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Tawakoni Indians

These people have a very intriguing history. According to William Clark (the William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition) they lived at the head (start) of the Red River of the Mississippi. That be near the Texas Panhandle just east of Amarillo, Texas, and on the Oklahoma-Texas border. Below is a map of their Reservation in Oklahoma. Find Caddo, Wichita and Delaware. Clark named these people who the whites refer to as being of Caddoan origin, as the Chippaway. He also said they were known by other names including O-jib-a-no and Saulteaux (pronounced as "soe-toe"), which are obviously known of by the Anishinabe people. Clark said they spoke a language he called Chippaway. Wichita Indians and all other Caddoan Indians, are very important to the Anishinabe people. And you know why now! So the Chippaway Indians are not Chippewa's? Google "Chippaway" and you'll learn that it was used by the whites in the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to the Chippewa's of the Ohio region and elsewhere. Below is an excerpt from Clark's information about the Wichita Tribe who are obviously Ojibwa. Letters represent certain facts. The letter "d" represents their language. Letter "b" represents the name of their nation. Letter "c" represents names the French gave them. Letter "e" represents the number of their villages which is incorrect. They had far more than 2 villages. Letter "g" represents the number of their soldiers which is incorrect. Letter "h" is also incorrect. They were very numerous during those times. Letter "o" represents locations where they desired to trade. Letter "p" represents the names of their foes. As you can tell, the enemies of the Ojibwa's in that location included the Panias, which indicates the Ojibwa military ruled them. Caddoan People are an admixture of Ojibwa and Caddoan. Letter "r" represents locations where their villages were and where they hunted or roved. The main river was Red River which is the Oklahoma-Texas boundary. They lived to the west where the Texas Panhandle is. You'll notice they were also named Pania. Later, it would be better known as Pawnee. They are the Panias who lived along the river Platte, as written below.

53. a. (Chippaway tribe) Pania
b. (O jib a no)
c. (Sou teaux) Pania
d. (Chippaway) Pania
e. 2
f. [blank]
g. 500
h. 2000
i. through n. [blank]
o. 3 Forks of Arkansaw
p. Little & Big Ossage
Kanses & Panias
q. [blank]
r. on the head of Red
River of Mississippi

These people have no intercourse with the inhabitants of the Illinois; the information, therefore, which I have been enabled to obtain, with respect to them, is very imperfect. They were formerly known by the name of the White Panias, and are of the same family with the Panias of the river Platte. They are said to be a well disposed people, and inhabit a very fertile country; certain it is that they enjoy a delightful climate.

You can also visit the Lewis and Clark Jouranals website with information about the Chippaway people by clicking this link. After you get to the page, scroll down and you'll notice Clarks information on 72 different groups of Native Americans. Numbers 46 through 50, are about the Chippewa's who lived in the Minnesota region. Clark called them Chipaways, or Algonquin's, or O-chi-pa-wa, or Soe-toe (Saulteaux), or as he spelled the name Souteau, Souteaus, Souteu, Souters, Souteaux. Number 53 is about the Chippaway people. Clark also said they were known as Pania which is the Pawnee Tribe of course. The Chippaway or Wichita, are really the Black River and Swan Creek Chippewa's. They subdued the native Indians of the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region. However, an earlier group of Anishinabe people from the Montana-Wyoming region invaded the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region in the 17th century. That means that there are two different groups of Chippewa's we have to pay careful attention to. Either that, or the Ojibwa's have lived in that location for an extremely long time.

According to white historians, the whites first made contact with the Wichita Tribe around 1540-1541 while Coronado was commencing his expedition up to the Texas-Oklahoma region. They estimate that the Wichita and other Caddoan Tribes of that region, had a population which surpassed 200,000. However, that could actually be the population estimate for the Chippewa's who forced their way into that region in the early 19th century. Before the Anishinabe invasion, the Wichita and other Caddoan Tribes had dealt with the whites in either a peaceful or hostile manner. Their population was decimated by the plagues the whites brought to them. Once the Black River and Swan Creek Chippewa's (from the Michigan region) had reached the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region, they merged with the native Ojibwa's of that location. They easily subdued the Caddoan peoples who lived in the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana region. In fact, they subdued the Caddoan Tribes who lived in the Arkansas-Louisiana region soon after they subdued the Caddoan People between Nebraska and Texas.

The Wichita Tribe is really made up of four tribes: Taovaya; Tawakoni; Waco; and Wichita. We will use Wichita to name all four groups. Their territory extended from the San Antonio, Texas region to south central Kansas. Most of their land was located in Oklahoma. It extended west to the Texas Panhandle and southeast to northwest Louisiana. Much of western Arkansas was a part of their country also. What is now the Dallas-Fort Worth region and Waco, was also within their country. They were civilized and also very dependant on the buffalo for food. Their villages were numerous with most being rather small yet many were large. They were known to build domed shaped houses or what the Ojibwa's named them, round houses. They were probably similar to the Navajo houses known as hogans. However, the Wichita houses were larger and covered with grass, to keep them cool during the hot summers and warm during the cool to mild winters. Climate conditions throughout their country varied. To the north, especially in south central Kansas, winters were cold. Snow falls there on occassions during winters, as it does in northern Oklahoma. To the south, the winters are warmer, especially near San Antonio which has warm winters. It can get cold in the San Antonio region or they do have winters there yet they are very brief. Their clothing was made of hides from buffalo, deer and other animals. Life was very hard for them. An interesting fact about the Wichita is what the French named them. Instead of one name, the French gave them two names. One was Panis Piques or Pawnee Picts, while the other was Pawnee Noirs or Black Pawnees. Similar to the Seminole and black Seminoles. Black historians will want to investigate the Wichita People.

According to the Spanish, the Wichita were originally native to southern Kansas and Oklahoma. It was reported that the Wichita commenced to migrate south of Red River during the 1750s. They reached the Waco region then near San Antonio. They were obviously forcing their way down to Mexico. Texas is probably a Caddo word or an Ojibwa word. After the Spanish whites made first contact with them, they commenced to trade with them. They also started to trade with the French whites after they established permanent settlements in the Louisiana region. However, the Ojibwa military was harsh with them. They followed prophecy. Then another Anishinabe invasion to the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region happened in the late 1830s. In 1838, the Black River and Swan Creek Chippewa's were allowed to settle in the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region, by the Ojibwa's native to that region. Anyway, the Wichita Indians were subdued by Anishinabe soldiers. They had no choice but to allow the Chippewa's to settle throughout their land but the Chippewa's did not force the Wichita people to relocate. What they did, was force the Wichita to pay a tribute and let it be known by them, that the military of the powerful Anishinabe Nation, would protect them and their land.

After the war for control of the Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas region ended in the 1870s, the Wichita and Chippewa's were forced to settle in Oklahoma. However, most forced their way down to Mexico and Central America. In Oklahoma, the United States set aside a large Reservation for the Wichita Indian Tribe and the Chippewa's. It was located in western Oklahoma. In 1887, the United States created the filthy Dawes Act to eradicate the Promised Land. The Wichita and Chippewa's were forced to accept land allotments and have Reservation surplus land sold to the whites. However, the Wichita and Chippewa's still consider their Oklahoma Reservation to be intact. White leaders may claim that the Wichita Reservation of Oklahoma no longer exists but the Wichita people refuse to accept that. Below is a map of the Tribal Jurisdictional Areas of Oklahoma. Find where Caddo, Wichita and Delaware is written. The Delaware are the Ojibwa's. Wichita is obviously an Anishinabe word. Today, the Wichita Indians population is 2,526. Of that number, 1,854 live in Oklahoma. However, the Wichita are native to Oklahoma which means they make up the majoriy of the Indian population of Oklahoma which is 321,687 according to the 2010 census. The other Indian Tribes in Oklahoma, are migrants. Their language is known as Wichita. These people known as the Wichita, are really Anishinabe who absorbed many Caddoan peoples amongst them.

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