Ojibway Indians of British Columbia


When we deal with Ojibway Indians of British Columbia, we must first focus on the Hudson Hope Band and the Shuswap including the Chilcotin. The Ojibway Indians of British Columbia, who are better known as the Saulteau or Saulteaux, are actually an admixture of native Chippewa Indians and those who later followed prophecy and migrated to northern British Columbia from the southeast. We can trace the origins of those Saulteau who migrated to northern British Columbia, back to the mid 17th century. After the invading whites and their Indian allies drove the Amikwa Chippewa's from their homeland between the northern shores of Lake Huron, eastern shores of Lake Superior, and south of Lake Nipissing, they fled to a location north of Lake Superior. Many continued following prophecy and migrated to southern Manitoba where a decision was made to send a large group north, while another large group was sent southwest into North Dakota then Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon and California. Our attention is on the large group that migrated northwest to north Manitoba. As mentioned, the Amikwa Chippewa's were driven from their homeland in the mid 17th century.



In Ojibway, Amik means Beaver. Remember that! Beaver Indians are Amik Ojibwa's. It's an Ojibway Totem. Included as being Beaver are Sekani and T'suu Tina. The Beaver are known as Dane-za. After reaching Hudson Bay, they broke off from other Ojibway's and commenced trade with HBC or Hudson Bay Company. It enraged the Ojibway's and civil war erupted. They were sent there to fight invading Eskimos and whites. The Amik or Beaver Indians, joinded the Eskimos and whites to fight their own people. By mid 18th century, new Ojibway reinforcements were sent north to fight the idiotic Beaver Ojibway's and their Eskimo and white allies. Ojibway Soldiers drove them west into Saskatchewan then Alberta and British Columbia. In 1774, whites and their Beaver Ojibway and Eskimo allies invaded interior Manitoba and Saskatchewan and established HBC's first inland fort at Cumberland House, Saskatchewan. Other Beaver Ojibway's retreated west of Lake Winnipeg. They were subjugated by other Ojibway's during the Pemmican War which was a part of the War of 1812. They settled at Red River Colony. HBC Staff named them Beaver Indians and Keskatchewan Indians. However, they are better known as Cree.



Ojibway Soldiers had driven them to Alberta and British Columbia, by early 19th century. Most settled in north British Columbia. The reason why they are considered Athabascan is because of 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. According to that 1832 book, Ojibway People forced their way east and took control of all land from Missouri River to the Atlantic Coast. Ogima Sagima sent many Ojibway People north to Hudson Bay. From there, they migrated to Beaufort Sea and gave rise to Chipewyan, Cree, Dogrib and Yellowknife People. Cree People must be listed as Athabascan. There are no Cree Reserves in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan! In the 19th century, more Ojibway's migrated to British Columbia from the east and south. Many Saulteau Ojibway's at Moberly Lake, trace their origins to Manitoba and a chief, that through a vision, was told to migrate west to a twin mountain. They settled around Moberly Lake. They were late comers and adhered to their Saulteau Ojibway identity. They are also known as the Hudson Hope Band. Among them are Slavey Chipewyan who we know are Ojibway. They live at Fort Nelson Reserve. They are weak. They are not strong. Stop promoting it! The Slavey Chipewyan did not want Cree People living with them. They protested yet had to allow some Cree (Sekani) to live with them at Fort Nelson. Shuswap People are an admixture of Ojibway and Salish. Ojibway leader chief Paul, was one of their more important leaders in the 19th century.



East Moberly Lake Saulteau of British Columbia
Size: All of Treaty 8 land in British Columbia
Population: 357
Language: Ojibway

West Moberly Lake Saulteau of British Columbia
Size: All of Treaty 8 land in British Columbia
Population: It is 113 according to a 2015 estimate
Language: Ojibway

Halfway River Saulteau of British Columbia
Size: All of Treaty 8 land in British Columbia
Population: It is 148 according to a 2015 estimate
Language: Ojibway

Prophet River Saulteau of British Columbia
Size: All of Treaty 8 land in British Columbia
Population: It is 103 according to a 2015 estimate
Language: Ojibway

Fort Nelson Slavely of British Columbia (Chipewyan)
Size: All of Treaty 8 land in British Columbia
Population: It is 438 according to a 2015 estimate
Language: Ojibway

Shuswap of British Columbia

Adams Lake
Bonaparte
Canim
Canoe Creek/Dog Creek

Kamloops

Chief Saint Paul or chief Paul, was leader of this Ojibway/Shuswap Band. He was also known as Lolo which could indicate he lived in Montana. There is a Lolo, Montana south of Missoula. He was denoted a chief by Hudson Bay Company according to historians. If correct, he was not a real Ojibway leader. However, he was in fact leader of the Kamloops Ojibway/Shuswap Band. He was related to Ojibway leaders chief Cowessess, chief Keeseekoowenin and chief Okanese. Possibly the father of all three Ojibway leaders. Whites are bothered by chief Paul. British Columbia is why! He may have been Michael Cardinal (aka chief Okanese). Michael Cardinal or chief Okanese (it means The Little Bone in Ojibway), was father of many Ojibway leaders including chief Cowessess, chief Keeseekoowenin, chief Louis O'Soup, chief Yellowhead, chief Wuttunee, chief Mekis, chief Red Pheasant and several others. Chief Paul is listed as one of chief Okanese sons. However, chief Paul's birth date is not correctly known. One is 1798 and another is 1810 or 1811. Chief Okanese may have been born in 1790 at Bow River in Alberta. All are related to chief Cuthbert Grant. Chief Rocky Boy is also related to chief Cuthbert Grant.



Little Shuswap
Neskonlith
North Thompson
Shuswap
Skeetchestn
Soda Creek/Deep Creek
Spallumcheen
Whispering Pines/Clinton
Williams Lake
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