Algonquian Tribes | Communities | First Nations | Ojibway Indians History | Reservations | Tribes
Representative Samuel Poe of Flathead Mountain Reservation
Attn: Office of Representative Samuel Poe
2010 River Drive North #1
Great Falls, MT 59401
The BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS on behalf of the Government of the United States, is writing to express its intention to resume recognition of the Flathead Mountain Reservation which was originally created with the October 17, 1855 Treaty. After the 1868 Treaty signings were signed to end the war going on at that time, per treaty agreements, leaders from the Chippewa's, Bannack, Blackfeet, Crow, Flathead Tribes including the Kalispel and Spokane, Gros Ventre, Kootenai, Nez Perce and Shoshone, agreed to cede that portion of their Reservation which has the land cession numbers 398 and 565. Per treaty agreements, they were left that portion of their Reservation with has the land area numbers 399 and 574. American leaders refused to honor the 1868 Treaty. However, to promote brotherhood and sisterhood among the worlds races, the Government of the United States has resumed recognition of the Flathead Mountain Reservation which was created for the Chippewa's, Bannack, Blackfeet, Crow, Flathead Tribes including the Kalispel and Spokane, Gros Ventre, Kootenai, Nez Perce and Shoshone, with the 1868 Treaty signings.
and submitted to Flathead Mountain Reservation Representative Samuel Poe.
Loucheaux Subgroup (aka Barren Ground Chipewyan)
Gwich'in (aka Kutchin and the Loucheaux)
Mentasta dialect of Ahtna
The Northern Saulteaux
They are directly descended from the Chipewyan Hare Indians. They came up from the southeast at some distant date in the past. According to the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, a group of Lenni Lenape was sent to the southern shores of Hudson Bay then to the region of the Barren Grounds which includes northern Alaska. They are known as the Chipewyan. They met a people who claimed to have migrated to the McKenzie River Delta region, from a westward location which had no winters and had an animal with human facial features. In the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, they reported the people to also be Lenni Lenape. However, the Eskimo and Gwich'in or Loucheaux, spoke almost identical languages which means that information was corrupted. We must exclude the Gwich'in or Loucheaux who were not subjugated by the Chippewa's. They do not speak Dene or Algonquin. It is clearly written in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene or Athabascans, speak Algonquin. Those Loucheaux who were subjugated by the Chippewa's were absorbed by them.
Gwich'in people are known historically to have been closely related to the Eskimo. They are also known as the Loucheaux. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Gwich'in spoke a language almost identical to the Eskimos. It means they are foreign. Unlike the Eskimos, many of the Gwich'in were subjugated by the Chippewa military. Those who escaped Chippewa subjugation stayed very close to other Eskimo people between what is now Inuvik, Northwest Territories and Kugluktuk, Nunavut or the Beaufort Sea. Every summer white ships sailed to the region between Inuvik and Kugluktuk and supplied the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food. This intensified after an overland route between Kugluktuk and what is now Baker Lake, Nunavut was discovered in the 1760s or 1770s. White leaders learned from the Chippewa's or Chipewyan, that a river from Baker Lake led all the way to what is now Bathurst Inlet, Nunavut. They established some sort of supply line in the Bathurst Inlet region where the Eskimos and Loucheaux were supplied with cannons, guns, and food every summer. This probably happened during the 1770s.
With an ever increasing amount of cannons and guns, the Eskimos and Gwich'in fought their way from Bathurst Inlet to Baker Lake then to the area where Chesterfield Inlet is now. Chesterfield Inlet is located along the northwestern shores of Hudson Bay. Later on, Hudson Bay Company established a post or fort at Chesterfield Inlet. Though Chesterfield Inlet was an important location, Churchill was far more important. White leaders knew they could not only supply the Eskimos and Gwich'in with cannons, guns, and food by using the Bering Sea to sail to the region between Inuvik and Bathurst Inlet, they also knew they could bring in 1,000s of Eskimos and Gwich'in to the Churchill region using the overland route between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet.
Chippewa military leaders were aware of what was transpiring and intensified their military campaigns between Bathurst Inlet and Chesterfield Inlet. However, the Eskimos and Gwich'in successfully established themselves in the Chesterfield Inlet region. From there, they were shipped down to Churchill then to York Factory. They used both locations to invade northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan. Using Churchill River, they sailed to Reindeer Lake then south to where Hudson Bay Company established a fort at Cumberland house, Saskatchewan in 1774. From York Factory, they sailed the Nelson River to the interior of Manitoba. Most likely they used the Churchill River more often at first but after the 1780-1782 cowardly acts of the whites, the Indian population had been dramatically reduced. Nelson River became their prime route to the Saskatchewan region after 1782. In 1800, Hudson Bay Company became aware of a Chippewa fort located in southwestern Saskatchewan.
Peter Fidler, who worked for Hudson Bay Company, established a post or fort at Chesterfield House, Saskatchewan that same year (1800). Estuary, Saskatchewan was later built near Chesterfield House. Chesterfield House was 132 miles north of Montana. After the fort was built, they sent in 100s of Eskimo and Gwich'in soldiers to fight the Chippewa's of the Alberta, Montana, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region. The war has been fabricated by white historians to have been a war between the Algonquin Blackfoot Confederacy and the Algonquin Cree which is incorrect. No Algonquin's who knew about the Seven Fires Prophecy, would fight each other. They knew better. In 1803, Hudson Bay Company built Chiswick House in the Northwest Territories which was located near Fort Resolution.
Using the Reindeer Lake region, they sent 100s of Eskimo and Loucheaux soldiers to the area south of Great Slave Lake and north of Lake Athabasca, from the Reindeer Lake region. A war which had been ongoing for more than 50 years was now intensifying. It was a war about the Northwest Passage. White goals were to halt contact between the North American Chippewa's and Siberian Chippewa's and destroy the Chippewa capitol at the Great Falls of the Missouri in Montana. Years before Lewis and Clark visited Montana in 1805, other whites had already been to Montana. That includes the Great Falls of the Missouri River.
An example of how the Eskimo and Loucheaux population increased between 1800 and 1856, between Inuvik and Estuary, was recorded by Hudson Bay Company. Their (Hudson Bay Company) McKenzie River District (located in what is now the Northwest Territories) had an estimated population of 10,430 in 1856. Their (Hudson Bay Company) Saskatchewan District had an estimated population of 28,050 in 1856. Hudson Bay Company's Saskatchewan District covered southern Alberta and the western part of southern Saskatchewan or the plains. It was reported that the population of Saskatchewan District was decreasing which means the whites and their Asian allies were losing the war by 1856. They also reported that the population of the Indians who lived in the forests was increasing.
Chippewa leaders knew the whites were exchanging bottles of the hard drink which contained poison and always did instruct their people to stay away from the white forts and trading posts. They only visited the trading posts once or twice a year. However, they could not prevent all of their subjects from doing business at the trade posts. Eskimo and Loucheaux people almost always tended to set up their camps very close to the white forts and trading posts. Thus, the whites could actually give almost accurate population estmates of the Asians. The Chippewa population was much higher. Though their population was decimated in the late 18th century, the Chippewa population had increased dramatically in the Alberta, Montana, Northwest Territories, North Dakota, and Saskatchewan region by 1856 as a result of a migration of the Great Lakes Chippewa's to the west. That is why they eventually brought the Eskimos and the Loucheaux out of the conflict. They eventually absorbed them after the whites knifed them in the back. By the 1860s, the whites no longer needed the military support of the Eskimos and the Loucheaux.
So the Loucheaux, who are the northern most Saulteaux, are really an admixture of Algonquin and Eskimo, especially in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Our focus is on non Eskimos who speak Dene or Athabascan. We know from the Edinburgh Encyclopedia that the Dene people or Athabascans's, are Algonquin. Later in the 19th century, white historians made a blunder by classifying the Dene or Athabascan's as being of a distinct language family. However, the Dene or Athabascan people are Algonquin. And don't even speculate that the Lenni Lenape came from Asia. It's the other way around. There is a reason why they have now commenced a new language family known as the Dene-Yeniseian Language Family. The Yeniseian people live in Siberia.
They are classified as being Northwestern Canada Athabascan Language which includes Chipewyan. They live in northeastern British Columbia, northwestern Alberta, and southwestern Northwest Territories. Though they live some distance from the northern most Saulteaux, they must be included as being a part of the Chipewyan who are the northern most Saulteaux. They are not one of the two tribes who claimed to have lived to the west where no winters existed and an animal with human facial features lived. Those two tribes are the Eskimo and Gwich'in.
Child Lake - Alberta
Boyer - Alberta
Clear Hills - Alberta
Horse Lake - Alberta
Prophet River - British Columbia
Beaton River - British Columbia
Doig River - British Columbia
Blueberry River - British Columbia
West Moberly Lake - British Columbia
The Carrier including Babine, Chilcotin, Dakelh, Nicola, Tsetsaut (not certain), and Wet'suwet'en
Today, the Carrier Indians live in British Columbia but before the whites invaded they probably lived in central and southern Alberta and central and southern Saskatchewan. They are not Chipewyan but are among the oldest of the western Algonquin's. They are possibly related to the Lenni Lenape who lived in the Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming region before migrating east to fight the white invaders. The Babine Tribe is included as Carrier.
Burns Lake - British Columbia
Cheslatta - British Columbia
Hagwilget - British Columbia
Lake Babine - British Columbia
Kluskus - British Columbia
Lheidli T'enneh - British Columbia
Moricetown - British Columbia
Nadleh Whut'en - British Columbia
Nak'azdli - British Columbia
Nazko - British Columbia
Nee Tahi Buhn - British Columbia
Red Bluff - British Columbia
Saik'uz - British Columbia
Skin Tyee - British Columbia
Stellat'en - British Columbia
Takla - British Columbia
Tl'azt'en - British Columbia
Ulkatcho - British Columbia
Yekooche - British Columbia
Wet'suwet'en - British Columbia
The Chippewan (Chipewyan)
Originally, the Chippewan lived in central and northern Manitoba and parts of what are now the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, north of the Manitoba border. However, according to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, they lived southeast of the Great Lakes and are Lenni Lenape. They are really Anishinabe. They migrated to the location just south of Hudson Bay then to the Northwest Territories including Nunavut, then into northern Alaska. Most of their district is now termed the Barren Grounds. The Chipewyan Akaitcho Territory covers 185,329 sq. mi. or 480,000 sq. km. Included as being Chipewyan are the Beaver, Copper Indians (the Yellowknifes), Dogrib (Tlicho), and Sahtu or Slavey who are also known as the Hare Indians (they are the northern most Saulteaux). The Hare Indians include the Deg Hit'an, Gwich'in Dene, Han, Holikachuk, Kaska, Koyukon, Kuskokwim, Sekani, Tagish, Tahltan, Tanana, and Tuchone. Chipewyan communities are as follows.
Cold Lake - Alberta
Fort Chipewyan - Alberta
Fort McKay - Alberta
Fort McMurray - Alberta
Janvier - Alberta
Barrens Land - Manitoba
Churchill - Manitoba
Sayisi Dene - Manitoba
Northlands - Manitoba
Fort Resolution/Deninu Kue - Northwest Territories
Smith's Landing - Northwest Territories
Lutsel K'e - Northwest Territories
Buffalo River - Saskatchewan
Black Lake - Saskatchewan
Clearwater River - Saskatchewan
English River - Saskatchewan
Fond Du Lac River - Saskatchewan
Lac La Hache - Saskatchewan
Patunanak - Saskatchewan
Stony Rapids - Saskatchewan
Turnor Lake - Saskatchewan
They are Chipewyan. They are not one of the two tribes who claimed to have migrated from the west where no winters existed and an animal with human facial features lived. Those two tribes are the Eskimo and Gwich'in. The Dogrib people (Tlicho people) have a territory of 15,100 sq. mi. or 39,000 sq. km. Their nation is located between Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake.
The Slavey or Sahtu (Hare Indians)
They are the northern most Saulteaux. Their territory is the northern most territory of the northern most Saulteaux. It is located east and north of Great Bear Lake and includes northern Yukon and northern Alaska. The Gwich'in or Loucheaux Dene, are really Hare Indians who absorbed many of the invading Eskimo and Gwich'in. The northern most Saulteaux have a territory in the Northwest Territories which covers 15,999 sq. mi. or 41,437 sq. km. However, the Gwich'in Dene are also a part of the northern most Saulteaux and their territory must be included as a part of the Sahtu Territory. When including the Gwich'in Territory it covers 37,982 sq. mi. or 98,372 sq. km. When including the other Chipewyan Districts, the total size of the Sahtu (northern most Saulteaux) Nation is 321,411 sq. mi. or 832,411 sq. km. Do not recognize any land agreement which reduces the territory of the Gwich'in Dene, between the Gwich'in Dene and Canada and the United States. It is illegal.
The Tsuu T'ina
They are Blackfoot or a part of the Blackfoot Confederacy. They lived in southern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. They possibly lived in Montana also. They were constantly at war against the invading Eskimos during the 18th and much of the 19th centuries. They were forced to lease much of their land to Canada for military reasons, between 1910 and 1996. Many Chippewa's from Montana were probably forced to live at the Tsuu T'ina Reserve in 1910. A hint, the Tsuu T'ina land that was leased was leased to the Montana Chippewa's. In 1910, 100s of Chippewa's fled from the Blackfeet Reservation of Montana. The Tsuu T'ina and the other Blackfoots, absorbed many of the Eskimos and Loucheaux, after the whites knifed them in the back. Thus, the reason for white historians claiming the Tsuu T'ina originally lived to the north and were from the Beaver Indian Tribe.
Size of their nation is 109 sq. mi. or 283 sq. km.
Their population is 1,982
Gwich'in and Han
There are two different Gwich'in and Han people. One are made up of Algonquin's and Eskimos, while the other is Eskimo. Those who are Eskimo are one of the two tribes who claimed they lived to the west where no winters existed and an animal with human facial features lived. The Gwich'in and Han live in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and the Yukon in Canada. In the 1992 Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement, the Gwich'in were left with 21,983 sq. mi. or 56,935 sq. km. in the Northwest Territories. Part of that land is located in the Yukon. White historians made a mistake by first classifying the Gwich'in or Loucheaux, as being Eskimo then later classified them as Athabascan or Dene. Since their territory is adjacent to that of the northern most Saulteaux, it means they are the northern most Saulteaux. There are currently 9,000 Gwich'in. In Alaska, the Gwich'in live in the towns of Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, and Venetie. You would think the weather is cold year round at those villages but they have warm summers. For an example, at Chalkyitsik which is north of Fairbanks (Chalkyitsik is at 66 degrees north latitude while Fairbanks is at 64 degrees north latitude), it is warmer in the summer. The average summer highs in Chalkyitsik are for June, July and August a balmy 71.5, 73.1 and 68.5. Most people think Alaska does not get too hot in the summer but they are obviously wrong.
Ahtna and Tanaina
Native to the State of Alaska, the Ahtna and Tanaina people probably lived further towards the east. Some Ahtna are more closely related to the Gwich'in Dene. At the present time the Ahtna Indians of Alaska have 1,770,000 acres or 2,766 sq. mi. or 7,154 sq. km. of land. Their population is around 1,200.
Koyukon including the Deg Hit'an and Holikachuk
They are a part of the northern most Saulteaux. Gwich'in and Han are classified as being Central Alaska-Yukon Athabascan Language. These Athabascan people live in the interior of Alaska and are probably members of the Alaska Native Corporation. All may be affiliated with the Doyon region of the Alaska Native Corporation. The tribes which make up Doyon, have a total land area of 12.5 million acres or 18,750 sq. mi. or 48,562 sq. km.
Tahltan including the Kaska and Tagish
They are classified as being Northwestern Canada Athabascan Language which includes Chipewyan. They are an extension of the northern most Saulteaux. These Athabascan people live in British Columbia and the Yukon in Canada. Their population is around 5,000.
Tanana including the Kuskokwim and Tuchone
They are a part of the northern most Saulteaux. Their language is classified as being Central Alaska-Yukon Athabascan. These Athabascan people live in the interior of Alaska and are probably members of the Alaska Native Corporation. All may be affiliated with the Doyon region of the Alaska Native Corporation. The tribes which make up Doyon, have total land area of 12.5 million acres or 18,750 sq. mi. or 48,562 sq. km.