Ojibway Indians of Saskatchewan


Below is a list of Ojibway Indians of Saskatchewan. According to 19th century Ojibwa historians, Cree spoke a dialect of Ojibway Language. We know Cree People are better Known as Beaver Indians and Nez Perce. They are from Ojibway Nations "Beaver Totem." They became traitors. There are no Cree Indians living in Saskatchewan. They live in north Alberta and north British Columbia. I had no choice but to include only those First Nations in Saskatchewan that identify as Ojibway or we know from historical evidence are Ojibway. Most Ojibway People are too scared to follow prophecy. Their weakness shows in how they name themselves. Algonquin Nation; Cree Nation; Delaware Nation; Kickapoo Nation; Menominee Nation; Miami Nation; Ottawa Nation; Potawatomi Nation; Shawnee Nation; ect. In 1852, Peter Jacobs wrote an account of his travels to northern Manitoba or Norway House. Jacobs was Ojibwa and spoke Ojibwa Language. He wrote this about Norway House: He performed the whole of the service (preaching) well, and read his sermon well; but i am not a competent judge of this mixed language of Ojibway - Cree and Swampy (Cree) or Oji-Cree. The Cree and Swampy are nearer kin to each other than either to the noble and majectic Ojibway; and that is the language i profess to understand.



Oji-Cree

Learning origins of Oji-Cree People and their Oji-Cree Language, is not at all difficult. Around 1930, a report was written about Ojibwa's from Island Lake, Manitoba. These Ojibwa's are also known as Saulteaux. They can claim their language is Oji-Cree yet there is evidence that indicates another theory that is very disturbing. White Christian missionaries forced their converts to speak Cree at Island Lake. Written below is an excerpt from 1930, about Island Lake Ojibwa's from northeastern Manitoba. Big Trout Lake is 200 miles east of Island Lake, Manitoba. Big Trout Lake along with Sachigo Lake and Wapekeka, are northern most of these so called Oji-Cree.



Linguistically, the Island Lake natives may be characterized by calling them Saulteaux or better perhaps, Saulteaux-Ojibwa, indicating more clearly by this hyphenated term the close relationship of their language to Ojibwa proper. Locally, they are said to speak a mixed dialect of Saulteaux and Cree. This mixture is reported to be especially typical of the Maria Portage groups, while the natives at Smooth Rock are reputed to speak a purer Saulteaux. It may be pointed out in this connection that Cree is utilized in the United Church services and at the Catholic mission, too, so that in recent years practically all of the lsland lakers have learned to understand Cree and many speak it. The assimilation of Cree would consequently appear to be partly the result of christianization and partly due to contact with the Norway House Cree since the canoe route referred to has been open. The linguistic base at Island Lake may very well be Saulteaux-Ojibwa with an overlay of Cree due to modern conditions. On the other hand, it is not impossible that a much older contact with Cree-speaking peoples has affected the language much more deeply than a superficial inspection would indicate, since the Saulteaux of this region may have been marginal to Cree bands for a considerable period, because to the south and east we find only Saulteaux spoken today.



Long before Jacobs made his trip to Norway House, Ojibwa's had battled a people (Eskimos) and defeated them. Though Eskimos had invaded North America some time in 16th century, they were confined to coastal areas of Beaufort Sea and Hudson Bay. In 1717, James Knight estimated that 5,000 to 6,000 Chipewyan People had been killed in battles against Cree's which is ridiculous. He wrote that since first white trading posts had been built at mouth of Hayes River and elsewhere, which was York Factory, that Cree's had killed between 5,000 and 6,000 Chipewyan. This Ojibwa war against invading Eskimos and whites, was not minor. It was deadly. By late 17th century, whites invaders were transporting more Eskimos to Hudson Bay, Labrador and Greenland. Eskimos kept themselves close to white trading posts for protection. In 1774, invading whites and their Beaver Indians (aka Cree) and Eskimo allies, got their courage up and invaded interior of northern Manitoba. They actually forced their way as far west as Cumberland House in Saskatchewan and established a trading post at that location. Soon after, war dramatically intensified. Ojibwa Soldiers easily dominated their Cree, Eskimo and white enemies in that location. From Alaska to Hudson Bay, a great many Eskimos had been defeated and subjugated by Ojibway Soldiers.



As was their custom then, Ojibwa's mixed their language and culture with people they defeated and subjugated. According to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia Cree, Chipewyan, Copper and Dogrib are derived from Lenni Lenape or Ojibway's. Lenni Lenape or Delaware People, are really Ojibway. They spoke a dialect of Ojibway Language. They were among those first Ojibwa's to reach east coast of North America, from some location along Missouri River, between St. Louis and Montana. Ojibwa's from Great Lakes region, sent large numbers of their soldiers and their families, north and northwest to combat invading Eskimos and their white allies. They named these Great Lakes Ojibwa's who were sent to Hudson Bay and Beaufort Sea, Chipewyan. Then (1832) they knew Chipewyan's were very aware of their origins. They knew they came from some southeasterly location. Cree's (aka Beaver Indians), Copper and Dogrib are actually Chipewyan. Some time in either 16th century or 17th century, Saulteaux Ojibwa's from Great Lakes region, commenced their trek north and northwest, to support those Ojibwa's native to those regions, fight whites and their Eskimo allies. They early on subjugated many Eskimos and mixed their language and culture with theirs.



Nearly all tribes in Northwest Territories are Chipewyan. That's according to 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. Further south and southeast in Alberta and British Columbia, are Cree People who are really Beaver Indians. They are also known as Nez Perce. Among Chipewyan's, their language is far more mixed. However, Chipewyan's are in fact Ojibwa's who absorbed many non Ojibwa's among them. They (Chipewyan and all other Athabascans) only need to read 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, to learn their true origins. From Peter Jacobs 1852 accounts, it's wrong to class all Cree as being Oji-Cree. Jacobs considered their language to be inferior to Ojibway Language. Click this following link to read 1832's Edinburgh Encyclopedia. I've also included an excerpt from Edinburgh Encyclopedia about a tradition of Lenape in which they knew about that eastern migration 19th century Ojibway authors wrote about:



The general tradition of the Lenape is, that their family (clan, nation, totem) originally came from the westward, taking possession of the whole country from the Missouri to the sea, and destroying the original inhabitants, whom they name Alligewi. In this migration and contest, which continued for many years, they say that the Iroquois moved in a parellel line with them, but in a more northerly course and finally settled on the St. Lawrence. The Lenape, being the more numerous family, soon sent detachments northward, as far as the shores of Hudson's Bay, and gave rise to the chief northern tribes now along the arctic circle. This account gives color to the tradition of the Chipewyans, who are a numerous tribe of Lenape, that their immediate ancestors were from the eastward, contrary to the general tide of migration above detailed.



First of all, there were two groups of Ojibwa's who commenced that eastern migration. Lenape or Delaware's, forced their way northeast from a location between Nebraska and Texas. Up north, other Ojibwa's forced their way straight east from possibly Alberta and Montana. They forced their way into what is now Quebec and New York State. Early European explorers wrote about their expedition to St. Lawrence River in early 16th century and wrote that Indians who lived there were not Algonquin. When Europeans returned some 6 to 7 decades later, they wrote that Algonquin's were now living along St. Lawrence River in Quebec and New York State. Those Algonquin's are in fact Iroquois or Iroquois are Ojibwa. According to Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Lenape were more numerous than Iroquois. However, there is something missing. Remember, Edinburgh Encyclopedia wrote that Lenape or Delawares were located south of Iroquois? We can't exclude that information. It was from either Iroquois or both Iroquois and Delawares, that Ojibway Soldiers were sent to Hudson Bay in 17th century, to fight invading Eskimos and whites. Ojibway Soldiers forced their way as far south as Florida to fight white invaders. Both Iroquois and Lenape Ojibwa's followed Seven Fires Prophecy. They knew about whites and their evil intentions. Later, in 19th century, white historians gave other names to these two groups of Ojibwa's. Northern Arapaho and Southern Arapaho and Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne. In New York, Ojibwa's there are better known as Assinica or Seneca. Assinica is an Ojibwa word meaning Stony Place or possibly Stony Place Person. It's a locative (A-sin-ik) and possibly person as her/him (A-sin-i-ka). They are also known as Assiniboine or Assinibwan. In Ojibway Language, they name themselves "Bwaan." It means "Originals." They actually have two words for original which are derived from "before" which in Ojibway is "Bwa and Chi Bwa." Adding an Ojibway "n" plural makes both "Bwa and Chi Bwa" plurals. So Assiniboine or Assinibwan means "Stony Ojibwa's. Ojibway has another meaning. It means "Honest People" or "People of Truth." To Ojibwa Traditionalists who believe their history white historians have written for them, this is not good information. Why? It means Dakota or Sioux, are in fact Ojibwa. Where'd they get that name that agitates them or "Dakota," from? It's from an Ojibwa word for alliance and association which is "Wi-do-ko-da-wi-win."





Cote-Keeseekoose-Key Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 56,751 acres. 19,985 (Cote), 15,824 (The Key), 20,942 acres (Keeseekoose)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is (280 Key, 700 Keeseekoose, 873 Cote) total is 1,853

Crooked Lakes Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 196,743 acres. 45,170 acres (Ochapowace), 93,504 acres (Cowessess), 31,135 acres (Sakimay), 26,934 acres (Kahkewistahaw).
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,248

File Hills Reserve: It's Reserve covers approximately 86,227 acres. 17,006 acres (Little Black Bear), 23,203 acres (Okanese), 27,913 acres (Peepeekisis), 18,105 acres (Starblanket)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,373

Fishing Lake Reserve:
It's Reserves is approximately 9,985 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 484

James Smith Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 37,310 acres - they are originally from the Ojibway St. Peters Reserve of Manitoba
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,990

Kinistin Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 10,025 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 324

Makwa Sahgaiehcan Reserve (it means Bear Reservoir - Makwa Gami means Bear Lake):
?
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,009

Muskoday Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 25,348 acres - they are originally from the Ojibway St. Peters Reserve of Manitoba
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 606

Onion Lake Reserve:
Many Montana Chippewa's were deported here
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 3,448

Qu'Appelle Lakes Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 121,556 acres. 23,121 acres (Muscowpetung), 39,467 acres (Pasqua), 53,419 acres (Piapot), 5,549 (Stanging Buffalo)
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,034. 294 (Muscowpetung), 600 (Pasqua), 595 (Piapot), 545 (Standing Buffalo)

Saulteaux/Moosomin Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 254,355 acres
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 1,721 (Saulteaux 621 & Moosomin 1,120)

Thunderchild Reserve (they are from Saulteaux Ojibway's):
It's Reserve is approximately 66,357 acres
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 983

Touchwood Hills Reserve: It's Reserve covers approximately 108,377 acres (it's really much larger and includes towns of Lestock, Punnichy and Quinton) - it includes Day Star, Gordon, Kawacatoose and Muskowekwan or Mus-kow-i-gan.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 2,913

Waterhen Lake Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately ? acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 883

White Bear Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 42,539 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 845

Witchekan Lake Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 19,521 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 482

Yellowquill Reserve:
It's Reserve is approximately 32,000 acres.
The Language is Ojibway
The Population is 908

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