Rocky Boy Tribe
Chippewa Indians of
An important Anishinabe leader, ogima Rocky Boy most likely became one of the principle Chippewa leaders in Montana, shortly after the whites brought what is now the Montana region under their control. That probably be the 1890s. He may have been born in 1851 or 1852. However, newspaper articles put his age at the time of his death in his 80s. His birthplace was somewhere in southwest Montana, between Anaconda and Butte. That's according to Frank Churchill. Frank Churchill, who knew ogima Rocky Boy, said ogima Rocky Boy told him he was an Anishinabe and was born in Montana, somewhere between Anaconda and Butte. All other accounts claim ogima Rocky Boy was born in northern Wisconsin but that is not correct. His parents were natives of Wisconsin who followed prophecy and migrated west into the Montana region, between 1800 and 1850.
Arrest And Death Of Chief Little Shell III
In early may of 1895, ogima Little Shell III and many other Little Shell Chippewa leaders were arrested and forced to leave the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana. They were forced to move to the Turtle Mountain Reservation of North Dakota. What allowed ogima Rocky Boy to become the Gitchi Ogima of the Montana Chippewas, was the death of ogima Little Shell III in 1901. Ogima Little Shell III was not only the leader of the Montana Chippewas, he was also the leader of the Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Idaho, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota Chippewas. He was the third in his family with the name Little Shell. He may have been Crazy Horse. The United States waited to find out who the Montana Chippewas would elect to be their leader and if he would negotiate with them. They actually found ogima Rocky Boy to be a willing Chippewa leader to negotiate with in either 1895 or 1896.
The 1896 Deportations
In June of 1896, the United States commenced to round up the Little Shell Chippewas of the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana, to deport them elsewhere. They wasted little time after the arrest of ogima Little Shell III and the other high ranking Little Shell Chippewa Turtle Mountain Reservation leaders, in forcing the Little Shell Chippewas to be deported. They did not want a large Chippewa population in north central Montana. They went so far as to claim the Little Shell Chippewas were Cree and not Chippewa. As a result of the Seven Fires Prophecy, up to 200,000 Great Lakes Chippewas had migrated into the Montana and Wyoming region. Most had commenced an exodus into Oregon and Washington in 1877, while many others commenced an exodus up to Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and what is now the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, also in 1877.
A large Chippewa population remained in Montana and the United States could not tolerate that, especially in north central Montana. In June of 1896, a small force of American soldiers were sent to the Chippewas village located where Wadsworth Park is now in Great Falls. In those times it was known as Sun River Park. It was a large village considering Chippewa standards, with at least 45 lodges and a population of close to 300. Chief Little Bear was the leader of that village. After ogima Little Bear fled back to Montana, he was given immunity by the United States and always did what the United States wanted. He knew if he didn't do what the whites wanted he would be deported back to Canada, where he was wanted.
According to newspaper accounts, ogima Little Bear was not at the village. It was reported by chief Buffalo Coat that the leading adviser in the village was a full blooded Chippewa who strongly protested the deportations. He was probably ogima Little Bear. We know he was deported back to Canada in 1896. It indicates he in fact protested the forced deportations. This is probably the time ogima Rocky Boy became appealing to the United States. After the terrified Chippewas learned that American soldiers had invaded their village where Wadsworth Park is located, they had no choice but to pack their belongings and prepare to walk to the nearest train station at Great Falls, to be deported out of their own country. There were many other Chippewa villages located in the Great Falls region including at Hill 57; Mount Royal; where Wire Mill Road is; a possible village between Crooked Falls and Rainbow Falls (where the old St. Peters Mission was located); a possible village near where Gibson Flats is located; a possible village located between the White Bear Islands and Fisher Island on the west side of the Missouri River; and a possible village located where Garrison, Montana is which is 4 miles southwest of Ulm, Montana.
There may have been up to 2,000 Chippewas living in the Great Falls region in June of 1896. After learning that American soldiers had removed the Chippewas from their village at where Wadsworth Park is, the other Chippewas in the Great Falls region became terrified. Many left for the nearby mountains. However, most were captured and forced to leave their own country. After the Great Falls Deportations, the United States then commenced to round up the defenceless Chippewas throughout the rest of the Chippewas Turtle Mountain Reservation. They lived along the Marias River Valley, Dupuyer Creek Valley, Teton River Valley, Sun River Valley, Smith River Valley, Prickly Pear Creek Valley north of Helena, Shonkin Creek Valley, Big Horn River (Arrow River) Valley, Judith River Valley, and the Musselshell River Valley. Most were captured and deported out of the Turtle Mountain Reservation. Many were forced to move to Canada, while many others were relocated to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation, and the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation.
Many were also deported to the following Reservations: Augua Caliente Reservation of California; Twenty-Nine Palms Reservation of California; San Carlos (Fort Apache) Reservation of Arizona; Uintah-Ouray Reservation of Utah; Wind River Reservation of Wyoming; Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho; Colville Reservation of Washington; Yakima Reservation of Washington; and the Red Lake Reservation of Minnesota. Up to 10,000 Chippewas were deported out of the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana, in June and July of 1896. Many others fled to the mountains. And after being deported, many returned back to the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana. They even purchased land where Wadsworth Park is and established another village. They also did the same at Hill 57 and Mount Royal. And after ogima Little Bear was acquitted in Alberta, he returned to Montana. However, he no longer was trusted by the United States. They instead commenced a relationship with ogima Rocky Boy. Exactly when that happened is unknown. However, it possibly happened soon after the 1896 Deportations.
The Little Shell Chippewas Lemhi Reservation
We have no choice but to commence our investigation into ogima Rocky Boy's origins. Since Frank Churchill quoted ogima Rocky Boy as being born between Anaconda and Butte, we have to deal with the Lemhi Reservation of Idaho. Though Flathead Reservation is closer to Anaconda than the old Lemhi Reservation. Before 1907, up to 700 Shoshone Chippewas were living at Lemhi Reservation, and several hundred more were living just south of Anaconda and Butte. That indicates a Chippewa Reservation is located between Tendoy, Idaho and Anaconda, Montana.
According to the book "NATIVE BUT FOREIGN: INDIGENOUS TRANSNATIONAL REFUGEES AND IMMIGRANTS IN THE U.S.-CANADIAN AND U.S.-MEXICAN BORDERLANDS, 1880-PRESENT (page 167)," the population estimate for the Montana Chippewas (the book tries to fool you by claiming Cree) was as follows in 1896: Silver Bow with 40 lodges and Horse Plains Prairie with 40 lodges. It also has other areas in Montana but we will use only southwest Montana. Horse Plains Prairie should just be Horse Prairie as it is written on 19th century maps, or Horse Prairie Valley. Horse Prairie Valley is 16 miles east of Tendoy, Idaho (the Lemhi Valley). Those two locations each had 100s of Chippewas. In those times, families had to support each other which means household sizes were larger then. Both locations had from 300 to 500 Chippewas. In reality, the Chippewa population was much higher. Chippewas were also living in the Beaverhead Valley, Big Hole Basin, Jefferson Valley, Lemhi Valley (Idaho), Madison Valley, Paradise Valley, and Ruby Valley. Most lived between where Dillon (Beaverhead Valley) and Whitehall (Jefferson Valley) are located.
The Lemhi Shoshone Chippewa Reservations boundaries commence at the confluence of the Beaverhead River, Big Hole River, and Jefferson River. It follows the mountains northeast to where Whitehall, Montana is. Then it follows Highway (Interstate) 90 towards Butte. It includes the mountains south of Highway (Interstate) 90, to the fork of Highway 2 and Highway 375. It continues following the mountains to where Little Basin Creek Road is and then follows Little Basin Creek Road to Beef Trail Road. It follows Beef Trail Road To Mogul Trail Road then to Ski Area Loop Road and includes the mountains where Gelende Mountain Road is located. It follows the northern point of the mountains where Gelende Mountain road is, west to Rocker Road then west to a small lake situated 0.86 miles east of Highway (Interstate) 15. It then follows the waterway from the lake to Highway (Interstate) 15. It then follows a line directly west to the mountains south of Anaconda. Then it follows a line directly south to Silver Bow Creek.
It then follows Silver Bow Creek to the southern boundary of Deer Lodge County. It includes those mountains south of Anaconda to Garrity Mountain. It follows those mountains to West Pintler Peak. It then follows the Beaverhead County line and Ravalli County Line, to the Idaho-Montana border. It follows the Idaho-Montana border southeast to where the Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming borders meet. It then follows the Montana-Wyoming border to Yellowstone River. It then follows Yellowstone River to near where Livingston, Montana is. It then follows the mountains on the west to their northern point and then southwest to Ennis Lake. It includes the mountains to the west and northwest of Ennis Lake. Then the boundary follows west to Highway (Interstate) 90 which leads to Whitehall, Montana. Then it follows a line south to the confluence of the Beaverhead River, Big Hole River, and Jefferson River. This Chippewa Reservation was illegally eradicated in either 1879 or on May 14, 1880. They refused to leave their homeland they called the Black Hills. Lewis and Clark wrote in their journals on June 2, 1805, that they were above (north) of the Black Hills. On June 2, 1805, Lewis and Clark were at where Loma, Montana is now. To the south, are the Highwood Mountains, Big Belt Mountains, and Little Belt Mountains. They had to be forcefully relocated. Below is a google earth map of this Chippewa Reservation.
In 1906 and 1907, the United States could not hold their courage and they conspired to force the Shoshone Chippewas from the Lemhi Reservation. A small part is located in Idaho. It was probably created when the September 24, 1868 Virginia City Treaty was signed. That treaty helped to end the Snake River War or Shoshone War. As the United States usually resorts to (they either refuse to recognize Chippewas who continue to honor treaty or claim the treaties were never ratified), they refused to deal with this subject. Another date is February 12, 1875. In May of 1907, over 500 Shoshone Chippewas commenced to move to the Fort Hall Reservation and Uintah-Ouray Reservation. Several hundred more were forced to leave the region just south of Anaconda and Butte. Many of them were deported to the Montana Reserve in Alberta. Many more were relocated to Flathead Reservation and Blackfeet Reservation.
Rocky Boy's Refusual To Honor Treaty
In 1896, chief Rocky Boy was already a high ranking leader of the Chippewas of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. In those times, the Chippewas were living throughout the vast Reservation the government of the United States promised the Chippewas through treaties. That is the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty and October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty. Their Reservation covers (it was never ceded) most of Montana, much of California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Events in 1896, forced the Chippewas to adapt to changes. Ogima Rocky Boy had no choice but to protect the Chippewas and prepare them for a change in their lifestyle. He knew the United States and Canada, did not have the courage to honor treaty agreements. They had been warned about the evil intentions of the whites, in the Seven Fires Prophecy. Between 1896 and 1909, turbulent years happened which were related to the illegal eradication of the Little Shell Chippewas vast Reservation. After chief Little Shell III was arrested in May of 1895, the United States commenced to ruin the lives of 1,000s if not 10,000s, of Chippewas. They needed a Chippewa leader who could help the Chippewas in the years between 1896 and 1909. They found that leader in ogima Rocky Boy. Another Chippewa leader they took interest in was ogima Little Bear. However, ogima Little Bear was a renegade (wanted) from the 1885 Northwest Rebellion.
The Little Shell Chippewas Flathead Reservation
On March 8, 1902, the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran an article in which chief Rocky Boy announced that he sent an application to the government of the United States requesting for land (a Reservation). Within the matter of a couple of days, other Chippewa leaders learned what chief Rocky Boy had done. Rocky Boy did not honor the treaties which created the vast Chippewa Reservation of southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho. It led to civil strife among the Chippewas of southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho. Click this link to read the March 8, 1902 article. And we have historical proof the Chippewas were living just north of Flathead Reservation.
An article from the May 1, 1890 Anaconda standard, reported that a group of Chippewas had been removed from a location east of what is now Columbia Falls, Montana, to a location west of the Flathead River. It was reported as being Half Moon which is a few miles west of Columbia Falls. Click here to read the article. It is located on the 9th paragraph in the first column. The paragraph is from the Demersville Inter State Newspaper. Demersville is now a part of Kalispell, Montana. There may have been a minor war in that region, between 1887 and early 1890. Click here to read an article from the December 20, 1890 Helena independent. Look for the + and - icons on the top left side of the article. To the right of Image, is a drop down menu of the pages in that edition. The article is on pages 1 and 2. We know the Paul chiefs and Kootenai are Chippewa. And we know a group of Chippewas agreed to relocate to Flathead Reservation in 1890. However, not all of the Chippewas living in that location agreed to relocate. More about that is further below.
On March 11, 1902 (3 days after the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran their article about chief Rocky Boy titled Anaconda's Vagrant Indian Tribe), the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran an article about civil strife among the Chippewas living between Anaconda and Butte titled Indians At War. Click this link to read the March 11, 1902 article. Ogima Rocky Boy was in trouble with Chippewa Traditionalists led by ogima Pa-Pa-Wee. The article claimed Rocky Boy was about to lose power to ogima Pa-Pa-Wee who strongly opposed him. This event happened at a Chippewa village southeast of Butte between the confluence of the Beaverhead River and Big Hole River, and Butte.
In response to the Chippewas led by ogima Pa-Pa-Wee, Ogima Rocky Boy sent a message to them that if they didn't stop the friction they were to leave the village. In the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper article, they claimed the Chippewas were without a Reservation which was a lie. Ogima Pa-Pa-Wee knew it was a lie and told his followers that there were still many Chippewas who were honoring treaty and that they were going to continue to live throughout the vast Reservation. Immediately the United States knew ogima Pa-Pa-Wee was the rightful leader of the Chippewas of southwest Montana and commenced to form a stronger relationship with Ogima Rocky Boy. That relationship included granting Ogima Rocky Boy new Chippewa Reservations including Indian Rancherias in California and Indian Colonies in Nevada.
After the friction, most of the Chippewas became followers of Ogima Rocky Boy. However, a large percentage of the Chippewas of southwest Montana and southeast Idaho, confided in ogima Pa-Pa-Wee. They continued to live throughout the vast Chippewa Reservation. They fished and hunted as promised by treaty but the whites jailed them (did not follow treaty agreements) if they were caught fishing and hunting. Ogima Rocky Boy put the welfare of the Chippewas first. He realized the government of the United States did not have the courage to honor treaty. He also realized great changes were happening. Automobiles were becoming popular, and electricity and other new inventions were becoming common. He knew the Chippewas had to adapt to the new changes. His main goal was to find new Reservations for the Chippewas of California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
Ogima Pa-Pa-Wee and other Chippewa leaders, continued to live as they had always done. They continued to fish and hunt from place to place. The United States was not brave enough to honor treaty and by 1906 and 1907, had forcefully relocated ogima Pa-Pa-Wee's Chippewas to the Fort Hall Reservation, Uintah-Ouray Reservation, and the Navajo Reservation. Other Chippewas who lived southeast of Butte, were relocated to the Wind River Reservation and Pine Ridge Reservation. A large group of Chippewas were given their own Reservation within the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation, in 1907.
In the May 14, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain, an article claimed that ogima Rocky Boy's request for a Reservation was denied. However, the same article claimed ogima Rocky Boy intended to ask for the privilege of allowing his subjects who wish to do so to settle on surveyed or unsurveyed land. Ogima Rocky Boy was referring to Flathead Reservation. He really requested for a Reservation within Flathead Reservation. Click this link to read the May 14, 1902 article.
On June 5, 1902, the Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper ran an article titled Chippewas Soon Ready To Leave. The article reported that a number of Chippewas had been out searching for available land in Idaho and northwestern Montana. The article reported that the Chippewas had received word from Washintgton D.C. that each Chippewa was entitled to receive 160 acres of land. It was Ogima Rocky Boy who sent out the Chippewa land spectators. One of them was in favor of settling in the vicinity of Tobacco Plains (Eureka, Montana) and the Saint Mary's River region near Babb, Montana. Another liked northern Idaho very much. They lied. It is the other way. Chippewas living in the Flathead Valley and between Tobacco Plains and St. Mary River, were forced to relocate to Flathead Reservation as well as Blackfeet Reservation. Click this link to read the June 5, 1902 article.
Rocky Boy Becomes Gitchi Ogima
In a July 11, 1902 Butte Inter Mountain Newspaper article, it was reported that Rocky Boy was voted to be the Great Chief in the following year's sun dance. Now if you read between the lines you will understand the real message. Rocky Boy was actually elected to be Gitchi Ogima of the Chippewas. What brought on the 1902 election was the death of ogima Little Shell III the year before. This election was held at a Chippewa village 10 miles southwest of Butte. Others elected were W.A. Cameron to be the official interpreter, and Harry Dennie was re-elected to be the official guide. A strange ending to the article went like this: The sun dance is now a thing of the past. Click this link to read the July 11, 1902 article.
In an August 5, 1904 Billings Gazette Newspaper article, it was reported that Ogima Rocky Boy was still in the process of trying to have new Chippewa Reservations set aside. Ogima Rocky Boy along with interpreter W.A. Cameron, met with congressman Joseph M. Dixon in Missoula, Montana (near Mount Jumbo). Ogima Rocky Boy and interpreter W.A. Cameron, had come from Anaconda all the way to Missoula because they knew Dixon had the power to grant the Chippewas Reservations within Flathead Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy supposedly requested of congressman Dixion, for a Reservation on Anaconda's back (west) side, to the Big Hole River. That is why i included Lemhi Reservation. They were covering something up. They were going to relocate the Lemhi Shoshone Chippewas off their vast Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy told Dixon the Chippewas would take a Reservation within Flathead Reservation and Blackfeet Reservation. It was actually Flathead Reservation. Click this link to read the August 5, 1904 article. You will understand how to read between the lines. The Chippewas were defenseless and had no choice but to agree to relocate to the Flathead Reservation.
In October of 1903, Thomas Downs recommended that the Chippewas be allowed to settle at Flathead Reservation. In January of 1904, senator Gibson introduced a bill (S. 2705, Fifty-eigth Congress, first session) to set aside land within Flathead Reservation for the Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy. The bill was passed. It was not denied. The Flathead Reservation Land Act of 1904 was known of and the McCumber Agreement was passed by the United States in 1904. They needed ogima Rocky Boy's support to prevent violence. Most of the Chippewas who relocated to Flathead Reservation, came from north of Flathead Reservation, or from the Flathead Valley and Tobacco Plains.
Where are Rocky Boy's Reservations within Flathead Reservation? It is a question the Indians of Flathead Reservation don't understand. They don't understand that ogima Rocky Boy negotiated on behalf of Flathead Reservation, to prepare them for the 1904 Flathead Reservation Land Act. Valley land within the Flathead Reservation was going to be opened to white settlement and ogima Rocky Boy knew the Chippewas could do nothing to stop it. Thus, the reason for why ogima Rocky Boy asked for the privilege of selecting surveyed and unsurveyed land. Flathead Reservation kept the mountains but most of the valley agriculture land was opened to white settlement, except at valley locations where the land was not conducive to agriculture. All these following Reservations are connected to the mountains owned by Flathead Reservation, which represents them actually being a part of Flathead Reservation. I have provided these areas to educate the reader about what transpired over 100 years ago. Flathead Reservation was not eradicated. Ogima Rocky Boy made certain it would continue on.
Post Creek Reservation:
It is the second largest of the Reservations set aside for ogima Rocky Boy within Flathead Reservation. It's boundaries begin southeast of Ronan, then extend north towards Ronan then west to Pache Homesite. From Pache Homesite, it extends to Clarice Paul Homesite then west to Pewiosap. It then extends southwest to a point 1.9 miles northwest of Charlo. It then extends to a point about 0.6 miles east of Charlo. It then extends to a point 2.75 miles south of Charlo. It then extends east to Highway 93. It then extends southeast to a point directly east of Ashley Lake Road. It then extends north to a point east of Grace Lane Road.
During those times (around 1900) this area of Flathead Reservation was a land with many lakes, marshes, and swamps. Far more than compared to this time. Even now, much of this area has many lakes. Using google earth you can clearly see the whites are draining this land area of it's waterways, by using canals. It really isn't necessary for the need to irrigate the crops grown there. Much of the Reservation land was sold to whites. It covers between 60 and 70 sq. mi. or 38,400 acres to 44,800 acres. Indian settlements include Clarice Paul Homesite, Eagle Pass, Kicking Horse, Pache Homesite, Pewiosap, and Woodcock Homesite.
It is located just south of Polson. It includes the Pablo National Wildlife Refuge and the cdp of Pablo which covers 4.9 sq. mi. which is adjacent to PNWR on the southeast. Much of the land area is covered by a forest. From the PNWR, it extends 5 miles east to the Mission Mountains. From the cdp of Pablo, it extends 4 miles east to the same Mission Mountains. The only Indian communities are Mud Lake and Pablo. This Reservation may cover up to 15.0 sq. mi. or up to 10,000 acres. However, much of the land is fee land or land owned by Indians and non Indians, excepting the PNWR.
It is located in the northwestern part of the Flathead Reservation. A favorite location for the Kootenai Chippewas led by chief Aeneas Paul, the Dayton Creek Kootenai Chippewas were also set aside Wild Horse Island (it is supposedly owned by the State of Montana which is not allowed by treaty law) and Cromwell Island. The United States later recanted or broke treaty promises. There are at least three Kootenai Chippewa communities. They are Dayton Creek Homesite, Elmo, and Niarada. It is the largest of the Reservations set aside for chief Rocky Boy within Flathead Reservation. It covers up to 120 sq. mi. or between 70,000 acres and 80,000 acres.
Turtle Lake Reservation:
It is located in the northeastern part of Flathead Reservation. The only Indian community is Turtle Lake. It covers around 2,000 to 3,000 acres.
Mission Dam Reservation:
It is located 3 miles east of St. Ignatius. Mission Dam Homesite is the only Indian community. It covers a few hundred acres at the most. Mission Dam Reservoir is adjacent to it on the east.
Gray Wolf Reservation:
It is located in the valley where Arlee is located. There is much Indian Trust Land and Tribally Owned Land Owned by Flathead Reservation in the valley. Indian communities include Arlee Homesite, Gray Wolf, North Gray Wolf, and Pow Wow. It covers between 5,000 and 10,000 acres.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside Flathead Forest Reserve and Lewis and Clark Forest Reserve. Combined, they both cover 4,308,400 acres. Both border Blackfeet Reservation and Flathead Reservation. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. Ogima Rocky Boy was possibly one of the Indian negotiators.
The Little Shell Chippewas Wind River Reservation
During 1896, events happened which ogima Rocky Boy possibly played a role. Chief Little Shell III had been arrested in 1895 and forced to move to the Turtle Mountain Reservation in Rolette County, North Dakota. Ogima Rocky Boy may have been put in power by the Montana Chippewas to negotiate about the infamous 10¢ an acre treaty or by the whites. He knew times were changing and that Indians needed to change with the times. He also knew the whites did not have the courage to obey the law. In June of 1896, the United States illegally eradicated the Little Shell Chippewas vast Reservation. It probably extended into Wyoming including Wind River Reservation.
On April 23, 1896, an agreement was reached with leaders of Shoshone Reservation (the name was changed to Wind River Reservation in the 1930s) in which a tract of land known as Big Horn Hot Springs State Reserve was created. It was set aside to be a Reservation. Shoshone Reservation leaders were eager to have the land set aside as a Reservation. It was set aside for the Little Shell Chippewas of Montana who had been forced to relocate out of the promised Reservation, in June of 1896. The Great Falls Deportations of 1896. Click this link to read the Wednesday June 17, 1896 Anaconda Standard Article about the Great Falls Deportation. Don't be fooled by the papers deception that the Cree were deported. The Cree are the northern Chippewas known as the Mus-ke-go-walk, which means Swampy People. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy. The whites will not tolerate a rebirth of the Chippewa Nation.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland issued a proclamation which set aside vast areas of forested land in the west to be Forest Reserves. What transpired was agreements in which the United States reached with Chippewa leaders pertaining to protecting Reservation land including at Wind River Reservation. We have to include these vast areas as being a part of ogima Rocky Boy's Reservations. We have no choice. We have been warned the whites will try and fool Indians. So when you read the following information pertaining to Forest Reserves, it represents an area of land the United States set aside to be protected Reservation land at ogima Rocky Boy's Reservations. One exception is Custer National Forest which i believe was actually set aside as a land addition to the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in 1900 and not on July 1, 1908. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 allowed the President to set aside Forest Reserves from the land in the Public Domain, to become protected land. What led to the law was probably the infamous 10¢ an acre Treaty, which was still being negotiated at that time. President Cleveland set aside 25 million acres to be protected Reservation land in 1897.
The 1894 Great Falls Sun Dance
They were outlawed on Indian Reservations in either 1884 or 1889. However, Indians could hold sun dances off Reservations. In May of 1894, ogima Little Bear was contacted by two white entrepreneurs about holding the sun dance across Montana. He agreed to the proposal. Ogima Little Bear was always trying to find ways of raising money up to help his people. They needed to contact the Great Falls Chamber of Commerse to get their approval for the sun dance planned for the fair at Great Falls on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of June, 1894. They were allowed to proceed with the sun dance by the Great Falls Chamber of Commerse. However, there was a major problem. White religious leaders of Great Falls supposedly protested the upcoming sun dance. However, Indians who lived on Reservations were under federal regulations (jurisdiction) and could not hold sun dances. Indians who lived off Reservation could hold sun dances because they were not under federal regulations. That is why those white religious leaders intervened. Great Falls is within the vast Turtle Mountain Reservation.
Ministers from Great Falls, met with ogima Little Bear at a Chippewa village located along Sun River Road (near where Wadsworth Park is) about 2 miles west of the fairgrounds and talked over the planned sun dance. That happened on May 27, 1894. On June 5, 1894, governor Rickards issued a proclamation banning the sun dance. They could not hold the sun dance in Great Falls. It didn't stop ogima Little Bear and other Chippewa leaders, from holding sun dances at Havre on the 15th, 16th, and 17th of June, 1894 (Havre was no longer within Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation by 1894 and that also indicates the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation was actually ceded by Chippewa leaders long before 1888), and Helena of all places, on July 4, 1894, and a little later that same summer, in Butte. The reason for writing about the sun dances of 1894, is to educate you about the eventual deportations of 1896. In 1894, ogima Little Shell III was still the gitchi ogima of the Little Shell Chippewas of Montana. It's about the 10¢ an acre Treaty. Ogimak Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and other Chippewa leaders refused to cede the Little Shell Chippewas Turtle Mountain Reservation. The United States used fraud to steal the Reservation by hiring 32 Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Chippewa Nation. The agreement is known as the McCumber Agreement. It was not passed by the United States until 1904. As mentioned, ogima Little Shell III was still the gitchi ogima of the Montana Chippewas in 1894.
The Proclamation Of August 15, 1906
Shoshone Reservation leaders were very willing to share their Reservation with the Little Shell Chippewas who settled down to live in the northern portion of Wind River Reservation. Wind River Reservation land north of Wind River. Ogima Rocky Boy possibly helped to have the Little Shell Chippewas, set aside the land within Wind River Reservation. On August 15, 1906, the United States refused to honor treaty and eradicated the Little Shell Chippewas Reservation within Wind River Reservation. Below is a map of the Little Shell Chippewas Wind River Reservation which was opened to white settlement. It led to the so called 1906 Ute Exodus. It was really the Wind River Little Shell Chippewas who left the Wind River Reservation soon after learning about the illegal proclamation of August 15, 1906. On August 25, 1906, the governor of Wyoming requested for federal support. Chippewa leaders led their people towards the northeast. They were probably going to Northern Cheyenne Reservation. The United States had a military base at Fort Washakie and also their soldiers stationed north of Wind River Reservation during those times (1906). A large number of Chippewas were captured in southeast Montana on November 2, 1906 and then forced to move to the Standing Rock-Cheyenne River Reservation of South Dakota. Many were also relocated to Pine Ridge Reservation of South Dakota, and the Uintah-Ouray Reservation of Utah, in 1906.
After the United States eradicated the Turtle Mountain Reservation in 1895 or 1896, they agreed to set aside protected Reservation land. In Wyoming, the Teton Forest Reserve was set aside on February 22, 1897. It covers 829,440 acres or 1,300 sq. mi. It is adjacent to Wind River Reservation on the west. It is a part of Wind River Reservation. The whites are fooling you. It is protected Reservation land. Ogima Rocky Boy was possibly one of the Indian negotiators.
The Little Shell Chippewas Fort Hall Reservation
In 1896, the United States also focused on the Chippewas Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho. They appointed three commissioners to negotiate with the leaders of Fort Hall Reservation. Negotiations were about ceding Reservation land. After two years of negotiations, the three commissioners reported in 1898 that they had reached an agreement with leaders of Fort Hall Reservation in which they ceded 418,560 acres (it was far more land than that) of Fort Hall Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy was one of the Indian negotiators. In 1907, up to 700 Shoshone Chippewas were forced off Lemhi Reservation and relocated to Fort Hall Reservation.
The Little Shell Chippewas Uintah-Ouray Reservation
A year after the 1896 Great Falls Deportations, the United States focused on the Uintah-Ouray Reservation of Utah. It is located in northeastern Utah. In 1897, the United States commenced to eradicate this portion of the Little Shell Chippewas vast Reservation. They commenced to force allotments to individual Indians which Chippewa leaders did not accept. It was no different than how they felt about their children attending white boarding schools. They knew the whites were brainwashing their children. In 1904, more allotments were forced. By the end of the allotment process, the Uintah-Ouray Reservation covered a little less than 5 million acres. However, the surplus land (Reservation land left after allotments) was sold to whites.
On February 22, 1897, the United States reached an agreement with leaders of Unitah-Ouray Reservation in which they were eager to set aside some of their Reservation to be a Forest Reserve (a Chippewa Reservation). It is known as the Uinta Forest Reserve. In 1905, more land (1,010,000 acres) was added and the name was changed to Uintah National Forest. It covers 1,384,132 acres. Some of the Reservation (96,223 acres) is located in Wyoming. The whites are fooling you. It is protected Reservation land. Ogima Rocky Boy was obviously an Indian negotiator at the Uintah-Ouray Reservation who helped to set aside this land to be protected. It is known that ogima Rocky Boy could travel by train for free in the western United States and he had connections to affluent whites in Idaho and Utah who supported him.
The Little Shell Chippewas Columbia, Colville-Spokane, And Kalispel Reservations
In 1900, the United States focused on the Colville-Spokane Reservation of Washington. The United States had already commenced to eradicate this portion of the vast Little Shell Chippewas Reservation years earlier. An area of 1,449,268 acres was supposedly opened to homesteading which commenced in 1906.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside Washington Forest Reserve. It covers 3,594,240 acres. Today, it is known as the Chelan National Forest, Colville National Forest, and Wenatchee National Forest. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. Ogima Rocky Boy was possibly one of the Indian negotiators.
The Little Shell Chippewas Coeur d'Alene Reservation
Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation was already over run by white settlers and action had to be carried out to prevent violence. In response to the loss of Reservation land, the United States reached an agreement with Indian leaders including possibly ogima Rocky Boy, which set aside a large area of land to be protected Reservation land.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside Priest River Forest Reserve. It is also known as Kaniksu National Forest which includes Coeur d'Alene National Forest and St. Joe National Forest. They are better known as the Idaho Panhandle National Forest. It covers 3,224,739 acres. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. Ogima Rocky Boy was possibly one of the Indian negotiators.
The Little Shell Chippewas Nez Perce Reservation
Nez Perce Reservation has been horribly violated by the UNited States. The Nez Perce are really the Amikwa Chippewas. The Amikwa Chippewas are known as the Nez Perce. Click this link to visit The Center For Algonquin Culture. Scroll down to find Amikwa Chippewas. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy. Ogima Rocky Boy must have negotiated for the Nez Perce Chippewas about saving their Reservation.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside the Bitter Root Forest Reserve. It covers 4,147,200 acres. Part of this land extends into western Montana. It is an extremely mountainous and rugged land. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you.
The Little Shell Chippewas Yakima Reservation
Yakima Reservation is obviously a Chippewa Reservation. If the Yakima are Sahaptian, it means Yakima Reservation is in fact a Chippewa Reservation. The Nez Perce are supposedly Sahaptian. Chief Moses never ceded Yakima land. He was not native to the Pacific Northwest. He was from Wisconsin which is Chippewa country. His parents followed the Seven Fires Prophecy and migrated west into the Montana region while he was a youngster.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside Mount Rainier Forest Reserve. It covers 2,146,600 acres. It is located very near to, or adjacent to Yakima Reservation. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. Ogima Rocky Boy was possibly one of the Indian negotiators.
The Little Shell Chippewas Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation
On August 14, 1899, the United States again refused to honor treaty and illegally took the northern portion of the Crow Reservation. It is this event which we can use as a possible first date ogima Rocky Boy became known publicly. Though the August 14, 1899 fraud case took the northern portion of Crow Reservation, it wasn't until April 27, 1904 that the United States passed the fraudulent agreement Crow leaders protested. In 1901, two Crow Reservation police officers approached a Chippewa village in the northern portion of Crow Reservation and told the Chippewas they had to leave. Around that same time, the Chippewa leader known as chief Day Child, was arrested and jailed in Billings for 30 days. What makes chief Day Child a leader of interest is his name. Chief Day Child supposedly contacted ogima Rocky Boy after he was released from jail. He supposedly encouraged ogima Rocky Boy to help him secure lands for the Chippewas. This is when ogima Rocky Boy became known in Montana.
Ogima Rocky Boy's name is really Stone Child. Chief Day Child may have actually been ogima Rocky Boy. He was supposedly arrested for hunting illegally. Treaty agreements clearly gave the Chippewas the right to hunt within their Reservation. If ogima Rocky Boy was from the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation, ogima Rocky Boy may have been arrested for not agreeing to leave the Reservation, or he was possibly arrested for not agreeing to help lead the Chippewas to the southern portion of Crow Reservation. Most of the Chippewas who lived in the northern portion of the Crow Reservation, moved to the southern portion of Crow Reservation, or to the land addition added to Northern Cheyenne Reservation in 1900 and 1908. In any light, ogima Rocky Boy has connections to the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation.
On February 22, 1897, President Cleveland set aside Big Horn Forest Reserve. It covers 1,107,571 acres. It borders the Crow-Nothern Cheyenne Reservation on the south. Ogima Rocky Boy was one of the Indian negotiators. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you.
On July 1, 1908, the United States reached an agreement with Northern Cheyenne leaders including ogima Rocky Boy, which created Custer National Forest to be protected Reservation land. It covers 1,188,130 acres. Parts of the Reservation is located in South Dakota. Custer National Forest was probably created in 1900. Ogima Rocky Boy probably negotiated for them about moving to the southern portion of Crow Reservation and to the Northern Cheyenne Reservation. So the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation is the first Reservation ogima Rocky Boy protected and we can link ogima Rocky Boy first to, through chief Day Child. Anyway, it is the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation which led to ogima Rocky Boy becoming a public figure. I'm not certain if the Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation was the first Chippewa Reservation ogima Rocky Boy helped to prevent violence at.
The Little Shell Chippewas Blackfeet Reservation
On September 26, 1895, an agreement was reached between Chippewa leaders and the United States, in which either an 800,000 acre Reservation was set aside for the Chippewas from the Turtle Mountain Reservation of Montana, or the 800,000 acres of the Blackfeet Reservation was leased to the United States, as the Blackfeet Chippewas have confirmed. Chippewa leaders were bought (paid $1.5 million) to accept the agreement. They originally wanted $3.0 million. This is the actual date the 4th Blackfeet Reservation was created. It was ratified on June 10, 1896 or a few days before the deportations commenced. Those Chippewas who remained in the mountains, could not avoid being moved to the Blackfeet Reservation. Land in the eastern part of Blackfeet Reservation, from Cut Bank, to about 25 miles west, and from the Canada border, to the southern border of Blackfeet Reservation, was leased for 99 years.
As land acts commenced after 1904 (the year the fraudulent McCumber Agreement was passed), so did ogima Rocky Boy's struggle to defend the Chippewas. Although the Flathead Reservation Land Act commenced in 1904, it wasn't until 1908-1909 that it was fully implemented. In 1908, a farmer at Flathead Reservation warned the Flathead Reservation Indian Agent about the Chippewas led by ogima Rocky Boy. In 1908-1909, events were causing great unrest among the Montana Chippewas. On October 18, 1908, the Swan Valley Massacre just east of Flathead Reservation, led to 4 Chippewas being killed.
In response to the massacre, Frank Churchill was sent to Montana to find ogima Rocky Boy and negotiate with him. Churchill found ogima Rocky Boy at a small Chippewa village near Garrison, Montana, in 1908. Ogima Rocky Boy knew the United States was rebuffing the 1902 treaty agreements which created the Reservations. He knew the Chippewas could not fight the United States and therefore had no choice but to agree to relocate elsewhere. That location was Blackfeet Reservation. Commencing in 1908, ogima Rocky Boy instructed his police to commence to gather the Chippewas who lived nearer to Helena, to move to a location almost adjacent to Fort Harrison which is very near Helena. It took time because many of the Chippewas lived in isolated and inaccessible mountainous regions.
By late 1909, up to 200 Chippewas were camped near Fort Harrison. Many, however, began to leave. Some blamed ogima Rocky Boy who, they claimed, led many to the Colorado Gulch area which is very near Helena, to feed their horses. According to the October 22, 1909 Culbertson newspaper, The Searchlight, the white residents living in the Colorado Gulch area commenced to complain, which led to the Chippewas being forced to leave the Colorado Gulch area. In the same October 22, 1909 article, it went on to read that some of the more progressive members of the tribe said that they had started to leave Helena, but had been told by Rocky Boy that if they did he would get out the government troops (American soldiers), and would compel them to return. They were being forced to move to the Blackfeet Reservation. They couldn't leave. The rest of that October 22, 1909 article is crooked.
By early November of 1909, the Chippewas near Helena, who numbered near 200, were ready to move to the Blackfeet Reservation. Another 200 or so Chippewas led by ogima Little Bear, were also preparing to move to the Blackfeet Reservation from the Havre region. Commencing on November 13, the Chippewas in Helena, boarded trains and left for the Blackfeet Reservation. They arrived there on November 14. Shortly after, the Chippewas led by ogima Little Bear, arrived to the Blackfeet Reservation.
The Little Shell Chippewas Fort Belknap Reservation
On October 9, 1895 or nearly 2 weeks after the September 26, 1895 agreement which established the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, an agreement was reached with Chippewa leaders, in which the Fort Belknap Reservation was created. Chippewa leaders were bought (paid) $360,000 to accept the agreement. An area of over 500,000 acres was set aside to be their new Reservation. It was ratified on June 10, 1896 or a few days before the deportations. This Reservation was probably the most hostile.
Churchills main reason for negotiating with ogima Rocky Boy, was the Fort Peck Reservation Land Allotment Act. Unlike Blackfeet Reservation and Flathead Reservation, which are largely mountainous and rugged, Fort Peck Reservation is ideal agriculture land. They expected violence at Fort Peck Reservation. A battle may have been fought south of Fort Belknap Reservation in 1909. Churchill with ogima Rocky Boys suggestion probably, requested that Fort Peck Reservation (not Valley County, Montana) be withdrawn from white settlement, until a new 72 township or 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation was set aside. It angered white settlers. His requests were granted. After the land was added on to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation, it extended to the Missouri River and includes the entire Bear Paw Mountain Range. Fort Peck Reservation was opened to white settlement. Several hundred Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation, moved to their new Reservation in 1909-1910. The United States did not wait long to dishonor the treaty agreement.
William R. Logan
William R. Logan was Superintendent of Fort Belknap Reservation in 1909 and was instructed by Frank Churchill to find available land for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation. Some Chippewas from western Montana, Idaho, and Washington were also to be relocated to the new Reservation. He was told to find mountainous land. He found that south and west of Fort Belknap Reservation. Below is a map of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation. The earliest map of the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation i have found is from 1884. The latest is from 1904 or the year the fraudulent McCumber Agreement was passed.
Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation covers over 1,000 sq. mi. Fort Belknap Reservation also covers over 1,000 sq. mi. When the new Chippewa Reservation was added on to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation, the new Chippewa Reservation covered close to 4,700 sq. mi. Most of it is mountainous. Of course, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation is where Rocky Boy's Reservation is now. White historians are liars. Ogima Rocky Boy knew about the land additions to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation. He was especially found of the mountains. Along with his brother Pennato, they were successful in having the new Reservation set aside. Major William R. Logan was commissioned to be Superintendent of Road and Trail construction for Glacier National Park on August 8, 1910. As mentioned, the northwestern border of the Blackfeet Reservation extends to the Rocky Mountain Trench (the real Continental Divide) where Eureka, Montana is located. What white historians are hiding from the Montana Chippewas, is the new Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909. It covers nearly 4,700 sq. mi. The United States would not keep their promise. They knew ogima Rocky Boy would not take kindly to losing the new Reservations.
Black Hills Forest Reserve Land Addition
According to Lewis and Clark, the Black Hills are located just south and east of Great Falls, Montana. Click here to read Lewis and Clarks journals from June 2, 1805. They were at what is now Loma, Montana. The claimed they were above (north) of the Black Hills. Directly to their south are what are now known as the Highwood Mountains. When Lewis and Clark first saw those mountains they thought they were the same mountain range. It was kind of a mirage. A little south of the Highwood Mountains are the Little Belt Mountains. They are the famous Black Hills. President Cleveland set aside the Little Belt Mountains including the Bear Paw Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Little Rocky Mountains, and Snowy Mountains to be the Black Hills Forest Reserve. Not the so called Black Hills located in South Dakota. The Highwood Mountains are about 10 miles from the Little Belt Mountains. The Little Belt Mountains are about 10 miles from the Snowy Mountains. And the Snowy Mountains extend north to the Little Rocky Mountains. And the Little Rocky Mountains are almost connected to the Bear Paw Mountains. The real size of the Black Hills Forest Reserve is significantly larger than the 1,253,308 acres they claim it covers. The whites are really fooling the Chippewas of South Dakota. It is protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. Ogima Rocky Boy was an Indian negotiator for the Black Hills Reserve.
Other 1897 Land Additions
Besides the Forest Reserves already written of which were set aside on February 22, 1897, two other Forest Reserves were also set aside on February 22, 1897. They are Stanislaus Forest Reserve and San Jacinto Forest Reserve. Both are located in California. Stanislaus Forest Reserve is located east of Sacramento, California. It covers 898,099 acres. There are several Indian Rancherias and Reservations surrounding the forest. The Shoshonean people of that region are Chippewa. We know from Andrew Blackbirds 1887 book "History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan," that the Shoshone are Chippewa. San Jacinto Forest Reserve covers 740,000 acres. San Jacinto Forest Reserve is located where the San Jacinto Mountains are. The northern point is located in the narrow valley where Banning, California is. It extends south for a good 30 miles. Temecula, California is on it's west border. On the east are Palm Springs, California and Indio, California. There are several Shoshonean Reservations in that area. They are protected Reservation land. The whites are fooling you. I don't know if ogima Rocky Boy negotiated for these Reserves or Reservations.
The Little Shell Chippewas Fort Apache Reservation or San Carlos Reservation
On February 25, 1896, an agreement was reached with Chippewa leaders of Montana and from the San Carlos Reservation of Arizona, to create a Chippewa Reservation within the San Carlos Reservation or Fort Apache Reservation. Before 1896, it was one Reservation. The agreement was ratified on June 10, 1896. Afterwards, the Fort Apache Reservation was created and the San Carlos Reservation was created. Exactly which one is the Little Shell Chippewas Reservation is quite the mystery. However, using census stats from 1902 can be helpful. Fort Apache Reservation had a population of 1,838, while San Carlos Reservation had a population of 3,366. According to the 2010 census, the population of Fort Apache Reservation is 13,409, while San Carlos Reservation has a population of 10,068.
The Little Shell Chippewas Papago Reservation
In 1909, or around the same time 100s of Montana Chippewas who were continuing to live throughout the Turtle Mountain Reservation and getting on the nerves of the whites who could not hold their courage, an event happened in southern Arizona which is linked to them. On June 18, 1909, President Taft supposedly removed 18 sections from the Gila Bend Reservation. That was not a good idea at that time (1909). In Mexico, a war was commencing and the United States knew about it and also knew they needed to keep the Indians of southern Arizona content, to keep them out of the conflict. What is now Papago Reservation in Arizona, was probably created on June 18, 1909. According to leaders of the Papago Reservation, the nearly 2.8 million acre Reservation, was originally larger. In 1911 and 1912, President Taft supposedly amalgamated 5 Papago villages. He did so supposedly into distinct Reservations. Then in 1916, a 3.1 million acre Papago Reservation was supposedly created. By 1916, the Mexican Civil War was about over with. It don't add up. It is obvious that the 3.1 million acre Papago Reservation was created on June 18, 1909.
On February 1, 1917, 475,000 acres was removed from the 3.1 million acre Papago Reservation. By 1917, the Mexican Civil War was no longer a concern to the United States. Thus, the reason why they fragmented the Papago Reservation into five distinct Reservations. They include Gila Bend Reservation, Gila River Reservation, Akchin Reservation, San Xavier Reservation, and Papago Reservation. All five were originally connected when it was created on June 18, 1909. In 1979, Pasqua Reservation was created and is connected to the San Xavier Reservation. Many Montana Chippewas were deported to the Papago Reservation in 1909 and during 1911-1912, or about the time the Little Shell Chippewas commenced an exodus off of the Blackfeet Reservation. Ogima Rocky Boy was instrumental in having the large Papago Reservation created. It also became the home of the Chiricahua Apache who are really the Kickapoo Chippewas or Saginaw Chippewas, who originally lived on the Chiricahua Apache Reservation located in southeastern Arizona and bordered Mexico. Even today, a small group of 150 to 200 Saginaw Chippewas the whites call Kickapoo, continue to live very near where the Chiricahua Apache Reservation is located. That is between Douglas, Arizona and Wilcox, Arizona. The Kickapoo originally lived in southeast Michigan or where the Saginaw Chippewas live.
The 1913 Exodus
After 1912, ogima Rocky Boys whereabouts are not very well known. He was continuing to live at Blackfeet Reservation throughout 1912 and had to deal with his brother Pennato who led an exodus off Blackfeet Reservation in December of 1910. Ogima Pennato was eventually forced to the Fort Harrison region. In 1911, Fort Assiniboine Military Reservation was shut down and probably Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation as well. That was probably one of the factors in ogima Pennato leading an exodus. Ogima Pennato died on May 15, 1912. Before his death, ogima Pennato strongly encouraged his brother to fight for another Chippewa Reservation. As a result of the Chippewa Exodus of 1910-1911, the superintendents of Blackfeet Reservation (McFatridge) and Flathead Reservation (Fred Morgan) suggested that the Chippewas be relocated away from Blackfeet Reservation and Flathead Reservation. A debate followed in which it was suggested that the Chippewas be relocated to a Reservation on the Colorado River. There are several Indian Reservations along the Colorado River with the Navajo the best known. Others include Havasupai, Hualapai, Fort Mojave, Chemehuevi, Colorado River, Fort Yuma, and Cocopah Reservations. All are, of course, Chippewa Reservations which have links to ogima Rocky Boy. They don't know it and will deny it, but all have links to the Chippewa leader ogima Rocky Boy.
In 1913, ogima Rocky Boy led an exodus off Blackfeet Reservation which alarmed the Montana whites. It was reported in the August 23, 1913 The Missoulian, that ogima Rocky Boy with 37 other Chippewas, were camped on the west shore of the Missouri River (probably near Hill 57) near Great Falls. They had reached the area on August 19, with ogima Rocky Boy reaching the area on August 22. The superintendent of Flathead Reservation, Maj. Morgan, was instructed to provide relief for the Chippewas. He was also in contact with the War Department which means the situation was seen as serious. This exodus may have led to the establishment of Rocky Boys Reservation in 1916. It also led to a land addition to the Navajo Reservation on December 1, 1913. That land addition may have links to the two Navajo land additions of November 9, 1907, which were supposedly returned to the public domain on December 30, 1908 and January 16, 1911.
How Did The Chippewas Lose Their Tribal Identity?
After all the forced deportations, the whites took the Chippewa children away from their parents and kept them confined to boarding schools. They were prohibited from speaking in their native language and taught a history full of lies. When they were allowed brief moments to return to their parents, they were very confused. They had great difficulties speaking with their parents and felt foreign. That is what led to the loss of their tribal identity. Today, they are so brainwashed, we can't succeeed in restoring their Chippewa Tribal identity. That don't mean we can't try.
Rocky Boy's Death
Ogima Rocky Boy fought peacefully in having new Chippewa Reservations set aside. He was also pro Chippewa. He told President Wilson he would remain nuetral during World War II. What he really meant was he did not want Chippewa men fighting in that war. He was obviously instrumental in having the Kalispel Reservation of Washington set aside for the Chippewas who wanted to remain in Washington. That happened in 1914. Kalispel Reservation is 45 miles north of Spokane. However, the Indians of Kalispel Reservation will not accept being Chippewa. They have been brainwashed. Early in 1916, ogima Rocky Boy may have learned about the United States planning to reduce the size of the new Reservation set aside in 1909 which covers nearly 4,700 sq. mi. Some people suspect ogima Rocky Boy was murdered. If he was, he was murdered by the whites because they knew he would strongly protest the reduction of the large Reservation.
After his death on April 18, 1916, the United States may have (it may have happened in 1911) refused to honor treaty and greatly reduced the size of the Reservation set aside in 1909 which covers nearly 4,700 sq. mi. Today, that Reservation is Rocky Boy's Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation. Together they cover around 1,200 sq. mi. As for the new Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation set aside in 1903, that Reservation covers close to 4,700 sq. mi. also. The United States relocated 100s of Chippewas from the new Reservation set aside in 1909, to the Navajo Reservation and Papago Reservation, in 1917 and 1918. Many others moved to the Hill 57 Chippewa Community near Great Falls, Montana. Both Fort Belknap and Rocky Boy's Reservations, should have much larger populations.