Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana






Ebb & Flow First Nation


This Ojibway community is located in southwestern Manitoba, along western shores of Ebb & Flow Lake (aka Lake Manitoba). During War of 1812, white invaders and their Eskimo allies, launched an invasion into Red River Valley of southern Manitoba. They were defeated by Ojibwa Soldiers and subjugated. By Selkirk Treaty of 1817, Ojibwa leaders granted those whites and their Eskimo allies, land in southern Manitoba, and Red River Valley in North Dakota and Minnesota. This Red River Colony was located between Winnipeg and Portage la Prairie, along Assiniboine River and along Red River in North Dakota and Minnesota, down to what is now Grand Forks, North Dakota. I don't know if Ojibway soldiers attacked whites and Eskimos in Manitoba during 1862s Minnesota Indian War. In 1869, Ojibway leaders allowed Red River Colony to become Independent or as they determined, Province of Manitoba. Michif Language emerged as a result of Ojibwa's mixing their language and culture with that of whites and Eskimos. On August 21, 1871 Ojibwa leaders signed Treaty 2 and ceded land in southern Manitoba. Ebb and Flow leaders were signatories to Treaty 2. Ebb & Flow and O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi, are actually same people. Historically, they were led by ogima (chief) Broken Finger. However, after Saulteaux Ojibwa leader Broken Finger passed away in 1874, friction arose between Ebb & Flow and Crane River, which led to most Saulteaux Ojibwa's settling at Ebb & Flow. During 1869s & 1870s so called Louis Riel Rebellion, they offered little resistance to that dispute yet their leaders were along with ogima Yellow Quill in negotiating for a fair treaty agreement, in exchange for ceding land. Before that 1869-1870 dispute, chief Yellow Quill stationed numerous Ojibwa Soldiers at Portage la Prairie, to prevent whites from Red River Colony, from expanding west. In response to Ojibwa demands for a fair treaty, English representatives met with chief Yellow Quill and other Ojibwa leaders, and both parties agreed to sign treaty. However, English leaders did not honor Treaty 2 agreements.



This First Nation Reserve of Ebb & Flow, is almost isolated. Canada forced many mixed bloods from Red River Colony, to settle at this community. Very much as what Americans did at Turtle Mountain Reservation in Rolette County, North Dakota. Ojibway leaders were liberal with whites and Eskimos who invaded southern Manitoba during War of 1812. By mid 1850s, population of whites and mixed bloods in southern Manitoba, was over 8,000. Ojibway leaders probably encouraged mixed bloods to settle with them at Ebb & Flow and Crane River or O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi. Population of Ebb & Flow is 1,735 according to 2016 census. Ebb & Flow has around 400 housing units. Average household size is over 4.0 persons per household. They have no organized settlements at Ebb and Flow. Housing units are located along Highway 278, Church Road, Point Road South and Sucker Creek Road. Church Road exits Highway 278 on it's east and heads towards Ebb & Flow Lake then turns north then west. Between Churchill Roads north and south sections, is another road which has many housing units. There is a community named Comeau at Ebb & Flow. Few people speak Ojibwa at Ebb & Flow. However, over 300 have knowledge of Ojibwa. They just don't speak it regularly.



These Saulteaux Ojibwa People are woodlands Ojibwa's. However, prairie land was not far and they frequently hunted for buffalo there with whites and Eskimos and Mixed Bloods. Red River Cart was already ancient by 1800. Ojibway People had longed used that ancient cart for daily activities. They built their carts without use of nails of any kind. These carts were even used by Ojibway People in Florida. Wild Rice was regularly harvested and distributed throughout their region. Wild rice is also native to Florida and Texas. According to 19th century historians, wild rice grew abundantly in Florida swamps or wetlands and along Rio Grande River in Texas and Mexico, between Rio Grande Rivers mouth and El Paso. In Texas, Ojibwa's are known as Wichita's. They (Wichita's) are very numerous in Oklahoma. They make up Oklahoma's largest percentage of Indians. They are native to Oklahoma and Texas.



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