Ojibway Indians of Saskatchewan


Below is a list of the Anishinabe Indians of Saskatchewan. It includes the northern Ojibwa People known as the Chipewyan and Cree. According to 19th century Ojibwa historians, the Cree spoke a dialect of the Ojibway Language. In 1852, Peter Jacobs wrote an account of his travels to northern Manitoba or Norway House. Jacobs was Ojibwa and spoke the Ojibwa Language. He wrote the following: He performed the whole of the service (preaching) well, and read his sermon well; but i am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway - Cree and Swampy (Cree) or Oji-Cree. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other than either to the noble and majectic Ojibway; and that is the language i profess to understand.



The Oji-Cree

Learning about the origins of the Oji-Cree and the Oji-Cree Language, is not at all difficult. Around 1930, a report was written about the Ojibwa's from Island Lake, Manitoba. These Ojibwa's are also known as Saulteaux. They can claim their language is Oji-Cree yet there is evidence that indicates another theory that is very disturbing. White Christian missionaries forced their converts to speak Cree at Island Lake. Written below is excerpt from 1930, about Island Lake Ojibwa's from northeastern Manitoba. Big Trout Lake is 200 miles east of Island Lake, Manitoba. Big Trout Lake along with Sachigo Lake and Wapekeka, are the northern most of the so called Oji-Cree.



Linguistically, the Island Lake natives may be characterized by calling them Saulteaux or better perhaps, Saulteaux-Ojibwa, indicating more clearly by this hyphenated term the close relationship of their language to Ojibwa proper. Locally, they are said to speak a mixed dialect of Saulteaux and Cree. This mixture is reported to be especially typical of the Maria Portage groups, while the natives at Smooth Rock are reputed to speak a purer Saulteaux. It may be pointed out in this connection that Cree is utilized in the United Church services and at the Catholic mission, too, so that in recent years practically all of the lslandlakers have learned to understand Cree and many speak it. The assimilation of Cree would consequently appear to be partly the result of christianization and partly due to contact with the Norway House Cree since the canoe route referred to has been open. The linguistic base at Island Lake may very well be Saulteaux-Ojibwa with an overlay of Cree due to modern conditions. On the other hand, it is not impossible that a much older contact with Cree-speaking peoples has affected the language much more deeply than a superficial inspection would indicate, since the Saulteaux of this region may have been marginal to Cree bands for a considerable period, because to the south and east we find only Saulteaux spoken today.



Long before Jacobs made his trip to Norway House, the Ojibwa's had battled a people (possibly the Inuit) and defeated them. Though the Eskimos had invaded North America some time in the 16th century, they were confined to the coastal areas of the Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay. In 1717, James Knight estimated that 5,000 to 6,000 Chipewyan People had been killed in battles against the Cree which is ridiculous. He wrote that since the first white trading post had been built at the mouth of Hayes River in 1684, which was York Factory, that the Cree had killed between 5,000 and 6,000 Chipewyan. The Ojibwa war against the invading Eskimos and whites, was not minor. It was deadly. By the late 17th century, the whites invaders were transporting more Eskimos to the Hudson Bay region and to Labrador and Greenland. Eskimos kept themselves close to the white trading posts for protection. In 1774, the invading whites and their Eskimo allies, got their courage up and invaded the interior of northern Manitoba. They actually forced their way as far west as Cumberland House in Saskatchewan and established a trading post at that location. Soon after, the war dramatically intensified. Ojibwa soldiers easily dominated the Eskimos and whites in that location. From Alaska, to the shores of Hudson Bay, a great many Eskimos had been defeated and subjugated by the Ojibwa military.



As was their custom then, the Ojibwa's mixed their language and culture with the people they defeated and subjugated. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Cree, Chipewyan, Copper and Dogrib are derived from the Lenni Lenape. The Lenni Lenape or Delaware, are really Ojibwa. They spoke a dialect of the Ojibwa Language. They were among the first Ojibwa's to reach the east coast, from some location along the Missouri River, between St. Louis and Montana. The Ojibwa's (the 1832 book named them Lenni Lenape) from the Great Lakes region, sent large numbers of their soldiers and their families, to the north and northwest. They named these Great Lakes Ojibwa's who were sent to the Hudson Bay region and northwest to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, the Chipewyan. Then (1832) they knew the Chipewyan were very aware of their origins. They knew they came from some southeasterly location. The Cree, Copper, Dogrib and all Athabascan Tribes are actually Chipewyan. Some time in either the 16th century or 17th century, the Saulteaux Ojibwa's from the Great Lakes region, commenced their trek to the north and northwest, to support the Ojibwa's native to those regions, fight the whites and their Eskimo allies. They early on subjugated many of the Inuit and mixed their language and culture with theirs.



Nearly all the tribes in the Northwest Territories are Chipewyan. That's according to the 1832 Edinburg Encyclopedia. Much further to the south and southeast, are the Cree who are more Ojibwa. Of course, I'm referring to their language. Among the Chipewyan, their language is far more mixed. However, the Chipewyan are in fact Ojibwa's who absorbed many non Ojibwa's among them. They (the Chipewyan and all other Athabascans) only need to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, to learn the truth. From Peter Jacobs 1852 accounts, it's reasonable to class all Cree as being Oji-Cree. Jacobs considered their language to be inferior to the Ojibwa Language. Click the following link to read the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia.I've also included an excerpt from Edinburgh Encyclopedia about the tradition of the Lenape in which they knew about that eastern migration 19th century Ojibway authors wrote about:



The general tradition of the Lenape is, that their family (clan, nation, totem) originally came from the westward, taking possession of the whole country from the Missouri to the sea, and destroying the original inhabitants, whom they name Alligewi. In this migration and contest, which continued for many years, they say that the Iroquois moved in a parellel line with them, but in a more northerly course and finally settled on the St. Lawrence. The Lenape, being the more numerous family, soon sent detachments northward, as far as the shores of Hudson's Bay, and gave rise to the chief northern tribes now along the arctic circle. This account gives color to the tradition of the Chipewyans, who are a numerous tribe of Lenape, that their immediate ancestors were from the eastward, contrary to the general tide of migration above detailed.



First of all, there were two groups of Ojibwa's who commenced that eastern migration. To the south, the Lenape or Delaware, forced their way northeast from a location in the region between Nebraska and Texas. Up north, the other Ojibwa's forced their way straight east from possibly the Montana region. They forced their way into what is now Quebec and New York State. Early European explorers wrote about their expedition to the St. Lawrence River in the early 16th century and wrote that the Indians who lived there were not Algonquin. When the Europeans returned some 6 to 7 decades later, they wrote that the Algonquin's were now living along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec and New York State. Those Algonquin's are in fact Iroquois or the Iroquois are Ojibwa. According to Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Lenape were more numerous than the Iroquois. However, there is something missing. Remember, Edinburgh Encyclopedia wrote that the Lenape were located south of the Iroquois. We can't exclude that information. It was from either the Iroquois or both the Iroquois and Lenape, that soldiers were sent to Hudson Bay in the 17th century, to fight the invading Eskimos and whites. Lenape soldiers forced their way as far south as Florida to fight the white invaders. Both the Iroquois and Lenape Ojibwa's followed Seven Fires Prophecy. They knew about the whites and their evil intentions. Later, in the 19th century, white historians gave other names to these two groups of Ojibwa's. Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho and Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne. In New York, the Ojibwa's there are better known as Assinica or Seneca. Assinica is an Ojibwa word meaning Stony Place. They are also known as Assiniboine or Assinibwan. To Ojibwa Traditionalists who believe the history white historians have written for them, this is not good information. Why? It means the Dakota or Sioux, are in fact Ojibwa. Where'd they get the name Dakota from? The Ojibwa word for alliance and association which is "Wi-do-ko-da-wi-win."









Black Lake:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,598

Buffalo River:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 688

Clearwater River:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 792

Cote-Keeseekoose-Key:
It's Reserve is approximately 56,751 acres. 19,985 (Cote), 15,824 (The Key), 20,942 acres (Keeseekoose)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is (280 Key, 700 Keeseekoose, 873 Cote) total is 1,853

Crooked Lakes:
It's Reserve is approximately 196,743 acres. 45,170 acres (Ochapowace), 93,504 acres (Cowessess), 31,135 acres (Sakimay), 26,934 acres (Kahkewistahaw).
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,248

Cumberland House:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation and Treaty 5 signtories
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 776

Day Star-Kawacatoose:
It's Reserve is approximately 40,515 acres. 16,615 acres (Day Star), 23,900 acres (Kawacatoose)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,301

English River:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 737

File Hills: It's Reserve covers approximately 86,227 acres. 17,006 acres (Little Black Bear), 23,203 acres (Okanese), 27,913 acres (Peepeekisis), 18,105 acres (Starblanket)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,373

Fishing Lake:
It's Reserves is approximately 9,985 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 484

Fund Du Lac:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,077

Gordon-Muskowekwan:
It's Reserve is approximately 67,862 acres. 36,932 (Gordon), 30,930 acres (Muskowekwan)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,612

Hatchet Lake:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,358

James Smith:
It's Reserve is approximately 37,310 acres - they are originally from the Ojibway St. Peters Reserve of Manitoba
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,990

Kinistin:
It's Reserve is approximately 10,025 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 324

Lac La Ronge:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation - linked with Peter Ballantyne
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 6,346

Lucky Man:
It's Reserve covers 7,605 acres. They originally lived in Montana. They were deported in 1896.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 7

Makwa Sahgaiehcan:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation - Makwa is Ojibway for Bear - Muskwa is Cree for bear
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,009

Muskoday:
It's Reserve is approximately 25,348 acres - they are originally from the Ojibway St. Peters Reserve of Manitoba
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 606

Onion Lake:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation - many Montana Chippewa's were deported here
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,448

Peter Ballantyne:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation - signatories to treaty 5
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 6,462

Qu'Appelle:
It's Reserve is approximately 121,556 acres. 23,121 acres (Muscowpetung), 39,467 acres (Pasqua), 53,419 acres (Piapot), 5,549 (Stanging Buffalo)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,034. 294 (Muscowpetung), 600 (Pasqua), 595 (Piapot), 545 (Standing Buffalo)

Saulteaux:
This band of Ojibway, inhabit the Saulteaux Reserve in Saskatchewan, Canada. Besides the Saulteaux and Moosomin Reserve, it includes Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man (they are from the Kawacatoose), Mosquito, and Red Pheasant (all 4 are connected), Little Pine and Poundmaker (both are connected and is where chief Big Bear settled), Thunderchild, and Witchekan. It is the close proximity of these Reserves for the reason for including their populations. Below are maps of Saskatchewan from 1893 and 1903. On the 1903 map, you'll notice the names of the Reserves. Look for the one north of North Battleford. It has the name Thunderchild-Moosomin Reserve. It is 3.5 miles south of Jackfish Lake. It is really what is today the Moosomin-Saulteaux Reserve. The correct name for Thunderchild is in fact Saulteaux. There is a cover-up in place. This Reserve is really much larger. Ojibwa leaders did not agree to the reduction in size of the large Reserve. In the early 1950s, some Saulteaux leaders agreed to sign Treaty 6. They were from the Saulteaux and Witchekan. It has been so long (1888) that the history of this large Reserve has been forgotten by the Ojibwa People. However, Canada has the historical information. It includes Thunderchild Reserve to the northwest and Witchekan Reserve to the northeast. Both (Thunderchild and Moosomin) were supposedly forced to relocate to the north in 1909. Of course, that was supposedly to the area where the Moosomin-Saulteaux Reserve is now. However, that area was already Reserve land. It was really to where Thunderchild Reserve and Witchekan Lake Reserve, are located. It is about the Seven Fires Prophecy. Big Bear or Chipeewayan is probably the original name of this large Reserve. It was illegally eradicated after the 1885 Northwest Rebellion or in 1888. Chief Big Bear died in early 1888. It is known that chief Big Bear demanded and received a large Reserve. Canada refused to honor treaty and the 1885 Northwest Rebellion followed. During the 1896 Deportations in Great Falls, Montana and the rest of the Little Shell Chippewa's Flathead Reservation (Blackfeet Reservation), many were deported to this Reserve near North Battleford, Saskatchewan. Their total on Reserve population is 6,232. The size of this Ojibway Reserve is 520,287 acres or 210,552 hectares (it is really much larger). The Saulteaux Reserves are as follows:

Moosomin 183,969 acres + Saulteaux 70,386 acres or 254,355 acres

Little Pine 43,409 acres + Poundmaker 32,570 acres or 75,979 acres
Red Pheasant 72,513 acres + Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man, and Mosquito 31,532 acres or 104,075 acres
Witchekan Lake 19,521 acres
Thunderchild 66,357

The Population is as follows:
Moosomin 1,120 + Saulteaux 621 or 1,721

Little Pine 829 + Poundmaker 779 or 1,608
Red Pheasant 729 + Grizzly Bears Head, Lean Man, and Mosquito 709 or 1,438
Witchekan Lake 482
Thunderchild 983

The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 6,889







Waterhen Lake:
A part of the Ojibway Treaty 9 Reservation
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 883

White Bear:
It's Reserve is approximately 42,539 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 845

Yellowquill:
It's Reserve is approximately 32,000 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 908