Anishinabe
History


Rocky Boy Tribe
of
Chippewa Indians of
Montana








Shoshone Indians


About 1,000 years ago to 2,000 years ago, an Anishinabe or Ojibway prophet, became widely known among Ojibway People who lived east of them Great Lakes. This prophet would lead to Ojibway People forcing their way west as told to do by prophecy. Told to search for a turtle shaped island and also for food that grows on water, Ojibway Soldiers were instructed by their commanders, who knew from that prophets predictions which foretold of future events which were taken seriously by Ojibway leaders, to find a turtle shaped island, which before finding this turtle shaped island, there would be six stopping places. Including that turtle shaped island, it was seven stopping places. They reached what is now Montana and settle down to live. Shoshone People including Comanche and Timbisha, are native to Montana and from Montana they migrated further southwest to Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, California and Mexico. They are Ojibway. We know they are Ojibway because of 19th century Ojibway Historians who wrote that Ojibway was spoken extensively among Shoshone People. More about that is below.



They subjugated native tribes in that region and mixed their language with those tribes they subjugated. Today, they classify their language family as Uto-Aztecan. However, in 19th century they classified their language family as "Shoshonean Language Family." That be a north division of Uto-Aztecan. Today, it's known as Numic. We will include a Shoshone description then a Shoshonean which is quite different from Shoshone because we know Shoshone People spoke Ojibway. Shoshonean People are an admixture of Ojibway and non Ojibway, as is their language.



Montana is Shoshone native land. They lived in southwest and north central Montana. Their north limit in Montana is Great Falls or where Great Falls of Missouri River is located. A total of five waterfalls make up Great Falls of Missouri River. Giant Springs is located between Rainbow Falls and Black Eagle Falls. About 1.8 miles or 2.9 kilometers west of Black Eagle Falls, is a turtle shaped island known today as Sacajawea Island. Adjacent to Sacajawea Island was an ancient Ojibway village known today as Vivendi. Even as late as 1910, southwest Montana had a large Ojibway population. However, they were forcefully Deported out of this region. Today, there are no Shoshone Reservations (except Northern Cheyenne Reservation) in Montana yet Lemhi Reservation was adjacent to Montana. On September 24, 1868 Shoshone leaders signed treaty with United States. However, American leaders refused to accept treaty. It led to an escalation in war in Montana. American leaders did acknowledge when they signed that September 24, 1868 Virginia City Treaty, that Shoshone Peoples territory extended from Yellowstone River, to them Bitterroot Mountains in Montana. Much of southwest Montana is Shoshone land. Chief Rocky Boy was yet living in southwest Montana between 1900 and 1909. He favored a region south of Anaconda and Butte. Chief Buffalo Coat lived near Virginia City. Chief Crazy Boy who was chief Rocky Boy's brother, lived in an Ojibway village about 12 miles north of Anaconda. Shoshone leaders never ceded their land in southwest and north central Montana and a small area in Yellowstone National Park. Thus, why chief Rocky Boy continued to live in that region. They had to forcefully Deport them. They never ceded their Reservation in Montana which is also known as Blackfeet and Piegan. It extends from Great Falls to Yellowstone National Park.



Idaho was another important location to Shoshone people. They lived throughout southern Idaho. Fort Hall Reservation is their primary Reservation in Idaho. Duck Valley is another of their Idaho Reservations. Lemhi Reservation is their most important. However, it's actually a part of their Blackfeet or Piegan Reservation of Montana and Wyoming.



Wyoming is another location Shoshone People live. Wind River Reservation is their largest Reservation. It originally covered an area of around 3 million acres of land. Many Montana Shoshone People were Deported to Wind River Reservation in 1897 and 1904. Chief Rocky Boy was their leader.



Utah was possibly their second most important location. Montana was their most important location. According to Ojibway Historians, Ojibway People lived along a "Great Salt Lake" on it's east. We know an eastern Ojibway migration happened around 1500. They came up from a southwest location according to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. They reached Missouri Rivers mouth at Mississippi River then forced their way to what is now Chicago. Next they settled Manitoulin Island under O-gi-ma Sa-gi-ma's leadership. From there, O-gi-ma Sa-gi-ma led them to colonize Ottawa River Valley then St. Lawrence River Valley. It was not a westward migration in 1500. It was and eastern migration. Ojibway Soldiers took control of land from Missouri River to Atlantic Ocean. They did so to fight white invaders. In Utah, Ojibway People have three Reservations. They are: Goshute Reservation; Northwestern Shoshone Reservation; and Skull Valley Reservation. They also live at Uintah-Ouray Reservation. .



Nevada has more Shoshone Reservations than any other State. They include these following Reservations:Battle Mountain; Duck Valley; Duckwater; Elko Colony; Ely Shoshone; Fallon Paiute-Shoshone; Fort McDermitt; Goshute; Reno-Sparks Colony; South Fork Colony; and Wells Colony.



Oregon has only one Shoshone Reservation. That is Fort McDermitt Reservation. Many Shoshone People who lived in Oregon, were forced to relocate to Yakima Reservation in Washington State.



California has four Shoshone Reservations. Ojibway expansion to California was successful. However, it was only in east California where Ojibway People lived among themselves. Their Reservations in California include these following: Big Pine; Bishop Community; Death Valley; and Lone Pine.



Shoshonean People are considered a north division of Uto-Aztecan. They are an admixture of Ojibway and non Ojibway Tribes. They include these following Tribes: Chemehuevi-Ute of Arizona, California and Nevada; Cahuilla, Gabrielino, Luiseno, and Serrano of southern California; Hopi of Arizona; and Mono-Paviotso of California and Oregon.



Pima People are obviously Ojibway. We know Ojibway People have Reservations in northern Mexico. They are Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico and Tamichopa in Sonora, Mexico. Their Tamichopa Reservation in Sonora, Mexico is 73 miles south of Arizona's border with New Mexico. These Ojibway People live as far south as Durango, Mexico and Jalisco, Mexico. They had a Reservation in Durango at one time. It may have been located near Mapimi, Durango which is 34.2 miles or 55.03 kilometers northwest of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. In Arizona, Pima People are better known as Papago. Pima Languages have four dialects. They are: O'odham or Papago in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico; O'ochkam in Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico; O'otham in Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico; and Tepecano in Jalisco, Mexico. Tepecano is supposedly no longer spoken. It was spoken at Azqueltan, Jalisco, Mexico at one time.



According to Anishinabe author Andrew Blackbird, Ojibway Language was extensively spoken among Shoshone People. Blackbirds information about Ojibway Language extensively spoken among Shoshone People is on page 89 in chapter 11 of his book "History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan." Click here to read Blackbirds book. It's a googlebooks page. Place your mouses arrow over EBOOK-FREE button. Where you see download, click pdf. You can get his 1887 book for free. It is very important.





Wind River Reservation of Wyoming

It covers 3,473 sq. mi.
Population is 23,237 (most are non Indian).

Northern Cheyenne Reservation of Montana

It covers 707 sq. mi.
Population is 4,789.

Kiowa-Comanche-Apache of Oklahoma

It covers 3,889 sq. mi. Reservation Stolen.
Population is 14,700.

Death Valley Timbisha Shoshone of California

It covers over 12.0 sq. mi. or over 7,700 acres.
Population is over 300 but only around 50 live at Indian Village and 24 at Furnace Creek.

Duck Valley Reservation of Idaho-Nevada

It covers 450 sq. mi.
Population is 1,265.

Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho

It covers 814 sq. mi.
Population is 5,762 (most may be non Indian).

Fort Washakie Reservation of Utah

It covers ? sq. mi.
Population is ?.

Goshute Reservation of Nevada-Utah

It covers 177 sq. mi.
Population is 105.

Elko Reservation of Nevada

It covers ?.
Population is ?.

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