.7 40.6 30.6 11.5 -10.7


Precipitation

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
mm 25.0 19.0 28.0 31.0 47.0 77.0 87.0 82.0 71.0 53.0 41.0 30.0 591.0
in


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