Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana

Yellow Quill First Nation


Chief O-za-waak-waan (he is better known in history as chief Yellow Quill) signed two treaty's with Canada. Below is a map of vast Yellow Quill Reserve. History indicates that some sort of problem arose afterwards. Yellow Quill, Kinistin and Fishing Lake First Nations origins take them back to Portage la Prairie region of Manitoba (it's really Wabaseemong in northwest Ontario where a lake named Swan Lake is or Montana), yet they now live in southeastern Saskatchewan. I will keep this bit of information confined to only O-gi-ma O-za-waak-waan or as he was also known O-gi-ma O-sow-wa-sko-gwa-na-pi (it means Blue/Green Quill) or ogima Blue Quill. Historians suggest he was from Swan Lake in extreme southern Manitoba. However, after finding out about Wabaseemong which is adjacent to a lake named Swan Lake in northwest Ontario, i have to change historical information. I already knew chief Yellow Quills sub-chiefs were from northwest Ontario. That location was a strategically important region. Chief Yellow Quill stationed many Ojibway Soldiers near Portage la Prairie to prevent whites, Eskimos and mixed bloods from expanding west. He wanted a fair treaty in exchange for ceding valuable land. South Saskatchewan River was a west boundary or whites could not advance past South Saskatchewan River. They claim Hudson Bay Company made chief Yellow Quill a chief. However, Canada did recognize chief Yellow Quill as chief yet an heir known as Short Bear (aka Little Bear), was a better selection according to old documents.

Three groups of Ojibways were involved. Portage Band. White Mud River (Sandy Bay) was another. Another group was within Portage Band. Chief Yellow Quill demanded a large Reserve and that bothered whites. Sounds like chief Big Bear. Chief Yellow Quill did not like Short Bear for a simple reason. He was heir. Both Indians and whites thought civil strife or violence would happen as a result of who should be principle chief. Short Bear or Little Bear, wanted to stay near Portage la Prairie and wasn't bothered with how much land his subjects were granted which means a few acres, and also wanted to be principle chief, while chief Yellow Quill was wise and shrewd or wanted land whites didn't. Thus, he led is subjects north to where land was unappealling to whites. A great deal of land was involved and they had to go through chief Yellow Quill. Though Treaty One was signed in 1871, they were yet negotiating it in July of 1876 or during a war in Montana. That civil strife happened in 1876. That's why i suspect Montana is involved. So Little Bear was an heir. Was his father Big Bear or Yellow Quill? During treaty negotiations in August and September of 1876, chief Big Bear told Canadians he would sign treaty in 1877. He had just come to Alberta and Saskatchewan, from Montana and was not prepared to sign treaty. His son Little Bear, had already signed treaty and accepted a tiny Reserve known as Long Plain. Supposedly chief Big Bear signed treaty in December of 1882. Chief Blue Quill was granted a Reserve in north Alberta. So in 1871, chief Yellow Quill signed treaty which ceded land from St. Mary River in Alberta, to South Saskatchewan River, then to southern Manitoba, then to Albany Rivers mouth at James Bay. He did so because he was granted a very large Reserve. There is no this boundary or that boundary. Ojibway People owned all of western North America. Canada was not going to set aside large Reserves in southern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba. They were too land hungry. After 1871-1876, small Reserves were set aside in southern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba. More in southeastern Saskatchewan than southern Manitoba. Ojibway People living in Montana, named Montana Great Spirits Home or Spirits home. In Ojibway it's pronounced "Manitoab." Habitation in Ojibway is pronounced as "Abiwin." Could be "Babiwin" since "Abiwin" begins with a vowel. It's common in Ojibway to place a consonant, especially a "d" before a vowell. An example: My home, is "n d'Abiwin." It's pronounced as "n" daab. Manitodaab. Sounds like a "bub" if you pay attention. Montana is Manitoba. Chief Little Bear told whites his father was highest ranking chief in Canada and in United States. He also told whites he sided with whites. His father didn't like it.

Nearly all land east of South Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan, from it's source at Askow in Alberta (could be St. Mary River at Montana border), to it's mouth, then southeast to Quill Lakes (named after chief Yellow Quill), then to where Kamsack, Saskatchewan is, then to Assiniboine River at Manitoba's border with Saskatchewan, then east to Lake Manitoba's south shores, then east to Selkirk, then to Fort Alexander where Albany Rivers source is, then follows Albany River to it's mouth at James Bay, was ceded. Canadian leaders relished August 3, 1871's Treaty One. Land south of that entire region including Canada's border with United States, especially from Manitoba to Alberta, was ideal agriculture land. All numbered treaties are adhesions to Treaty One because Canadian leaders broke treaty or broke law. From St. Mary River at Montana's border with Alberta, to what is now Lethbridge, then to Askow, then to South Saskatchewan River, then to just east of Winnipeg, which is a distance of 1,240.0 kilometers or 770.6 miles, was greed at it's worst. Whites knew land north of South Saskatchewan River also had an abundance of agriculture land. Ojibway leaders told them at Duck Lake, Saskatchewan not to go past South Saskatchewan River. Since whites ignored their law or law of treaty, it led to conflict. It was chief Yellow Quill who led 1885's Northwest Rebellion. All land north of Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan and Manitoba was granted to chief Yellow Quill to be his Reserve. His Reserve also includes a large area of land in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, south of Saskatchewan River. Quill Lakes is within his vast Reserve as are Fishing Lake, Kinistin, Yellow Quill, Cote, Keeseekoose and The Key. It extends east to a beautiful boreal forest in east Saskatchewan, to Swan Lake east of Swan River (a city) in Manitoba, then south to Winnipegosis, then to Lake Manitoba's southern shores, then follows Lake Manitoba's east shores to Fairford, then includes all of Division 19 west of Lake Winnipeg, and includes all land north to Saskatchewan River at Grand Rapids. North of Saskatchewan River at Grand Rapids is most of his Reserve land. It extends south along Lake Winnipeg's eastern shores to Fort Alexander and follows Albany River to it's mouth at James Bay.

White historians have propagated illegal information about chief Yellow Quill. They don't like him. Read treaty text. From Wabaseemong, his power extended to those Rocky Mountains. Many people suspect there were two chief Yellow Quills. One a peaceful leader, while another a very defiant and shrewd leader that knew all land around him and wisely reached a treaty agreement which ceded much land to Canada and Reserved a vast Reserve for chief Yellow Quill and his subjects. Chief Yellow Quills Reserve can be classed as being three Districts. Yellow Quill or O-za-waak-waan which is smallest. Treaty One or Wabasiim. And Kasba which is largest. Below are Yellow Quill Reserve communities.

Carrot River



Crane River

Dauphin River

Dog Creek

Ebb & Flow


Fishing Lake

Fishing River

Grand Rapids


James Smith



Lake St. Martin

Little Saskatchewan



Pine Creek

Red Earth


Shoal Lake

The Key

Valley River


Wuskwi Sipihk

Yellow Quill

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Road Closeup Photograph

Free Book

The Algonquian Conquest of the Mediterranean Region of 11,500 Years Ago


2009-2018 Anishinabe-History.Com