Rocky Boy Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
Tootinaowaziibeeng First Nation
This Saulteaux Ojibway First Nation is a part of the Kinistin Band of Ojibwa's. Population according to 2011, is 364. That does not include off-Reserve population. Below are several google earth photos of Tootinaowaziibeeng Reserve. They are from Duck Mountain National Park. They have no organized settlements at Tootinawazibeeng. All housing units which number 87, are located along roads within the Reserve. Average household size is a little over 4.0 persons per household. Ojibwa is yet spoken at Tootinaowaziibeeng yet not widely. About 75 people at Tootinaowaziibeeng have some knowledge of the Ojibwa Language. On the north is the real Tootinaowaziibeeng Reserve. It's known as Duck Mountain National Park. After the whites settled the region, they stopped the Ojibwa's from using the area and confined them to where they live now. Tootinaowaziibeeng Ojibwa's are closely related to the Swan River Band of Ojibwa's who are the Cote, Keeseekoose, Pine Creek, Sapotaweyak, The Key, Wuskwi Sipihk and Yellow Quill. They shared the same Reserve with them, as they did with the Crane River (aka O-Chi-chak-ko-sippi), Ebb & Flow, Keeseekoowenin, Rolling River and Waywayseecappo Ojibwa's. Their Reserve is Duck Mountain National Park and Riding Mountain National Park. In the 1880s, many of the Ojibwa's from Swan River Reserve, were relocated to Keeseekoose after flooding. Those who stayed are known today as the Sapotaweyak and Wuskwi Sipihk.
On August 15, 1874, chiefs signed Treaty 4 but were not present at council at Qu'Appelle Lake. That's how it reads in Treaty 4 text. Only later would the so called signings take place. They happened on: September 21, 1874 at Fort Ellice; September 8, 1875 at Qu'Appelle Lakes; September 9, 1875 at Qu'Appelle Lakes; September 24, 1875 at Swan Lake; August 24, 1876 at Fort Pelly; and September 25, 1877 at Fort Walsh. We need to exclude two dates. First is August 24, 1876 and then September 25, 1877. Why? The war going on at that time. Of course, I'm referring to the 1876-1877 Black Hills War and Nez Perce War. Commencing in late 1876, 10,000s of Montana Ojibwa's commenced an exodus to the west and north. They came up from the north central Montana region, to the Cypress Hills of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Great Falls, Montana is 140 miles to their southwest. In Treaty 4 text, they are named Assiniboine which means Rocky Ojibwa's in Ojibwa. Translation means Iron Confederation. O-jib-bwa. Adding the Ojibwa plural "n" makes it O-jib-bwan. In Ojibwa, Assiniboine is pronounced "As-sin-i-bwan." Rocky in Ojibwa is pronounced "As-sin-i." So "Bwan" actually means Ojibwan or Ojibwas.
Another suspicious signing is the September 24, 1875 signing at Swan Lake. Remember, chief Yellow Quill signed Treaty 1 on behalf of the Ojibwa's of Swan Lake, Manitoba. That happened on August 3, 1871 or August 21, 1871. The signing on September 24, 1875 may have happened at Swan Lake, Montana. If it did, it means there is a cover-up. However, we already know that large numbers of Montana Ojibwa's fled north commencing in late 1876. Chief Sitting Bull was one of their leaders. They negotiated with white representatives at Fort Walsh which is located in the Cypress Hills. What happened on September 24, 1875 possibly led to the 1876-1877 War. Tootinaowaziibeeng Ojibway People are signatories to Treaty 4. To learn more about Tootinaowaziibeeng, we have to research Jacques Cardinal.
Chief Paul or Chief Okanese?
Neither. According to historians, chief Jean Baptiste Lolo (aka chief Paul or St. Paul) was an off-spring of chief Michael Ooskins Cardinal or chief Okanese. However, they reported that chief Paul was born in 1798. They reported that chief Michael Ooskins Cardinal or chief Okanese, was born sometime between 1795-1837. His father was Jacques Cardinal. He moved west in the late 18th century with Northwest Fur Company and Hudson Bay Fur Company. He settled down to live in what is now the Jasper National Park region of Alberta including land in British Columbia and along Bow River in Alberta and also where the O'Chiese Ojibwa's live. That includes land where Blood and Piikani Reserves are, in southern Alberta. After Northwest Fur Company went out of business, HBC then became attractive to chief Paul and chief Okanese. Chief Paul moved to near what is now Kamloops, British Columbia and was considered chief by HBC who used him or bought him. Chief Okanese moved from the Bow River region in Alberta with his Saulteaux Ojibwa subjects, to southwestern Manitoba. They settled down near what is now Riding Mountain (it's really Rocky Mountain House) National Park or Jasper National Park. He kept business with HBC or was bought by HBC. He was considered chief by HBC. However, Ojibway leaders did not recognize any of the off-spring of Jacques Cardinal as chiefs. Below are the off-spring of Jacques Cardinal:
Jean Baptiste Lolo (aka chief Paul or St. Paul, Lolo and Okanese)
Michael Ooskins Cardinal or chief Okanese (it means Little Bone in Ojibway)
Keeseekoowenin (chief of Valley River or Totinaowaziibeeng)
As mentioned, none of them were recognized by Ojibway leaders as chiefs. What Ojibway leaders recognized, was each one worked for HBC or the whites who used them to corrupt the Ojibway Nation. Chief Paul was recognized as leader of the British Columbia Ojibwa's (the Shuswap) by HBC but not Ojibway leaders. Chief Paul's influence extended down to near what is now Lolo, Montana which is named after him. Chief Paul along with the other idiotic Paul's of Montana, are traitors. HBC considered chief Paul the leader of the Ojibwa's from California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Alberta, British Columbia up to Yukon and Northwest Territory. Chief Okanese was considered chief of the Ojibwa's from Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba up to Northwest Territories, by HBC. Since each worked for the whites, they certainly did not fight the whites. Worse, they were strict Christians which enraged Ojibway Traditionalists. These idiotic Paul's actually signed treaties on behalf of HBC which means none of those treaties are valid.
Chief Yellow Quill or Chief Kinistin?
Chief Kinistin was pivotal in leading many Ojibway People from southern Manitoba including near Selkirk and Winnipeg, north to the caribou lands (from Alberta to Manitoba) of the Chipewyan. Chief Kinistin was apparently a sub-chief of chief Yellow Quill. During the late 1860s, chief Yellow Quill stationed many Ojibwa Soldiers at Portage la Prairie to prevent the whites and mixed bloods from Red River Colony, from expanding west. He wanted to negotiate a fair treaty. That happened in the late 1860s yet didn't become formal until August 3, 1871 and August 21, 1871, when treaties 1 and 2 were signed. It's very obvoius that chiefs Yellow Quill and Kinistin, did not accept treaty terms. They signed treaty yet after understanding they were lied to, they followed prophecy. Treaty 4 is actually a treaty that went further to violate treaties 1 and 2. After chief Okanese died in 1870 (chief Paul died in 1868), his son chief Mekis was appointed chief by HBC. Chief Mekis signed Treaty 2 on August 21, 1871. They were set aside land between Dauphin Lake, Duck Mountain National Park and Riding Mountain (aka Rocky Mountain House or Riding Mountain House) National Park or Jasper National Park. A very large Reserve chiefs Yellow Quill and Kinistin negotiated for. However, in response to Ojibway chiefs understanding they had been lied to, England used bribery to force another treaty. That treaty was Treaty 4. Chief Keeseekoowenin, who was chief Mekis brother, took money for that fraudulent treaty signed on September 9, 1875. Chief Mekis was dead before Treaty 4 was signed so HBC used his brother Keeseekoowenin. Chief Yellow Quill and chief Kinistin, obviously rejected English demands. Read Treaty 1 and 2 text. White policy was to bribe Indian leaders to cede Indian land. Many of those Indian leaders had some degree of white blood, as did chiefs Keeseekowenin and Mekis. Below is an excerpt from Treaty 1:
For each Chief who signed the treaty, a dress distinguishing him as Chief. (proof they were not chiefs)
For braves and for councillors of each Chief a dress; it being supposed that the braves and councillors will be two for each Chief.
For each Chief, except Yellow Quill, a buggy.
For the braves and councillors of each Chief, except Yellow Quill, a buggy.
In lieu of a yoke of oxen for each reserve, a bull for each, and a cow for each Chief; a boar for each reserve and a sow for each Chief, and a male and female of each kind of animal raised by farmers, these when the Indians are prepared to receive them.
A plough and a harrow for each settler cultivating the ground.
These animals and their issue to be Government property, but to be allowed for the use of the Indians, under the superintendence and control of the Indian Commissioner.
The buggies to be the property of the Indians to whom they are given.
The above contains an inventory of the terms concluded with the Indians.
So you can detect deceit when deceit is visible. Neither chief Keeseekoowenin nor his brother chief Mekis, had any power to act on behalf of any district of the Ojibwa's of southern Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan. What happened in 1871, was England agreeing to set aside a large area of land in southwestern Manitoba and adjacent southeastern Saskatchewan, to be an Ojibway Reserve. White surveyors already knew what the productivity of the land in those locations was. They knew the regions where Riding Mountain National Park and Duck Mountain National Park are, were not suited to agriculture.
Chief Kee-seek-oo-wen-in along with chiefs Kee-say-kee-sick, Nos-quash, Baptiste, Mis-koo-ke-new, Ma-twa-ka-kee-toot, I-and-way-way, Mo-ko-me-we-kun and As-sho-ah-mey signed Treaty 1 and 2 on behalf of HBC or Hudson Bay Company. They did not have authority to sign on behalf of the Ojibwa Nation. Land was set aside for the Ojibway People led by chiefs Kinistin and Yellow Quill, from what is now Duck Mountain National Park to what is now Riding Mountain National Park. Ojibway People continued to fish and hunt in that region, after treaties were signed. Later, they understood they had to confine themselves to small areas English leaders frauduently misled them into believing was to be used for conducting trade and other commerce. By the 1880s, Ojibway leaders knew they could not fight the whites who had superior weapons. They had no choice but to abide. Some Ojibwa's continued to live in what is now Riding Mountain National Park, until the 1930s, when they were forced to relocate. Below are the Southeastern Kinistin Reserves.
Kinistin Band of Ojibway
Cote (Keeseekoose Reserve)
Carry The Kettle (aka Piapot)
Cowessess (Crooked Lakes Reserve)
Crane River (aka O'Chi-chak-ko-sippi)
Day Star (Touchwood Hills Reserve)
Ebb & Flow
Gordon (Touchwood Hills Reserve)
James Smith (originally lived at St. Peters Reserve)
Kahkewistahaw (Crooked Lakes Reserve)
Kawacatoose (Touchwood Hills Reserve)
Keeseekoose (Keeseekoose Reserve)
Little Black Bear (File Hills Reserve)
Muscowpetung (Qu'Appele Lakes Reserve)
Muskoday (originally lived at St. Peters Reserve)
Muskowekwan or Mus-skow-i-gan (Touchwood Hills Reserve)
Ochapowace (Crooked Lakes Reserve)
Okanese (File Hills Reserve)
Pasqua (Qu'Appelle Lakes Reserve)
Peepeekisis (File Hills Reserve)
Peguis (originally lived at St. Peters Reserve)
Piapot (aka Carry The Kettle - Qu'Appelle Lakes Reserve)
Sakimay (Crooked Lakes Reserve)
The Key (Keeseekoose Reserve)
Tootinaowaziibeeng (aka Valley River)
Sapotaweyak (originally a part of Swan River Reserve or Keeseekoose)
Standing Buffalo (Qu'Appelle Lakes Reserve)
Wuskwi Sipihk (originally a part of Swan River Reserve or Keeseekoose)